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E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
E-Commerce
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E-Commerce

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  • 1. Doing Business in the Information Age
  • 2. What is e-commerce? <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Online business to business transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Online business to consumer transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Digital delivery of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Online merchandising </li></ul><ul><li>Automated telephone transactions eg phone banking </li></ul><ul><li>EFTPOS and other automated transfer systems </li></ul>
  • 3. Contracts <ul><li>Law of contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Issues for e-commerce </li></ul>
  • 4. Contracts - the basics <ul><li>Offer </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Intention to enter legal relations </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Legal capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine consent </li></ul>
  • 5. Offer <ul><li>Clear statement of terms </li></ul><ul><li>Person who makes it is prepared to be bound </li></ul><ul><li>Not just an “invitation to treat” </li></ul>
  • 6. Acceptance <ul><li>Unqualified agreement to terms of offer </li></ul><ul><li>Express or inferred by conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be forced on unwilling person </li></ul>
  • 7. Time of creation of contract <ul><li>Contract formed at time and place the acceptance is communicated to offeror </li></ul>
  • 8. Termination or revocation of offer <ul><li>Can be revoked prior to acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Revocation must be communicated to offeror </li></ul>
  • 9. Certainty <ul><li>Essential parts of contract must be clear and complete </li></ul><ul><li>Courts may imply a meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain term can be “severed” </li></ul>
  • 10. Consideration <ul><li>Valuable consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Passing between parties to contract </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t be unlawful or immoral </li></ul>
  • 11. Intention <ul><li>Express </li></ul><ul><li>Inferred from the circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Must be genuine consent - not obtained under duress </li></ul>
  • 12. Capacity <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual capacity </li></ul>
  • 13. Terms and conditions <ul><li>Express </li></ul><ul><li>Implied </li></ul>
  • 14. Formalities <ul><li>Oral or written </li></ul><ul><li>Writing required under statute eg for sale of land </li></ul>
  • 15. Practical concerns for e-commerce deals <ul><li>Identity and capacity of seller or buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity of offer and acceptance (digital signatures) </li></ul><ul><li>When and where contract formed </li></ul><ul><li>Governing law </li></ul><ul><li>Terms and conditions (click through) </li></ul>
  • 16. Practical Concerns for e-commerce deals(2) <ul><li>Agreement on electronic payment system </li></ul><ul><li>Security of information exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences on breach </li></ul><ul><li>Storing electronic data to prevent alteration </li></ul>
  • 17. Electronic Transactions Act <ul><li>Federal law with mirror State laws (NSW, VIC, WA) </li></ul><ul><li>To remove obstacles to electronic transactions, communications, signatures and record keeping </li></ul><ul><li>1 July 2001 applies to all federal laws unless exempted </li></ul>
  • 18. Electronic Transactions Act(2) <ul><li>Validates electronic transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Given in writing met electronically now </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt can specify technology requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business requirement valid only with consent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signatures-parties free to agree on method </li></ul><ul><li>Production and retention of documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method must ensure integrity and accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time and place of dispatch and receipt of communications </li></ul>
  • 19. Electronic Transactions(3) <ul><ul><li>Time of dispatch is when it enters the first information system outside control of sender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of receipt is when it enters an information system designated by the addressee for receiving it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place of dispatch and receipt taken to be respective places of business </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Electronic Transactions (4) <ul><li>Record keeping OK electronically if law says: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information to be recorded in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A written document to be kept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An electronic communication to be kept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records must be kept identifying origin, destination, time of sending and receipt of electronic communication </li></ul>
  • 21. Making a contract <ul><li>What terms do you want to include? </li></ul><ul><li>What risks are you trying to avoid? </li></ul><ul><li>How will disputes about contract be dealt with? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the governing law? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will sign it? </li></ul>
  • 22. Setting up a business entity <ul><li>Sole trader </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Company </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul>
  • 23. Sole trader <ul><li>All profits </li></ul><ul><li>All losses </li></ul><ul><li>All liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Own name or choose business name </li></ul><ul><li>Register business name </li></ul>
  • 24. Partnership <ul><li>Carrying on a business </li></ul><ul><li>In common </li></ul><ul><li>With a view to profit </li></ul><ul><li>Established by written agreement, oral agreement or conduct </li></ul>
  • 25. Partnership <ul><li>Partnership Act 1892 (NSW) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations Law : Not more than 20 partners (except doctors, solicitors and accountants) </li></ul>
  • 26. Partnership <ul><li>Profit sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Joint and several liability </li></ul><ul><li>Fiduciary duties to partners </li></ul>
  • 27. Companies <ul><li>Corporations Act </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial legal entity </li></ul><ul><li>Liability of members can be limited </li></ul>
  • 28. Companies <ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Directors duties </li></ul><ul><li>Limits on raising money from the public </li></ul>
  • 29. Companies <ul><li>The “corporate veil” </li></ul><ul><li>Lifting the veil: fraud, agency, paying more dividends than profit, incurring debts when company insolvent </li></ul>
  • 30. Companies <ul><li>Form a company by: </li></ul><ul><li>Registering name </li></ul><ul><li>Lodge application with ASIC </li></ul><ul><li>Registered office </li></ul><ul><li>Names of directors and members </li></ul>
  • 31. Which structure? <ul><li>Where are you getting your money from? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your risk/liability? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be in control? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the ongoing costs? </li></ul>
  • 32. What is a domain name <ul><li>Human friendly form of an Internet address </li></ul><ul><li>Actual address is an Internet Protocol (IP) number </li></ul><ul><li>System globally administered by ICANN </li></ul><ul><li>Generic top level domains (gTLDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.com, .org, .net, .edu, .gov, .biz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Country code top level domains (ccTLDs) </li></ul>
  • 33. Domain name registration in Australia <ul><li>open and closed domains </li></ul><ul><li>open - .com, .org, .net, .info, .biz </li></ul><ul><li>closed - .gov, .edu, .mil, .museum </li></ul><ul><li>auDA administers .com.au space </li></ul><ul><li>to register in .au space must be a commercial entity registered and trading in Australia.. </li></ul>
  • 34. Domain Names (cont) <ul><li>Licensed on a first come-first served basis </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names never meant to confer property rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Clash with Trade Marks. </li></ul><ul><li>auDA has a dispute resolution scheme which applies to all domain names registered or renewed from 1 August 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN has the UDRP for .com etc domains. </li></ul>
  • 35. Domain Names and other business identifiers <ul><li>Trade Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Place Names </li></ul><ul><li>Tension with domain names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse domain name hijacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cybersquatting </li></ul></ul>

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