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IPY OSC Presentation

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  • 1. “The Stranger Within” :
    Representations of Sámi in Norden in 19th-century Swedish Natural Scientific Works
    Ph.D. Karin Granqvist, Sweden
    Acknowledgements:
    • Karl Staaff’s Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden
    • 2. Professor S. Sörlin, History of Science and Technology, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
    Seashore in Norway. Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 3. Representations of Sámi in Works
    by Natural Scientists:
    Göran Wahlenberg (1780-1851)
    Lars Levi Læstadius (1800-1861)
    Sven Lovén (1809-1895)
    Axel Hamberg (1863-1933)
    ”Kaisepakte”, mountain, Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 4. Lars Levi Læstadius’ research area
    Sven Loven’s research area
    Göran Wahlenberg’s area of research
    Axel Hamberg’s area of research
  • 5. Themes of Interest for Natural Scientists
    Anthropology & Ethnology
    Bottom of mountain lake, Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 12. Evolutionary Process & a Society’s Social Status
    Anthropological and ethnographicals studies placed people at different stages on that scale: portable dwellings such as tents indicated a ’low’ stage; ploughs and stationary dwelling (houses) were markers for a civilized life style; languagescategorised people according to origin.
    Mountains in Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 15. Topics that Reinforced the Idea of Evolution
    were Studies of Sámi’s Nature and Disposition
    Lovén:
    • Sámi’s good sense of locality was a product of their close contact with nature
    • 16. They led a poor life, but it was suited for them – and they alone
    Wahlenberg:
    • Sámi had bad and low moral
    • 17. In business were they greedy and stingy
    • 18. They cheated and could never be trusted
    • 19. They had good sense of locality
    Læstadius:
    • Sámi were biological predestined to a life as reindeer herders – other life styles would make them perish, and they would be extinct
    Hamberg:
    • Sámi were lazy and weak, and never showed any type of stamina or endurance
    • 20. His Sámi assistant Lars Nilsson Tuorda was describe as very competent (poster 1214)
    Seashore, Norway
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 21. Representations of Sámi
    in 19th-century Natural Scientific Works
    • Exotic and picturesque (and/or)
    • 22. Racist and condescending
    Mountains in afternoon sun, July, Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 23. 19th-century Theories when Representing Sámi
    • 19th-century theories on ”duality” of Man: most famous example is Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in
    • 24. Robert Stevenson’s novel from 1886
    • 25. Similar theories got to be lamented with Charles Darwin’s theory on the evolution
    • 26. Helped explain theories on ’the Others’; ’the Stranger within the nation’, ’the savages in the civilisation’ such as the Sámi
    Cover of new edition of Robert Louis Stevenson’s ”The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde”
  • 27. Results of the Theories
    • Duality of man was, in the scientific context, suggested not to be found in the single individual(s) – like in the case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde – but amongst people of a larger group, such of a nation or a continent with a non-homogeneity population.
    • 28. Representations of Sámi – based on the idea on duality of Man– could also be set in the context of the nation where the Sámi’s existence was appointed to be ‘the other side’ of the nation.
    • 29. The theory on the Evolution emphasised the location of the Sámi outside a civilised nation The Sámi as Stranger
  • Impact on the Swedish Industrialisation
    • Sámi core areas held natural resources: forests, ores, rivers and a designated ’wilderness’
    • 30. Forestry
    • 31. Mining industry
    • 32. Hydroelectric power plants
    • 33. National parks, such as Sarek in 1905
    Mountain ”glaicer lake”, Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 34. The Making of the Industrialisation in the North
    The making of the industrialisation in the North
    Similarities with the colonisation of Africa in the 19th century The African was seen as ’no one’
    ’No one’ inhabited the area, therefore colonisation met no obstacles because no one was in the way
    The Nordic countries turned their colonisation towards their northern regions. The Sámi had been represented as excisting outside the nation the exploitationof the North was made in a designated ’inhabited’ area.
    Mountain ”glaicer lake”, Sweden
    Photo: Karin Granqvist
  • 35. Conclusion
    The 19th-century representations of Sámi as “The Stranger”, “The Other” and a Swedish-Nordic “Mr Hyde” – that can be found in 19th-century natural scientific works – placed Sámi ‘outside’ the nation. Therefore was, on an ideological level, no one in the way in Sámi core areas when the exploitation of natural resources in the Swedish and Nordic North started and advanced.
    Seashore, Norway
    Photo: Karin Granqvist

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