Unit 8 And 9


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Unit 8 And 9

  1. 1. Unit 8 and 9 <ul><li>Group Members : Ngo Kah Hang(34) </li></ul><ul><li>Lim Hong Yu(32) </li></ul><ul><li>Tan Jun Wei(37) </li></ul><ul><li>Yan Ming Ze(38) </li></ul><ul><li>See Xuan Hao(36) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Transport and communications Transport and communications are very important to the growth and development of a society. Transport refers to the movement of people and goods from one place to another. Varies modes of transport such as cars and airplanes are used to bring about or facilitate this movement. Mode of transport refers to the means by which people travel from one place to another. Communications refers to the flow of ideas or information from one person or place to another. Various means such as books, telephones and computers are used to transmit the ideas or information which can be in the form of pictures, graphics, sound or text.
  3. 3. Modes Of Transport <ul><li>Human-Powered </li></ul><ul><li>Human-powered transport is the transport of person or goods using human muscle power. Existed since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming.Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance cost, leisure, physical exercise and environmentalism. Human-powered transport is sometimes the only type available, and is considered an ideal form of sustainable transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal-Powered Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carry goods, or harness them, singly or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles. Animals are superior to people in their speed, endurance and carrying capacity; and they remain an important mode of transport in less developed areas of the world. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modes of Transport(2) Air Transport Air transport involves the movement of carriers such as airplanes and helicopters in the air. Just as in ocean shipping, airplanes follow fixed paths on the transport map although these routes are not physical.Air transport is the fastest among sea and land. However traveling by air is expensive over any distances and it can only be used to moving people and high value goods. Rail Transport Rail transport involves the movement of trains along railway lines. This type of transport is a very convenient way of moving large numbers of people and large bulky goods. However, rail transport is very expensive over short distances and is very expensive to build railway lines and railway stations. With technological advancement, places like Shanghai has a new Maglev train which move up to 440 km per hour, allowing transport to be more efficient and convenient.
  5. 5. Modes of Transport(3) Road Road transport involves the movement of vehicles such as cars, buses and lorries along roads. It is suitable for moving people and high-value goods. John McAdam designed the first modern highway of inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate known as macadam during the Industrial Revolution. Water Inland water transport involves the movement of carriers such as boats, barges and ships in canals and rivers. Ocean shipping involves the movement of carriers such as ships in the seas and oceans. The first craft were probably types of canoes cut out from tree trunks. Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for trans-continental shipping; short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.
  6. 6. Development of Transport <ul><li>Important Development Between 7000 BCE To 1939 AD </li></ul><ul><li>3500BCE- Wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Carts with wheels were used to transport people and goods. </li></ul><ul><li>3000BCE- Sail </li></ul><ul><li>Sailing ships were used by people to travel from one place to another. </li></ul><ul><li>1769 AD-Steam Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Steam-powered automobiles were invented </li></ul><ul><li>1783 AD- Air Balloon </li></ul><ul><li>The first air balloon ride took place </li></ul><ul><li>1878 AD- Internal combustion engine using petrol </li></ul><ul><li>Petrol-powered automobiles were introduced </li></ul><ul><li>First airplane flight took place </li></ul><ul><li>1939 AD- Turbine engine </li></ul><ul><li>The jet airplane was introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advancements have also brought about improvements in the speed of travel. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Improvement in Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advancements in transportation usually aim to improve the speed. The emergence of high-speed train networks provided fast inter-urban services on land. </li></ul><ul><li>First is Japanese Bullet Train. </li></ul><ul><li>TGV high-speed train network. </li></ul><ul><li>Concorde supersonic airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in Passenger Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Largest passenger liner is the Queen Mary2 which was launched in 2004. It weighs 150 000 tones and can accommodate 2620 passengers. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of commercial aero planes is also getting larger. Boeing 747, which started its services in 1969, has a carrying capacity of about 400 passengers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accessibility and connectivity <ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility refers to the ease with which you can reach a location. A place that is </li></ul><ul><li>easily reached is called said to be accessible. With better technology, many places </li></ul><ul><li>have been made more accessible and people are able to travel to more places </li></ul><ul><li>within a shorter period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity refers to the degree of inter-linkage in a network. A place that has </li></ul><ul><li>more links connected to it is said to be well-connected. Transport and even </li></ul><ul><li>information are then able to move efficiently. Locations in the world are becoming </li></ul><ul><li>more connected as more and new routes are added to the world’s transport </li></ul><ul><li>network with the increase in connectivity as well as telecommunications with the </li></ul><ul><li>use of fiber optics and satellites. