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  1. 1. Sustainable Urban Development Future of Indian Cities : An overview By : Prof. K.S. Mukunda HOD, Department of Architecture, siddaganga Institute of Technology, TUMKUR, Karnataka State, INDIA 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY at Chennai 1
  2. 2. Introduction     06/01/2007 It has been our aim to Improve the quality of life in our cities including Ecological,Cultural, Political, Institutional & Economic components without leaving a burden on future generations. Strong healthy livable cities depend on healthy environments,a robust economy & ample employment generation. The focus of this presentation is more on sensitizing the issue on SUSTAINABILITY considering the problems of the URBAN POOR than on capacity building. International conference on SUSTAINABILITY at Chennai 2
  3. 3. Monitoring team Advisory board Defining category titles Defining criteria for each category Experts in science Experts in practice 3 to 4 rounds of questioners Forums Open forums on provisional results Taking place on the Internet Rating a project contribution towards sustainable urban International development & awarding procedure for good solution 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 3
  4. 4. 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 4
  5. 5. Concept of sustainable Development       Sustainable city is the one that is able to provide the basic needs of population with necessary infrastructure of civic amenities,health & medical care, housing , education, transportation,employment & good governance to all sections of the community without discrimination Ecological sustainable thesis requires ETHICS OF CARE, RESPECT & RESPONSIBILITY The 4 components of Livability are (a) Social well being (b) Economic Vitality (c) Infrastructure availability (d) Environmental quality There must be a balance between the 4 components and it should be monitored regularly Sustained development refers more to a PROCESS rather than an end point Effective governance @ different levels with a coordinated effort International becomes important conference 06/01/2007 on SUSTAINABILITY 5
  6. 6. Current Initiatives and Progress Progress on developing the concepts of sustainable development has been rapid since the early 1990s. Following is a list of major events, programs and commissions that have been instrumental in shaping the fundamental principles and programs of action for achieving sustainable development. 􀂾 1992, Earth Summit: 100+ heads of state meet in Brazil for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Convened to address urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development. 􀂾 1992, Agenda 21: A 300 page plan for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century. 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 6
  7. 7. 􀂾 1992, Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD): Created to ensure effective follow-up and monitoring of UNCED agreements locally, nationally, and internationally. 􀂾 1997, Earth Summit Review: Five year review of Earth Summit progress. 􀂾 2002, World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD): Held in Johannesburg, South Africa,reaffirming commitments to Earth Summit 1992. 􀂾 2002, International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI): Brought together 700 mayors and local government representatives from around the world, confirming commitment of local governments around the globe towards the process of creating a “sustainable world.”In total, these summits and declarations have served to emphasize and define more clearly the important role international organizations and governments must play in supporting local governments to develop the capacities to address sustainable development. 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 7
  8. 8.  Scenario of Indian Urban Development in the last 50 years Indian Independence in1947 & Rapid stride in Industrialization Caused necessity to regulate Urban growth In 1946 the Bhore Committee recommendations established a T &CP department in each Province Under the Min of Health. The partition of India created tremendous problems of refugees in the N-W & N-E, which ultimately caused creation of new settlements of Towns & Cities. Town Planning Education started after 1955 & there was a terrible shortage of Technical manpower to manage & guide Urban development. Resulting which, India adopted Bureaucratic path of Planning through Controls supported legislation & the “Development Plan” became a Statutory Document & trained manpower was not available to administer the plan 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 8
  9. 9.     Policy Initiatives : Development Plan Concept U.K. developed & adopted the concept but had limited success. This concept rested on 3 strong pillars of support, viz., (a) Presence of a Local Self Government (b) Financial Institution to support Development (c) Presence of Organized Private Sector Development In U.K. the population growth declined sharply thus weakening the demand for Urban sector India adopted the Development Plan Concept in its model plan guidelines in 1956 under its T & CP act. The needed 3 pillars of support did not exist.In this un-prepared climate Urban Dev rapidly deteriorated. Municipalities adopted an oppressive regulatory system. The officers were from Administrative Service, the Technical service was placed under the responsibility of the administrator, whose commitment to the place & organization is transitory, Active participation of people in development is totally missing.There is no International legal framework for regulating planned growth of human settlements 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 9
