• Save
PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Module 6-1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Module 6-1

on

  • 4,256 views

Module to teach professors how to use PowerPoint as a means to wrap course content around learning goals.

Module to teach professors how to use PowerPoint as a means to wrap course content around learning goals.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,256
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
4,253
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
7
Downloads
0
Comments
1

1 Embed 3

http://www.slideshare.net 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • This is really good. Unfortunately the links dont work but Ill try t find them using the titles.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Module 6-1 PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Module 6-1 Presentation Transcript

    • Organize Documents and Assignments Around Learning Issues and Goals PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors
    • Contents Module X: <Title of Module> Teaching-Learning Principles Sample Organizer Additional Examples and Possibilities Exploration and Practice Tools and Templates Supporting Essay Online Resources and Bibliography
    • Teaching & Learning Principles To increase student engagement and promote deeper understanding of course material, organize course documents and assignments around learning issues and goals.
    • An Interactive Syllabus for PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Using an interactive syllabus to increase student understanding of course related material.
    • Interactive Syllabus Example
      • One way to increase student understanding of course material is to provide students with a course outline.
        • Instructors can enhance student learning by making the topic of the day's lecture explicit and then providing an outline or knowledge map of the lecture. (Newcombe in Halpern & Hakel, 2002)
        • People are more confident in their likelihood of reaching a goal if they know where they are going (Keller & Burkman, 1994)
    • Constructing an Interactive Syllabus
      • An interactive syllabus is one form of a course outline that provides structure and promotes student participation.
      • An interactive syllabus includes:
        • Classes organized by date
        • Main themes for each class
        • Links to course documents, readings and assignments (required)
        • Links to additional resources, web-sites, readings, videos, and other materials. (optional)
      • PowerPoint can be used to create an interactive syllabus.
    • PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Constructing the Interactive Syllabus
      • We’ll use this course, PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors, as an example of how to use PowerPoint to create an interactive syllabus.
      • We’ll follow these steps:
      • Create a table for lessons sequenced by module number.
      • Identify the main themes for each module.
      • Create links to course material (lesson PowerPoint slides) for each lesson.
      • Provide links to additional resources for each lesson, including readings and web-sites.
    • PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Constructing the Interactive Syllabus This interactive syllabus is one example of using a content organizer for a course. Read the instructions to the left under Instructions and Job Aids for tips on how to create an interactive syllabus. Read the information to the right, above Templates & Tools for information about the Syllabus Evaluation Rubric. Your existing curriculum can fit well in this format. You already have a course schedule, reading assignments, student assignments, quizzes and exams. The interactive syllabus is a way to organize your course materials in a way that is readily accessible by students. Links to readings and assignments are included, providing students access to course materials, a preview of lecture materials, and access to assignments. In addition, you can incorporate supplemental readings and resources, which encourages students to broaden their understanding of the course content at their own pace, according to their own learning style. On the first day of class, orient your students to the interactive syllabus. Explain to students how the course material is organized, show them where reading assignments, class assignments and other course related materials are accessed. Identify which readings are required and which resources are optional. Revisit the interactive syllabus during the semester, to point out which lecture notes should be printed out prior to attending class, or to highlight key due dates. The interactive syllabus correlates to the SDSU Center for Teaching and Learning, Syllabus Evaluation Rubric. Using this format can help satisfy characteristics #4, 6, 12 and 15 on the Rubric. Click on the document below to view the Syllabus Evaluation Rubric. Remembering and Forgetting Link to Slide# Choosing Fonts x.X Link to Slide# Using Graphics Online Kennis.org Link to Slide# Background Colors Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Readings x.X x.X Module # Online Training for PowerPoint Organization and Store Microsoft Clip Art Online Navigation and Incorporation Town-hall Link to resource Questioning Slide Layout Techniques with Expository Presentations PowerPoint Techniques Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry Microsoft Clip Organizer Tutorial Working with Images Integrating Existing Text & Graphics Additional Resources Main Themes Lesson Name
    • PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Constructing the Syllabus You can create links to specific slides within another PowerPoint slide presentation by creating a hyperlink to that slide. The instructions are to the left, under “Instructions & Job Aids”.
