GMOs =  G enetically  M odified  O rganism s Broadly defined:  any microbe, plant, or animal developed through   breeding ...
PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li>Product Concepts and Technical Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Building the Transgenes </l...
Product Concepts and Technical Feasibility <ul><li>Market potential for GMO Crop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alternatives for pr...
Building the Transgenes Plant Transgene ON/OFF Switch Makes Protein stop sign CODING SEQUENCE INTRON poly A signal PROMOTE...
Plant Transformation The introduction and expression of  genes into plants is a three step process: DNA Delivery to Target...
Plant Transformation – DNA Delivery microprojectile bombardment “ biolistics” or “gene gun” tiny DNA-coated particles are ...
Plant Transformation – Target Cells All Crop Transformation Protocols Deliver  DNA to Plant Cells in Tissue Culture Tissue...
Plant Transformation – Selection <ul><li>At best only 1 in 1000 cells integrate delivered DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Transforme...
Event Selection <ul><li>Goal: Identify transgenic lines that stably exhibit  </li></ul><ul><li>desired phenotype </li></ul...
THE MAKING OF A GMO CROP VARIETY Backcrossing and selection (6- 8 generations) Transgenic  line  Commercial variety x x x ...
Seed Production <ul><li>Target of 0.5% of U.S. Corn or Soybean Market  </li></ul><ul><li>80 million acres x 0.005 = 400,00...
GMOs:  Why the Controversy? Genetic engineering is a powerful new technology that is in general poorly understood and whos...
GMO Crops: Three Major Issues 1.  Food safety and environmental impacts 2.  Global trade 3.  Increased corporate control o...
GMOs and Food Safety <ul><li>Genetic engineering creates novel genetic combinations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentia...
GMOs and Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Genetic engineering creates novel genetic combinations </li></ul><ul><li>All GMOs a...
GMOs and Global Trade <ul><li>GM Commodity Crops Highlight Differences in Culture and Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Increased Corporate Control of Agriculture <ul><li>The Development of GM Crops is Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellec...
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Fvvc genetic crop