  10. 10.  Chennai- 40% population live in slums  Kolkata - In 1996 Operation Sunshine evicted 50,000  pavement dwellers from city’s main streets “Right to live includes the right to livelihood”. As livelihood of poor depends directly on where they live. Verdict given - favoring pavement dwellers in a public interest petition in a Mumbai court. Pavement dwellers in Mumbai 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 10
  11. 11. International Problems of water in poor localities of a town 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 11
  12. 12. The development plan is thus viewed as an INSTRUMENT OF OBSTRUCTION rather than facilitator of Development All later Town planning Legislation adopted T & CP act & even after 50 years, India needs to Discuss & Review a lot. Population of Delhi increases by 0.4 million every year due to migration putting a question on sustainability with the burgeoning population leading to exploitation,Crime & lawlessness due to shrinking job opportunities, sub human living conditions in slums creating environmental degradation & other pollutions of air, water & land. Cities are under pressure, Decision makers have to find solutions to various emerging problems ranging from Housing,Drinking water supply to sanitation & waste disposal, transportation to urban green space preservation. At the same time they are also taking wrong & ad hoc decisions without International involving Experts,NGO’s,Citizens/ media. 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 12
  13. 13. Air Pollution Water Pollution Housing for urban poor- New Delhi 06/01/2007 International Air conference , Noise& Visual on SUSTAINABILITY pollutions 13
  14. 14. Migrating to city ? Poor housing 06/01/2007 IMPACT (Development plan)  Cities have become focal points of consumption of goods & services, while draining out resources of external regions  Vast majority of migrants to urban areas cannot afford a decent living condition due to poverty. The settlement they can afford,lack all basic infrastructure needs to maintain the required health & hygiene aspects.  Ecological Impact of major cities extend much beyond their geographical boundaries. Under such circumstances sustainable development theory is an EVOLVING one and a highly International Debatable issue. conference on SUSTAINABILITY 14
  15. 15. What This Means on Quality of living Environment Living environments are deteriorating & all major cities are posing a serious threat to healthier & happier living conditions  The city summit of the Istanbul conference gave the call for reversing the trend of the rapid degradation & recommended priorities for action to re-vitalize living zones  No control in urban fringe area developments and green belts are vanishing & industries are penetrating and Cities have become faceless, anonymous & monotonous and loosing their identities & aesthetic qualities.  The process of revitalization requires a careful inventory, popular perception,advocacy, motivation,sound physical & financial assessment along with professional & political commitment as a pre-requisite. International conference on 06/01/2007 15 SUSTAINABILITY 
  16. 16. India & the world population India urgently urgently needs to curb population growth 􀂾 Global human population is estimated to reach between 8-10 billion by 2050. 􀂾 World population currently stands at 6 billion with 47% living in urban areas. 06/01/2007 International nearly 60% of the global population will be living in urban centers, 􀂾 By 2030 conference on 16 SUSTAINABILITY
  17. 17. Need for appropriate policies       in the Indian context The concept of logical spatial order that exist in our settlement pattern should become the crucial factor for consideration ( city vs villages) with a scaled allocation of viable population & economic activity distribution policy creating cleaner Urban Environments through a viable appropriate technologies which are affordable Decentralized process of waste collection treatment & disposal City building as a series of discrete areas which are independent of each other as far as basic infrastructure is concerned as they contribute towards lower transportation costs & material consumption & thus will be more affordable to larger population Adopting a strong environmental protection policy for air & water with a very careful industrial location policy Mapping of all required parameters for selecting future sites for International settlement with the understanding of surrounding region. 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 17
  18. 18. Problems of Urban communities in the indian context       The urban poor in India is about 80 million,which is 40% of urban population & 65% of the urban poor are women & children Vast majority of urban poor cannot afford a decent living condition. Over 50% of households are without latrine & drainage. High illiteracy rate,High infant mortality rate than urban average. High enrollment in primary education, BUT more than 50% drop out rate particularly among Girls. Women belong to poorest of poor. They play a minimal role in decision making with patriarchic values reinforced through tradition,religion & other socio-political Institutions. Women have low rate of work force, lack of access to inst. Credit mechanism,low self esteem,fear of society& its laws,fear of men,fear of violence etc., thus creating a intergenerational circle of poverty & International deprivation. 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 18