      • To create a hyperlink to a slide within another PowerPoint presentation:
      • Highlight the text or object where you want to create the hyperlink.
      • Go to Slide Show > Action Settings
      • Select Hyperlink to:
      • Scroll down and highlight Other PowerPoint Presentation.
      • A Browse window will open. Navigate to the title of the Presentation you want to link to.
      • Another window will open, listing the slide you want to hyperlink to.
      • Highlight the specific slide in the PowerPoint presentation that you want to open, when you activate the link.
      • Save your presentation.
      • Open your slide in View Slide Show mode, and test your hyperlink.
      • When you exit the second PPT presentation, you will return to the last slide viewed from your slide show.
      MERLOT Video Database C-SPAN Videos Link to Slide# Developmental Sequences Link to readings Link to Slide# Dynamic Phenomenon Link to Slide# Conceptual Zooming Link to Slide# Animation Shapes Additional Resources Readings Main Themes Lesson Name Module # Link to readings Link to Slide# Animation in Text Content Builds & Progressive Revelation Link to readings Link to Slide# Before & After Frame-based Animation Annenberg Videos Link to Slide# Mediated Instruction Web-based Audio & Video News hour Videos Link to Slide# Educational Video
    • PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Constructing the Syllabus Link to readings Link to Slide# Experiment Based Lesson Experiments Using PPT for the Experiment Based Lesson PPT for Worked Examples Worked Examples PPT and POE POE Method Main Themes Link to Slide# More About POE Link to Slide# Sample Video Link Link to Slide# Antecedents & Predictions Link to readings Link to Slide# Demonstrations Link to Slide# Additional Resources Readings Lesson Name Module #
    • PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Constructing the Syllabus Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Link to Slide# Readings Learning Themes Sequential Outline Timing Using TPS TPS Technique Guidelines & Directions for Group Activity PPT for TPS Beyond TPS Forming Groups Grouping Timing & Management of Learning Activities Help Students Navigate Resources Student Goals Organizing Documents & Assignments Around Learning Issues & Goals Additional Resources Main Themes Lesson Name Module #
    • Constructing an Interactive Syllabus Remember that the key features of an interactive syllabus include: Course content organized by date Main themes for each lecture / lesson Links to readings and assignments Links to additional resources
      • Side Note – a slide could be inserted here
      • This interactive syllabus could be contained within the Blackboard environment in a zip folder with associated lessons for students to download and use.
      • Or this could be the format for a basic html, and the interactive syllabus could be housed as a web-site.
    • Additional Examples & Possibilities
      • Two Additional Organizers:
      • Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes
      • Connecting Course Content to Student Goals.
    • Additional Example # 1: Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes
      • A chronological syllabus, such as the interactive syllabus, is one way to organize course content.
      • Course content can also be organized around learning themes, or desired learning outcomes.
        • Establishing a relationship between two domains can lead to the discovery of new ways of thinking about one domain based on similarities to the other. (Newcombe in Halpern & Hakel, 2002).
    • Additional Example # 1: Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes
      • Key questions to ask yourself in order to organize course content around learning themes include:
        • What are the common learning themes in your course?
        • How can you group or organize the content from your course, to help students gain a better understanding of the material?
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Learning Themes
      • We’ll use this course, PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors, as an example of how to organize course content around learning themes.
      • We’ll follow these steps:
      • Outline the main themes and theories for each module.
      • Identify common themes and theories.
      • Reorganize course syllabus based on common learning themes.
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Learning Themes
      • To create the outline for the course PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors, the following information was listed for each module.
          • Module Name
          • Learning Objectives
          • Key topics in module
          • Theory or principle in module
      • Common themes were cross-linked across the outline.
      • The themes were narrowed down to three central ideas.
