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Wolf Motivational Aspects Of Open Content Authoring

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"Motivational Factors of Open Content Creation" …

"Motivational Factors of Open Content Creation"

While there have been several studies of the motivation of Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects so far, the research on Open Content authors is still in its early stage (e.g. Schroer & Hertel 2007). Started at an Unconference track at this years ITK 2007 conference (see http://www.didactalab.de/wp-main/?p=52), this contribution gives an overview of different models used for explanation of FLOSS projects so far and discusses the viability of using them to explain Open Content contribution. Other alternative models are presented as well. To do this, the main differences between FLOSS and Open Content projects are analysed as well as the rhetorics of several large Open Content program sponsors such as the Hewlett Foundation.

The presentation concludes with some ideas how to support Open Content production.

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology

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  • 1. Motivational Aspects of Open Content Authoring Karsten D. Wolf Didactical Design of Interactive Learning Environments MindTrek 2007 – Social Media Stream Tampere, 3.10.2007 cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 2. Feel free to make comments! cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 3. http://blog.didactalab.de © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 4. http://www.slideshare.net/kadewe/ Slides: www.slideshare.net/kadewe Shoutbox: blog.didactalab.de © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 5. 1,731,000 569,000 474,000 367,000 353,000 288,000 283,000 251,000 222,000 221,000 19.04.2007 Slides: www.slideshare.net/kadewe Shoutbox: blog.didactalab.de 2007 cc by Karsten D. Wolf
  • 6. +17% +13% +19% +17% +18% +27% +25% +15% +27% +14% Suomi +22% ca. 6 months later (1.10.2007) Slides: www.slideshare.net/kadewe Shoutbox: blog.didactalab.de 2007 cc by Karsten D. Wolf
  • 7. Doubles every 2 years 1.2^4=2.07 cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 8. today Wikipedias today Wiktionaries 2 years Wikiquotes 1 year Wikinews 5-10 years Wikibooks 2 years Wikisources 20-40 years Wikiversities 5 years cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 9. today Wikipedias today Wiktionaries 2 years Wikiquotes 1 year Wikinews 5-10 years Wikibooks 2 years Wikisources 20-40 years Wikiversities 5 years cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 10. today Wikipedias today Wiktionaries 2 years Wikiquotes 1 year Wikinews 5-10 years Wikibooks 2 years Wikisources 20-40 years Wikiversities 5 years cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 11. today Wikipedias today Wiktionaries 2 years Wikiquotes 1 year Wikinews 5-10 years Wikibooks 2 years Wikisources 20-40 years Wikiversities 5 years cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 12. from content wasteland cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 13. to content jungle cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 14. Open Content Species • Open Access (Journals / Papers) • Blogs Andreas John 2006 • Open-Source-Journalism • Open Law • Open Gaming • Open Music / Free Music • Open Books / Textbooks / Documentation / Encyclopedias… © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 15. Semi-Open Contents - The Web 2.0 Landscape • Pictures (Flickr) • Newsaggregations (Google Reader) • Videos / Screencasts (YouTube) • RSS-Feeds • Link Collections (del.icio.us) • Presentations (slideshare) © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 16. open content for open education cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 17. http://www.ifeb.uni-bremen.de/wordpress_staedtler/?p=141 cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 18. That‘s great! cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 19. We want more! cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 20. How? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 21. Why? are people doing it How? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 22. Lots of Research on Open Source cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 23. Why start a OSS project? Founders usually start a project because they are not satisfied with existing software or simply because the required software does not exist. For example Linus Torvalds needed a Unix for his PC, resulting in Linux (Torvalds and Diamond, 2001), Eric Allman needed a more efficient email server resulting in ‘Sendmail’, Larry Wall needed a tool to automatically generate web pages resulting in ‘Perl’, and finally Don Knuth needed a convenient tool for type-setting documents resulting in ‘TEX’ (Knuth, 1979). …cannot afford …don‘t want to pay …no control © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 24. Intrinsic Motivation in OSS Development • Why engage in the production of a public good for free? • The economist‘s view: It‘s just signaling for self-promotion (Lerner & Tirole, 2002) • Empirical studies contradict: it is intrinsic motivation! • Hertel, Guido, Sven Nieder and Stefanie Herrmann (2003) • Lakhani, Karim R. and Robert G. Wolf (2003) © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 25. 3 main motives 1. the need for a particular software solution, i.e. the phenomenon of user- programmers, 2. the fun to play, i.e. some form of homo ludens payoff 3. the desire to give a gift to the programmer community, i.e a gift benefit 1.gain reputation in community (social status) 2.community identification 3.reciprocal and pure altruism Jürgen Bitzer, Wolfram Schrettl und Philipp J. H. Schröder 2004 © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 26. Fun & Software-Development • Flow (Csikszentmihalyi) • Usage and Adaptation of existing OSS • Reputation and Signals • Identification with a group • Learning • Altruism Benno Luthiger Stoll 2006 © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 27. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 28. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 29. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 30. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 31. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 32. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 33. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 34. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007 http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS/report/ (2002)
