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Positive Support Approach To Behavior Management In The Classroom

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includes citations and relevant, additional readings

includes citations and relevant, additional readings


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  • Furguson (2003) - Harvard
  • (Noguera, 2003) - Harvard
  • Noguera (2003, p. 449) - Harvard
  • Ferguson (2003) – Harvard; (Nakkula & Ravitch, 1998) – Harvard, now both at Penn
  • Transcript

    • 1. Positive support approach to behavior management in the classroom How does this get managed? kyle a brophy, MS Ed
    • 2. A not so silly point about credentials
      • MS in education, in Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Development
        • University of Pennsylvania
          • Graduate School of Education
      • BS in Human Development & Family Studies
        • Penn State
      • Juvenile detention facility (108-bed)
        • Facility supervisor
        • Staff trainer, certified
          • Behavior management
          • Crisis management
        • Quality control
      • TSS in Philly classrooms
      • Elementary school ISS
      • Residential counselor in special education school
    • 3. Perception of support
      • How do the students perceive you?
      • Why are the students perceiving you this way?
    • 4. Student-teacher interactions
      • Survey by Casteel (1997) [as cited in Furguson (2003)]
        • 70% of African American students sought to please teacher with schoolwork
        • 30% of Euro American students sought to please the teacher, most sought to please the parent
        • Teacher mediates the relationship (as the adult or authority)
          • Predicated on the teacher’s preconceived notions and expectations
            • Indirect influence on student achievement
            • Greater impact on African American students
    • 5. Student-teacher interactions
      • If teacher had equally negative expectation for African American and Euro American …
        • Then worse outcome for African American
      • If teacher had negative expectation for African American, but neutral or positive expectation for Euro American …
        • Then even worse outcome for African American
    • 6. Northern California Study (Noguera, 2003)
      • “ My Teachers Support Me and Care About My Success in Their Class” (In Percentages)
      • (N = 537)
      Black Asian White Male Female Male Female Male Female Strongly agree 8 12 24 36 33 44 Agree 12 16 42 33 21 27 Disagree 38 45 6 15 18 11 Strongly disagree 42 27 8 16 28 18 Total agree 24% 67.5% 62.5%
    • 7. MetLife Annual Survey on Teaching (Metlife, 2000, p. 184)*
      • N = 3,961
      • 39% minimally or don’t trust the teacher, but …
        • 47% of minority students don’t trust the teacher
        • 53% of poor students don’t trust the teacher
      • *[as cited by Noguera (2003, p. 449)]
    • 8. Interesting addendum
      • Limited research in how teachers interact with African American versus Euro American students (mostly in 70’s & 80’s)
    • 9. From a hermeneutics framework *
      • What is your perception of your students?
        • Where did this come from?
          • Realistic or stereotype
        • Why does it persist?
      • Question:
        • How would this affect our interactions with our students?
          • Prior to self-reflection?
          • After self-reflection?
        • [see also Ferguson (2003) for info on detrimental results of teachers’ perceptions and expectations]
      • * (Nakkula & Ravitch, 1998)
    • 10. Make me pick up a pencil
      • Who can we effectively change?
      • What can we effectively change?
      • How do we change it?
        • Knowledge / information
        • Skills development
        • Values – understanding what we stand to gain
    • 11. Maladaptive behaviors
      • Question:
        • What are some examples of what we see in the classroom?
    • 12. Maladaptive behavior as Response to “ecological stimuli” multiple levels of interaction:
        • Student-teacher
          • Immediate
          • Perception
        • Student-curriculum
          • Current difficulty
          • History of deficit
        • Student-social status
          • Expectation of classroom peer response
        • Student-school environment
          • Historical context
        • Student-administration
        • Student –expected result of the education experience
          • The meaning of the end result?
        • Student-family’s belief about education
          • Historical context
        • Student-friends’ belief about education
          • Perpetual support of the idea
        • Student-society’s belief and expectation
    • 13. Maladaptive behaviors
      • Look at them as a form of communication
      • Question:
        • How do you think we can we address them?
    • 14. Positive behavior support
      • Do not reinforce negative behavior
        • Do not comment
        • Do not say “I’m not going to comment on that.”
        • Do not respond with non-verbal, postural, facial expression, etc. changes
          • Including “microexpressions”
        • Ensure environment remains safe
      • “ It’s going to get worse before it get’s better.”
    • 15. Positive behavior support