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Learning Themes PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors Course Learning Themes Improve Student Learning Improve Student Motivation Improve Student Engagement
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Learning Themes Course modules are organized according to learning theme. In this example there are three main themes that connect the lessons in the course. Each module name in the table below could hyperlink to existing course materials, similar to the interactive syllabus. On the first day of class, orient students to the organizational structure of your course. Identify each learning theme and explain how and why each theme is important. Show students which lessons connect to each learning theme, and outline the course sequence for them. By focusing student attention on key learning themes in your course, students will gain a deeper understanding of the material, and recognize how lessons in your course are interconnected. Organizing course content around learning themes can be incorporated into your course syllabus, which correlates to the SDSU Center for Teaching and Learning, Syllabus Evaluation Rubric. Using this format can help satisfy characteristics #5 and 6 on the Rubric. Click on the document below to view the Syllabus Evaluation Rubric. # X, Experiments # X, Demonstrations # X, Timing & Management of Learning Activities #X, Demonstrations # X, Antecedents & Predictions # X, Antecedents & Predictions # X, Web-based audio and video # X, Frame-based animation # X, Content Builds and Progressive Revelation # X, Integrating Existing Graphics # X, Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry # X, Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry # X, Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry #x, Techniques with Expository Presentations Improve Student Motivation # X, Timing & Management of Learning Activities # X, Guidelines and Directions for Group Activities Related Modules Improve Student Engagement Improve Student Learning Learning Theme
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Learning Themes Revisiting learning themes over the course of the semester is a form of spaced learning. Module # Module # Module # Module # Module # Module # Module # Module # Class Date Guidelines and Directions for Group Activities Experiments Demonstrations Antecedents & Predictions Frame-based animation Integrating Existing Graphics Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry Techniques with Expository Presentations Improve Student Learning Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Link to Slide # Related Modules Readings Learning Theme
    • Revisiting Learning Themes is a Form of Spaced Learning
      • The spacing effect - Long-term recall is enhanced by distributing rather than massing the presentations of to-be-remembered information - is one of the most robust and general effects in experimental psychology. (deWinstanley and Bjork in Halpern & Hakel, 2002)
      • Spaced repetition has the potential to enhance attention, produce variable encoding, and induce retrieval practice. (deWinstanley and Bjork in Halpern & Hakel, 2002)
    • Additional Example #2: Connecting Course Material to Student Goals
      • Organizing course content in chronological sequence (interactive syllabus) and around learning themes are two examples of organization.
      • You can also organize course content around student goals.
        • Strengthen the students' motivation to learn by building relationships between the content and objectives of the instruction and the learner's needs and desires. (Keller & Burkman, 1994)
    • Additional Example #2: Connecting Course Material to Student Goals
      • Key questions to ask yourself in order to organize course content around student goals include:
        • Why are students taking this course?
        • What kind of students are taking this course and what are their goals?
        • How does the course content connect to student goals?
    • Additional Example #2: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Goals
      • We’ll use this course, PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors, as an example of how to organize course content around student goals.
      • We’ll follow these steps:
      • Identify course-related goals.
      • Outline course content and organize according to course-related goals.
      • Reorganize course syllabus based on common student goals.
    • Additional Example #2: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Goals University Professors’ Course Related Goals Save Time Developing Course Materials Create PowerPoint Presentations That are Better Learning Tools Incorporate Student Interaction In Lecture Based Classes
    • Additional Example # 1: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Goals
      • To create the outline for the course PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors, the following information was listed for each module.
          • Module Name
          • Learning Objectives
          • Key topics in module
      • Identified content connected to student goals.
      • Organized modules according to student goals.
    • Additional Example #2: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Goals Organize Documents / Assignments Around Learning Themes & Goals Timing and Management of Learning Activities Experiments Helping Students Navigate Resources Worked Examples Guidelines and Directions for Group Activity Frame-based animation Web-based Audio and Video Antecedents & Precedents Content Builds and Progressive Revelation Strategies for Engagement and Inquiry Techniques with Expository Presentations Integrating Existing Text & Graphics Related Modules Incorporate Student Interaction In Lecture Based Classes Create PowerPoint Presentations That are Better Learning Tools Save Time Developing Course Materials Course-Related Goal
    • Additional Example #2: PowerPoint Pedagogy for Professors; Organizing Around Goals Link to Slide # Module # Helping Students Navigate Resources Link to Slide # Module # Web-based Audio and Video Link to Slide # Module # Integrating Existing Text & Graphics Related Modules Readings Class Date Save Time Developing Course Materials Course-Related Goal
    • Exploration & Practice Practice Building an Interactive Syllabus
    • First Aid Course: Interactive Syllabus Practice creationg an interactive syllabus for a first aid course that will be conducted at SDSU next semester. The resources and links you will need are on the workbench. Instructions are located to your left. Resources are on below and to the right.
