What is Deconstruction?• It is a radical approach to reading.• This literary criticism is not fully developed.• The founder of deconstruction is Jacques Derrida• Explained as a strategy “Rules for reading, interpretation and writing.”
History of Deconstruction• Rene Descartes (1596- 1650) and Fredrick Nietzsche (1844-1900) were pioneers in deconstruction.• They began to question the objective truth of language.• This is also known as Poststructuralist, this criticism came after structuralism.
Structuralism• This is the prelude to Deconstruction.• It is a science that seeks to understand how a system works, In this case, Language.• The structure of language comes from the human mind.
Ferdinand de Saussure• Looked at language Diachronically.• He traced words over time looking for the changes in sounds and meanings.
Rules of Language• These rules of language were developed by Ferdinand de Saussure.• Langue - Language is made of a set of rules, known as this.• Parole - General rules of language applied by members of a specific community.• Signs – He depicted language as a set of signs, that came in two parts the Signifier and the Signified
Signified and Signifier in Deconstruction• Signifier – The written and sound construction that makes up a word• Signified – The meaning of the word.• Deconstruction looks at the ambiguities in signifiers, and states that there can be many different signified meanings for a single signifier
Binary OppositionsThe most important partof Deconstruction.This literary criticism usesBinary Oppositions tolook at what is not in astory.Of the two parts of binaryoppositions, There is adominant and a oppressedor non-dominant.
Others InvolvedRoland Barthes(1915-1980) – French Theoristwhom worked on the development of structuralismand Deconstruction.Vladamir Propp(1895-1970) – Russian scholar thatworked on folk tales.Jonathan Culler(1944-Today) – Worked at CornellUniversity; Worked on Structuralism.
Impact of DeconstructionTakes away from the textbecause you are lookingfor whats not there.Makes literature seem like“Word Play”(Dobie)Humanists view it as a“wedge between life andliterature”(Dobie)Looks for the Ideologiesthat are in our language.
Deconstruction In PracticeIn deconstruction thesignified and the signifierare unstable, and can takeon multiple meanings.We live in a logo centricworld – We want tobelieve that everything isgrounded.In Deconstruction, this isthe opposite of the logocentric view.
Deconstructive AnalysisIn a Deconstructive analysis you are looking toreverse the dominant and non-dominant binaryoppositions.Giving the privileged status to the oppressed of thetwo Binary opposites.Tries to find blind spots in the literature.Derrida derived this method because “Bydeconstructing constraints, he tried to open newways of thinking and knowing”(Dobie)
Poem Deconstruction – Snow • Look at Symbolism ofSnow snow to extract theBy Frederick Seidel opposite: • WhiteSnow is what it does.It falls and it stays and it goes. • ColdIt melts and it is here somewhere. • WinterWe all will get there. • Usually symbolizing deathSource: Poetry (September so the opposite could be2012). life. • This poem then could be talking about the Rebirth of humans in religion.
Poem Deconstruction – Six Lines for Louise BoganSix Lines for Louise Bogan This poem almost deconstructs itself.By Michael Collier Notice that there are 2All that has tamed me I have learnedto love parts to each sentence, and lost that wildness that was making 4 in each line.once beloved. This poem tells of eachAll that was loved I’ve learned to tame opposite in itself. and lost the beloved that oncewas wild. TamedAll that is wild is tamed by love— Love and the beloved (wildness) that Wildnessonce was loved. BelovedSource: Poetry (April 2012).
Credits and CitationsDobie, Ann B. Theory into Practice. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012. Paperback.Slide 2: http://xkcd.com/451/Slide 4:http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_BA__Bih8snc/S7RYxRBiiiI/AAAAAAAACT4/1KUXSjC1SL8/s1600/p1.jpgSlide 5:http://www.cepolina.com/photo/art/architecture/tensile_structure/5/tensile_structure_cone_column.jpgSlide 6:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/de/Ferdinand_de_Saussure_by_Jullien.png/406px-Ferdinand_de_Saussure_by_Jullien.pngSlide 9: http://alexakeeler.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/yin-yang1.jpgSlide 11: http://nukeitfromorbit.com/xnuke.jpg.pagespeed.ic.XD9-0bi6PQ.jpgSlide 12: http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/images/rightwrongtshirt.gif