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Fvvc genetic crop

  1. 1. GMOs = G enetically M odified O rganism s Broadly defined: any microbe, plant, or animal developed through breeding and selection Narrowly defined: organisms produced by gene transfer techniques <ul><li>insect-resistant crops </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cotton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potato </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>herbicide-resistant crops </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>soybean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>corn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>canola (rapeseed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>many others </li></ul></ul></ul>Current examples of GMO Crops GMO Crops on the Horizon Corn, soy, canola with improved nutritional qualities for animal feed Crops with specialty starches and oils for industrial processes Nutraceuticals “Golden Rice” Vaccines in plants Improved yields and stress tolerance
  2. 2. PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li>Product Concepts and Technical Feasibility </li></ul><ul><li>Building the Transgenes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Transformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Event Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Seed Production and Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Detection of GMO Crops in the Commodity Chain </li></ul>
  3. 3. Product Concepts and Technical Feasibility <ul><li>Market potential for GMO Crop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alternatives for production inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhanced storage stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved nutritional or processing qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can the desired traits be engineered? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many genes must be introduced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where must gene be expressed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appropriate organs, tissues, developmental stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>localization within the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are genes and expression elements available to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modify trait? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will there be interactions with other genes? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Building the Transgenes Plant Transgene ON/OFF Switch Makes Protein stop sign CODING SEQUENCE INTRON poly A signal PROMOTER <ul><li>bacterial genes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antibiotic marker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>replication origin </li></ul></ul>Plant Selectable Marker Gene Plasmid DNA Construct
  5. 5. Plant Transformation The introduction and expression of genes into plants is a three step process: DNA Delivery to Target Cells Selection and Regeneration Event Selection
  6. 6. Plant Transformation – DNA Delivery microprojectile bombardment “ biolistics” or “gene gun” tiny DNA-coated particles are shot into plant cells versatile method complex DNA integration patterns: tandem arrays of fragmented molecules Agrobacterium tumefaciens natural property of Agrobacterium to transfer DNA to host plant cells is exploited to introduce genes of interest difficult with cereal crops simple DNA integration patterns
  7. 7. Plant Transformation – Target Cells All Crop Transformation Protocols Deliver DNA to Plant Cells in Tissue Culture Tissue cultures allow regeneration of fertile plants from single cells Large number of target cells available for DNA delivery in a compact form (callus) Establishment, maintenance and plant regeneration is labor intensive Methods limited to a few genotypes, usually not commercial varieties Can introduce undesirable mutations
  8. 8. Plant Transformation – Selection <ul><li>At best only 1 in 1000 cells integrate delivered DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed cells (events) are marked by co-introducing gene that provides resistance to selective agents </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed cells are selected by killing non-transformed cells with selective agent. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types of selective agents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>herbicides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plant growth regulators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selectable markers assist in following inheritance of transgenes. </li></ul>tissue culture cells under selection Herbicide Leaf Paint Assay transgenic non-transgenic resistant susceptible
  9. 9. Event Selection <ul><li>Goal: Identify transgenic lines that stably exhibit </li></ul><ul><li>desired phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Typically only 1 in 100 events are commercialized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgene expression varies with chromosome position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex transgene insertions are generally unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gene silencing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recombination within integrated transgene DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgene cannot have negative effects on other plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phenotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgenic line must satisfy regulatory requirements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USDA, EPA, and FDA each review product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no novel toxic or allergenic proteins or metabolites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genetic stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>documented expression profile </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. THE MAKING OF A GMO CROP VARIETY Backcrossing and selection (6- 8 generations) Transgenic line Commercial variety x x x Commercial Transgenic Line Biotechnology
  11. 11. Seed Production <ul><li>Target of 0.5% of U.S. Corn or Soybean Market </li></ul><ul><li>80 million acres x 0.005 = 400,000 acres </li></ul><ul><li>Corn (Cross-Pollinated Hybrids) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planted at 30,000 plants/acre = 12 billion hybrid seed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need 300 million seed of each inbred parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires two field seasons to generate enough seed, one season to produce hybrid seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soybean (Self-Pollinated Varieties) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require 3 seasons to generate enough seed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintaining Quality Control is a Challenge!!! </li></ul>
  12. 12. GMOs: Why the Controversy? Genetic engineering is a powerful new technology that is in general poorly understood and whose long term effects are unknown. GMOs are an innovation that have and will continue to impact all facets of the global agricultural economy. Production Consumer Products Processing Commodity Handling
  13. 13. GMO Crops: Three Major Issues 1. Food safety and environmental impacts 2. Global trade 3. Increased corporate control of agriculture
  14. 14. GMOs and Food Safety <ul><li>Genetic engineering creates novel genetic combinations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential exists for undesirable effects of allergenicity or toxicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All GMOs are tested extensively for food safety prior to sale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>foods for human consumption and animal feed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>agricultural products (meat, dairy, fresh produce) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>To Label or Not to Label? Labels must give accurate information on product composition Identity preservation – methods, tolerances, costs
  15. 15. GMOs and Environmental Impacts <ul><li>Genetic engineering creates novel genetic combinations </li></ul><ul><li>All GMOs are tested for potential environmental impacts prior to sale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>influence on soil and water composition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insect resistance management </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gene/trait transfer to weedy relatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interactions with agricultural environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GMO Crops Have Many Significant Environmental Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced chemical pesticide and herbicide use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More sustainable pest management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better erosion control through no-till practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased efficiency of production / unit fossil fuel energy expended </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. GMOs and Global Trade <ul><li>GM Commodity Crops Highlight Differences in Culture and Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education level and awareness of agriculture and biotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings toward food and agriculture as a way of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governmental policies on the regulation of GM crops – imports, sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural economies </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Increased Corporate Control of Agriculture <ul><li>The Development of GM Crops is Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual property and patent protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation/vertical integration increases ability to capture profits </li></ul></ul>Ag-biotech is a recent example of a century-old trend

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