      • Look at the First Aid lesson outline.
      • Create a table with: a header row and one row for each First Aid lesson; columns for Date, Lesson Name, Main Theme, Reading and Additional Resources.
      • Import the First Aid lesson names in to the table by dragging each name to the appropriate cell in the table.
      • Drag the appropriate themes, readings and additional resources to their location in the table.
      First Aid Course: Lesson Outline Week 1 1. How CPR Works a. Acronym defined b. ABC’s 2. Basic Life Support a. Dial 9-1-1 b. Exercise Common Sense Week 2 1. Adult CPR a. Airway b. Breathing c. Circulation 2. Compressions a. Chest Compressions b. Rescue Breaths Week 3 1. Child CPR a. Dial 9-1-1 b. ABC’s c. Compressions 2. Infant CPR a. Dial 9-1-1 b. ABC’s c. Compressions Resources: Online First Aid Course First Aid Fast, American Red Cross Babysitter’s Handbook, American Red Cross The American Red Cross First Aid and Safety Handbook Course information and Graphics Courtesy of: http:// www.firstaidweb.com/index.php
    • Tools & Templates Three templates: 1. Organizing an Interactive Syllabus 2. Organizing Course Content According to Learning Theme 3. Organizing Course Content According to Student Goals
    • Interactive Syllabus Template Additional Resources Readings Main Theme Class Title Class Date
    • Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes Overview Template Course Name Learning Theme #1 Learning Theme #2 Learning Theme #3 Learning Theme #4
    • Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes Course Template Related Lesson Theme #4 Theme #3 Theme #2 Theme #1 Learning Theme
    • Organizing Around Student Goals Overview Template Name of Course Student Goal #1 Student Goal #2 Student Goal #3
    • Organizing Around Student Goals Course Template Related Lesson Goal #3 Goal #2 Goal #1 Student Goal
    • Supporting Essay Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement
      • Goal of Education
      • According to Halpern and Hakel (2002) “it is increasingly clear that an educated populace is the backbone of any program of national defense, a key indicator of current and future economic health, and essential to the future of every country and our planet.” It is incumbent upon us as educators to create a learning atmosphere within our courses that enhances learning in order to build a nation of educated citizens. Although many of us follow teaching practices based on the way in which we were educated, there is a need for improvement to meet the demands of today’s learners.
        • “ We need to provide an education that lasts a lifetime, which means thinking beyond the end of the semester, and let the learning principles for long-term retention and flexible recall guide our teaching practices.” (Halpern & Hakel, 2002)
      • In order to accomplish this goal, we need to understand the way individuals learn, and tailor our teaching practices to best utilize this knowledge.
      Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • One technique that improves student engagement, understanding and motivation to learn, is to incorporate organizers in to our lesson design. In this paper, we’ll consider three forms of organization: using an interactive syllabus, organizing course material around learning issues and organizing course material around student goals.
      • Using an Interactive Syllabus
      • An interactive syllabus is an internet based document that includes lesson dates, lesson titles, main themes from each lesson, required readings and assignments, and supplemental optional resources. Students have anytime, anyplace access to this document when it is housed on a web-site or an html-based web-page. The interactive syllabus provides students access to all resources required to be successful in a course. Students also have resources to pursue course-related ideas in depth, at their own pace, through inclusion of optional supplemental resources. An interactive syllabus also serves as a roadmap for students, so they can see where they have been, where they are, and where they are going, with respect to knowledge in a specific course.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Why is this important? According to Keller and Burkman (1994) “People are more confident in their likelihood of reaching a goal if they know where they are going.” Confidence promotes student motivation to continue in a course.