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Improving accessibility and connectivity <ul><li>Increase in accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in accessibility means that the ease with which a place can be reached from other places has increased – can be measured in terms of lower transport costs or shorter traveling times. </li></ul><ul><li>This ‘shrinking world’ concept refers to the idea that places in the world have become closer because of an increase in accessibility, although the physical distance between places remains the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in transport infrastructure have enabled better expressways and undersea tunnels to be built to link remote places to main cities in some countries. An example is the Japanese Seikan Tunnel, which is the world’s longest undersea tunnel, measuring 53.8km long. </li></ul><ul><li>This increase in accessibility is also seen in telecommunications. People living in different parts of the world can gain access to each other’s ideas and information through either one-way or two-way communications such as through the computer or television broadcasts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Increase In Connectivity <ul><li>Increase in connectivity means that the degree of ‘connectedness’ between the places in a region or in the world has increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Places in the world are becoming more interconnected as new routes are added to the world’s transport network. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in interconnectivity is also seen in telecommunications,resulting in greater use of fiber optic and satellite technologies,which improved one-way and two-way communications between places enabling video-conferencing and electronic chatting over computers. </li></ul><ul><li>It also given rise to more interaction between people of different countries and also globalization ,a new phenomenon which is the increasing worldwide interconnectedness as a result of the economic, social, technological and political changes taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence means that people in different countries are dependent on each other for goods, food, ideas and information. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Singapore as Transport hub <ul><li>Sea Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is situated at the crossroads of international shipping routes and its harbour is also protected from strong winds. Location & calm waters make Singapore one of the major shipping hubs in Asia. Singapore also has world-class facilities such as Efficient Container terminals. Singapore’s cruise centre(SCC) located across Sentosa Island. It has 2 terminals. They are the International Passenger Terminal and the Regional Ferry Terminal. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore is also a hub of air transport in asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Changi built in 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>Three terminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Budget terminal. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct flights to all Asia and even to U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Key stopover for flights from europe to Oceania. </li></ul><ul><li>Air transportation industry more and more competitive due to budget carriers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Singapore as a transport hub (2) <ul><li>Roles of Government and entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>With Singapore as a transport hub, the Singapore government through agencies, has taken </li></ul><ul><li>advantage of the high accessibility and connectivity provided by the country’s position as a </li></ul><ul><li>transport and communications hub to set up facilities such as business incubators and </li></ul><ul><li>science parks to support entrepreneurs in starting new businesses. Some examples of the </li></ul><ul><li>agencies are the Land Transport Authority (LTA), Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>(MPA), as well as the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). </li></ul><ul><li>Land Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Improving land transport will result in efficient movements of people and goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, when people can travel efficiently, the economic development of a country </li></ul><ul><li>can be sped up. Singapore being at the tip of Malaysia, is a strategic location with </li></ul><ul><li>an excellent port and good infrastructure, making Singapore a transport hub or </li></ul><ul><li>all the SEA countries. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Singapore as a Communication Hub <ul><li>With rapid development in information and telecommunications technology, as well as Singapore’s ability to quickly use this advanced technology, Singapore is a communication hub as it is one of the world’s most connected cities. Recent development in communication technology included fibre optic technology and satellite technology, making communication more efficient and increasing the speed of communications. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of satellite technology has also improved long-distance communications in Singapore.With Singapore using new technologies, it enhances the quality of life for its people as well as to improve its vusiness environment. </li></ul>