  19. 19. Solution to problems-Urban Basic Services Program      The National commission on Urbanization in 1988 recommended Urban community development strategy as a key approach. It was a UNICEF supported project targeting 500 cities & towns. The integrated urban poverty eradication program was launched in 1994 targeting 345 class II towns.( population 0.5 to 1 m) -UBSP is the key program component. In 1995 the program involved 65000 women volunteers in 9000 NH units to work as a community organization towards improvement & self reliant development. The organizational structure provides the framework for BOTTOM-UP planning process.It prepares area specific plans based on an assessment of felt/perceived needs,matched with available resource or other govt. programs UBSP resources are used as bridging finance for meeting Basic International community needs to improve living conditions of urban poor. 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 19
  20. 20. The status of urban poor & future urban development      The govt. is determined to go ahead with the liberalization program with the adaptation of modern technology. The mass communication technology has penetrated & has been responsible for raising expectations faster than the socio-political system. The urban poor who desires to feel satisfied has failed to understand his relationship with individual rights & his social responsibility of public self & thus has failed as a social being. Increased expectations and attractions to urban regions would always leave a dearth for affordable shelter City which comprises of mainly 2 sectors viz, the core sector CBD & the service sector. As the city expands horizontally the CBD becomes larger & the periphery gets pushed. The urban poor who flock around the CBD for livelihood gets thrown out to fringes due to increased economic activity & this increases their financial burden & the question of sustainability. The future should find solution for this phenomenon 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 20
  21. 21.      Urban poor desires affordable housing, Home ownership would give him a reason to work & save, but, his income level prohibits him from achieving that status.He spends 30% of his earnings on shelter needs and the remaining amount is insufficient for bare sustenance & the choice left to him is to be - homeless. If at all any subsidized housing is to be provided there should be a long term controls on resale of such properties as these would be gobbled up for a different economic activity by the wealthier & thus foil the very purpose of the policy. The problem of housing urban poor is always associated with the level of services that should be affordable & compatible with the housing type. The elements of basic services of electricity, water supply & minimal sanitation, management of waste & marginal access to houses & transport should be provided to prevent this housing to become a slum. Some of the planning approaches are (a)Minimum construction cost (urban poor) (b) maximum space utilization CBD (c) maximum comfort(MIG & HIG) (d) maximum durability (public services) (e) International Harmonious surroundings (public architecture) conference 06/01/2007 on SUSTAINABILITY 21
  22. 22.    The present govt.adopted “ Support “ approach is likely to provide an economic & affordable solution. In this individual households takes hold of construction & maintenance while the govt.agencies provide at subsidized rates Sites & Services to the urban poor. The programs & Initiatives of govt. should include 1.waste reduction & recycling, 2. Energy efficiency & renewable, 3. Transportation planning & Traffic management. 4. Control on land use & urban formation. 5. Effective protection of environment & 6. Maintenance of high & stable levels of growth & increased employment opportunities. The programs of govt. should disseminate good practices on sustainability at urban level both at political level & technical level raising awareness & developing new skills of sustainable Urban development 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 22
  23. 23. Community participation programs 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 23
  24. 24. Conclusions from the study • Good Governance – the capacity of local governments must be strengthened to carry out their responsibility for the equitable provision of infrastructure and services to all urban residents while planning for future growth; and, the capacity of provincial, state and national authorities must be strengthened to ensure their critical normative roles, to establish facilitating public services.policy environments, and to rid corruption from land markets and the provision of • Legal System – property rights and security of tenure are critical to sustainable approaches to upgrading. The vast majority of the residents of urban slums live without any form of secure tenure, often under constant threat of eviction, vitiating their ability to access credit and constraining their motivation to improve their homes and neighborhoods. International 06/01/2007 conference on SUSTAINABILITY 24
  25. 25. • Financial System – coupled with security of tenure, access to credit is key to unleashing the vast potential of the urban poor to improve their living and working environments and livelihoods. Micro-credit and other facilities to expand access to credit to the poor can provide critical elements of institutional support in creating financially self-supporting and sustainable urban upgrading programs. • Social Framework – community participation in the conception, development, financing, and upgrading of infrastructure and services is a critical element of sustainable programs. •Experience has shown that the most successful programs address community priorities 06/01/2007 International conference on SUSTAINABILITY 25

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