      • In addition, Newcombe (2002) tells us that student learning is enhanced when you make the topic of the day’s lecture explicit to students, and provide them with an outline or knowledge map of the lecture content. I suggest that this extends to the over-all framework of a course. By making the themes explicit to the student, and providing them with an outline (syllabus) you will enhance student learning.
      • Organizing Course Content Around Learning Themes
      • The interactive syllabus is one way to organize course information. You can also organize course-related material around learning themes. By identifying common learning themes across your lessons, and sharing this structure with your students, you will promote a deeper understanding of the material. According to Newcombe (2002) “Establishing a relationship between two domains can lead to the discovery of new ways of thinking about one domain based on similarities to the other.” This organizing scheme can be incorporated in to your course syllabus, or it can be an independent document that is part of your course materials.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • In addition to helping students gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between course content, organizing your course according to common themes helps you identify how particular themes are spaced across your curriculum. Revisiting the same theme from different perspectives and across different lectures is a technique to improve learning of material. Spaced repetition helps to improve attention, promotes multiple opportunities to encode and recall information, which improves learning (deWinstanley and Bjork, 2002). According to deWinstanley and Bjork (2002)
        • Long-term recall is enhanced by distributing rather than massing the presentations of to-be-remembered information - is one of the most robust and general effects in experimental psychology.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Organizing Course Content Around Student Goals
      • A third way to organize course-related material, is to identify how your course content correlates to student goals. Students are motivated to learn material that relates to their personal goals. By recognizing who your student population is, considering why they are taking your course, and how they can benefit from the content in your course, you will align content with their goals. This process can help to, “Strengthen the students' motivation to learn by building relationships between the content and objectives of the instruction and the learner's needs and desires.” (Keller & Burkman, 1994) You can create an organizer to share this information with students as part of your syllabus, or as an independent document that is part of your course material.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Closing Thoughts
      • Organization is frequently over-looked during course design and development, but it is an important tool to incorporate in your teaching. The three ways of organizing course content (creating an interactive syllabus, organizing content according to learning theme, and organizing content around student goals) are one way to improve student learning in your course. Organization is supported by learning principles and is a means to improve student motivation, promote understanding and stimulate engagement.
      • References
      • deWinstanley, P.A. & Bjork, R.A. (2002). Successful Lecturing: Presenting Information in Ways That Engage Effective Processing. In Halpern, D.F. & Hakel, M.D. (eds.) (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • References (Cont.)
      • Halpern, D.F. & Hakel, M.D. (eds.) (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      • Keller, J. & Burkman, E. (1994). Motivation Principles. In M. Fleming & W.H. Levie, Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (2nd ed., pp. 3-50). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
      • Newcombe, N.S. (2002). Biology Is to Medicine as Psychology Is to Education: True or False? In Halpern, D.F. & Hakel, M.D. (eds.) (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Annotated Bibliography and Webliography
      • Bills, C.G. (1997). Effects of Structure and Interactivity on Internet-based Instruction. Paper presented at the Interservice / Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference (Orlando, FL, December 1-4, 1997.)
      • Bills reports results from an investigation examining advance organizers and interactivity on web-based learning. The study involved college age education students at Kent State University. The data supports using advance organizers to improve learning in an internet-based medium. Surprisingly, the data did not support using interactivity to improve learning in an internet-based medium. This study is relevant to the work at hand, since more professors are using internet-based materials to supplement coursework. The module I am designed focuses on using a web-based syllabus as an advance organizer, so it is important to understand the benefits of using an advance organizer in this context.
      • Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design.  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia,12 (1), 63-90 . Retrieved April 9, 2006 from http://www.ct4me.net/multimedia_design.htm .
      • This article is an excellent over-view of instructional theories and implications for Instructional Designers. It provides an insightful comparison of behaviorism and cognitivism relative to instructional strategies. The article is an encompassing literature review targeting instructional designers, but could offer a broad overview of educational theory for individuals not familiar with instructional design-related research. There is an excellent overview of the purpose and benefit of using advance organizers, which is relevant to the work at hand .