  • 35. Fun Learning Community Reputation cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 36. Playfulness “It may well turn out that one of the most important effects of open source’s success will be to teach us that play is the most economically efficient mode of creative work.” (Raymond, 2000b, chapter 11) © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 37. What is the difference between OCP and OSS? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 38. Broader Author Base for Open Contents • students • teachers • researchers • “amateurs and hobbyists” – for the love of it! • experts • grassroot journalists • freelancing media producers • basically everyone! ¿Valid claim for Educational Open Contents? © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 39. more women, non-geeks ☛ more people cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 40. Why? How? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 41. Andreas John 2006 cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 42. Learning Andreas John 2006 Community Reputation cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 43. Understanding Open Content Authors Motivation • Altruism – for the love of other people • Reputation – showing off one‘s own capability = self-promotion • Interest, Fun and Flow – doing it for the Joy of it • Learning – learning by authoring public entities • Collaboration – tackling something not feasible for oneself • Job – getting a paycheck • Assignment – getting a grade and a diploma • Saving – no need to buy textbooks and giving back some time • Political Statement – e.g. anti capitalist point of view, anti copyrights pov… • Convenience – it is easier to find notes in public repositories than on my HD © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 44. World of Warcraft study (Wolf 2007, n=1100) < 7 <14 <20 <30 <40 40+ h/w cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 45. casual authors are looking for community cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 46. authors out for reputation and knowledge spend top hours cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 47. What kind of content makes good candidate for OCP? • both basic and advanced level of content, doesn‘t matter • both Super Special Interest and Mass Audience • Opportunity costs of making it open is low for most scientific SSI • Reputation gain is great for Mass Audience © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 48. Content size, team size & collaboration • Smaller snippets are easier • Wikipedia = collective • Blogs = individual • The bigger, the more authors = more difficult • Solution: snippets! • Problem: Thousands of snippets do not make great textbooks © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 49. Commented Collections • DRY = Don‘t Repeat Yourself • DRY(AO) = Don‘t Repeat Yourself and Others! • Good bye Open Content Books • Hello Commented Collections of Open Snippets • Makes sense from the Personal Learning Environment viewpoint, too! © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 50. Textbook 2.0 shared commented personal learning collections? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 51. http://aim.psch.uic.edu/ cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 52. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 53. cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 54. controlling the jungle again? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 55. (Source: Atkins, Brown, Hammond 2007) cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 56. sounds like experts generated content access ≠ education focus on repurposing (Source: Atkins, Brown, Hammond 2007) cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 57. sounds like experts generated content access ≠ education first try to understand and stimulate AUTHORING sounds like & Re-Mixing focus on killing all repurposing intrinsic motivation (Source: Atkins, Brown, Hammond 2007) cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 58. Rewards undermine intrinsic motivation! Deci, Koestner & Ryan 2001 cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 59. what to sponsor? open education contents infra- structures cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 60. Fun Learning Community Reputation cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 61. Open Content has transformed learning in informal settings cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 62. Open Content starts to disrupt formal learning settings cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 63. Schools & universities Wake up! The 600 pound gorilla is coming! cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 64. Right? cc by Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 65. Faculty educational science Didactical design of interactive learning environments http://www.karsten-d-wolf.de/ http://blog.didactalab.de/ wolf@uni-bremen.de
  • 66. http://www.slideshare.net/kadewe/ © Karsten D. Wolf 2007
  • 67. http://www.karsten-d-wolf.de/ © Prof. Dr. Karsten D. Wolf 2005 http://blog.didactalab.de/ wolf@uni-bremen.de