      • Presume intellect
      • Presume interest in self-improvement
        • They have their own personal barriers to confront
      • Childhood and adolescence are epochs in the life course development
        • Constructing self-regulation of behavior
          • Temperament & Intellect
          • Ecological influences
        • Constructing an increasing framework for independence
      • Mistakes are a necessary part of learning
        • See them as opportunities to support them, not to push them away
    • 16. Learning deficient (ld)
      • Ineffectively called “learning disabled”
      • Medical (psychiatric)
      • Psychometric (IQ, dyslexia, etc.)
      • Temperament
        • Individual differences in genetically and epigenetically based predispositions
          • Response / Reactivity
          • Engagement / Regulation
    • 17. Temperament: Four Major Approaches & Their Dimensions * * (Teglasi et al., 2004, p.10)
    • 18. Temperament effect on LD
      • Effortful regulation, temperament & executive functions
        • Limited human capacity for effortful self-regulation
        • Basic temperament processes require effort, e.g.,
          • Moderating intense emotions, increased distractibility, modulating level of activity, attention span, task persistence
        • Reduction of capacity for executive functions (cognitive competencies) and social and intra-personal competencies
        • Flatter learning development trajectory
    • 19. Temperament and ld
      • Helping the student build appropriate skills to overcome temperament deficits
      • Effort attributions training (in self-talk)
        • “ I’m going to try this, even if it’s hard.”
        • “ There must be a way.”
        • “ I’ll take it one part at a time.”
    • 20. What have we learned?
      • We can control ourselves and the environment, but not any other person in the environment
      • We need to understand how we think about the students
      • Maladaptive behavior are reactive forms of communication, not attacks
      • Students seek self-improvement in the world that they see, not the world we see
      • We help through positive support
    • 21. Questions
      • ???
    • 22. References:
      • Casteel, C. (1997). Attitudes of African American and Caucasian Eighth Grade Students About Praises, Rewards, and Punishments. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 31 (April), 262-272.
      • Ferguson, R.F. (2003). Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Urban Education, 38 (4), 460-507.
      • Metlife (2000). The Metlife Survey of the American Teacher, 2000: Are We Preparing Students for the 21 st Century? New York: Author.
      • Nakkula, M.J. & Ravitch, S.M. (1998). Matters of Interpretation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
      • Noguera, P. (2003). The Trouble with Black Boys: The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African American Males. Urban Education, 38 (4), 431-459.
      • Teglasi, H., Cohn, A. & Meshbesher, N. (2004). Temperament and Learning Disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27 (1), 9-20.
    • 23. Interesting, additional readings:
      • Goddard, R.D. & Goddard, Y.L. (2001). A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Teacher and Collective Efficacy in Urban Schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17 , 807-818.
      • *Greenwalt, K.A. (2008). Through the Camera’s Eye: A Phenomenological Analysis of Teacher Subjectivity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 387-399.
      • *Knoblauch, D. & Hoy, A.W. (2008). “Maybe I Can Teach Those Kids.” The Influence of Contextual Factors on Student Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 166-179.
      • Mazzei, L.A. (2008). Silence Speaks: Whiteness Revealed in the Absence of Voice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1125-1136.
      • Milner, H.R., IV (2008). Disrupting Deficit Notions of Difference: Counter-narratives of Teachers and Community in Urban Education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1573-1598.
      • Moore, G.T. & Lackney, J.A. (1993). School Design: Crisis, Educational Performance and Design Applications. Children’s Environments 10 (2), 1-22.
      • * Indicates student teaching as the subject
    • 24. (more) Interesting, additional readings:
      • Orr, M.T., Byrne-Jimenez, M., McFarlane, P. & Brown, B. (2005). Leading Out from Low-Performing Schools: The Urban Principal Experience. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4 (1), 23-54.
      • Schneider, M. (2002, November). Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved November 2008 from www.edfacilities.org.
      • Smith, E. (2008). Raising Standards in American Schools? Problems with Improving Teacher Quality. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 610-622.
      • Talbert-Johnson, C. (2004). Structural Inequalities and the Achievement Gap in Urban Schools. Education and Urban Society, 37 (1), 22-36.
      • Uhlenberg, J. & Brown, K.M. (2002). Racial Gap in Teachers’ Perceptions of the Achievement Gap. Education and Urban Society, 34 (4), 493-530.
      • Zyngier, D. (2008). (Re)conceptualising Student Engagement: Doing Education Not Doing Time. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1765-1776.