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Annotated Bibliography and Webliography
      • McManus, T. F. (2000). Individualizing Instruction in a Web-Based Hypermedia Learning Environment: Nonlinearity, Advance Organizers, and Self-Regulated Learners. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 11 (3), 219-251.
      • This article documents the results from an investigation on learning in a web-based hypermedia environment. The researcher examined the possible interactions between two co-variables and learner self-regulation. Co-variables in this study are defined as: non-linearity of instruction presentation and use of advance organizers to structure learning. The study included 159 learners, using a web-based tutorial to learn Operating Systems Basics. The results were non-conclusive, however, the discussion section is insightful. The data indicated that the more non-linear the material, the more learners benefited from using advance organizers. Most interesting of all, 66% of the learners indicated that the preferred having the advance organizers and thought they were helpful.
      • Mihram, D. (2006). Creating an Objective-based Syllabus. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from
      • http://www.usc.edu/programs/cet/private/pdfs/usc/syllabuscreatesep04.pdf .
      • This document is a PowerPoint presentation outlining a procedure for developing an objective-based syllabus. Good information about defining desired learning outcomes and encouraging active-learning. This is an overview, but could be a good resource for university professors.
    • Perspectives of Organizing Course Content: Relationship to Student Achievement Kacy Whittenburg
      • Annotated Bibliography and Webliography
      • Parkes, J. & Harris, M.B. (2002). The Purposes of a Syllabus. College Teaching, 50 (2), 55-61.
      • This paper is an overview of syllabi and literature review documenting the uses of a syllabus. The authors propose that a syllabus has three uses: the syllabus as a contract, a permanent record, and a learning tool. This paper is summative and informative and a good resource for defining what a syllabus is and how it can be used. The authors indicate the scope of content that should be included in each type of syllabus. The authors indicate that there is insufficient research about syllabi and improved learning. This article contains good information as an overview on syllabi.
      • Ragan, L.C. (1999). Good Teaching is Good Teaching: An Emerging Set of Guiding Principles and Practices for the Design and Development of Distance Education. Cause/Effect Journal, 22 (1). Retrieved April 11, 2006 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/html/cem/cem99/cem9915.html .
      • This paper outlines principles for designing distance education as a result of a three-year initiative involving Penn State, Lincoln and Cheyney Universities to develop an institutional culture to promote distance education practices. This paper outlines parameters for developing learning goals. It is an excellent frame-work.
      • Richards, S.L.F. (2003). The Interactive Syllabus: A Resource-Based, Constructivist Approach to Learning. The Technology Source, July/August. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/EDU01108.pdf .
      • This paper is a research-based best-practices procedure for creating an interactive syllabus. The author identifies the concept interactive-syllabus and indicates ways to implement this concept to promote active learning. The article is interesting, factual and an excellent resource for university professors.
    • Online Resources & Bibliography
    • Online Resources and References
      • Online Resources:
        • First Aid Course Content and Graphics
        • Creating an Objective-based Syllabus
        • The Interactive Syllabus
        • Inserting Linked and Embedded Objects
        • Linked and Embedded Objects
    • Online Resources and References
        • References:
        • Bednar, A. & Fleming, M. (1994). Concept-Learning Principles. In M. Fleming & W.H. Levie, Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (2nd ed. pp. 233-250). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
        • Clark, C.C. & Mayer, R.E. (2003). E-learning and the science of instruction. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
        • Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to
        • instructional multimedia design.  Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia,12 (1), 63-90 . Retrieved April 9, 2006 from http://www.ct4me.net/multimedia_design.htm .
        • Halpern, D.F. & Hakel, M.D. (eds.) (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. San Francisco, CA: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
        • Keller, J. & Burkman, E. (1994). Motivation Principles. In M. Fleming & W.H. Levie, Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences (2nd ed., pp. 3-50). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
        • Parkes, J. & Harris, M.B. (2002). The Purposes of a Syllabus. College Teaching, 50 (2), 55-61.