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Maximization of algae lipid yield Scenedesmus dimorphus for the production of biodiesel Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Polythecnic University of Puerto Rico
    Chemical Engineering Department
    Course – CHE- 5916
    Capstone Project Presentation
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    Group:
    Sara Currás Medina
    Gustavo Mendez Santos
    Carlos A. Ramos Encarnación
    Germano Salazar Benites
    Advisor:
    Dr. Alessandro Anzalone
    Date:
    July 24, 2009
  • 2. Acknowledgment
    Prof. Sylvia M. VélezVillamil
    Biology Department
    University of Puerto Rico at Humacao
    Prof. Edgardo González, Ph.D.
    Bureau of Forest Services, Director
    Department of Natural and Environmental Resources
    Alessandro Anzalone, Ph.D. – Advisor
    Chemical Engineering Department, Director
  • 3. Agenda
  • 4. Problem Statement
  • 5. Introduction
  • 6. Introduction: Algae Fuel
    Introduction
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 7. ResearchDescription
  • 8. ResearchObjectives
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 9. Research Contributions
    Determine if the use of CO2 during algae cultivation is beneficial to its growth and lipid content.
    Maximize the lipid content varying the urea concentration and nutrient depravation time.
    Detailed documentation of the process.
  • 10. Literature Review
  • 11. Biodiesel fromAlgae
    Production of Oil from differentcrops
    Advantages:
    • The yields of oil and fuels are much higher than competing energy crops.
    • 12. Grows practically anywhere, ensuring no competition with food crops.
    • 13. Excellent bioremediation agents - they have the potential to absorb massive amounts of CO2 and can play an important role in sewage and wastewater treatment.
    • 14. Only feedstock that has the potential to completely replace world's consumption of transportation fuels.
  • Microalgae vs. Macroalgae
    Microalgae
    Macroalgae
    • Unicellular
    • 15. Microscopic (µm)
    • 16. Saline or fresh water
    • 17. Grow extremely quickly
    • 18. Large amounts of lipids within their cell structure
    • 19. Multicellular
    • 20. Macroscopic (up to 60 m)
    • 21. Saline or fresh water
    • 22. Grow extremely quickly
    • 23. Food, medicine, fertilizer
  • Properties of Green Microalgae
  • 24. Microalgae Strain
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 25. Scenedesmusdimorphus
  • 26. Production of Lipids from Microalgae
    Light (Photons)
    CO2
    O2
    Microalgae
    (Photosynthetic CO2 fixation)
    Nutrients
    (N, P, Si)
    Biomass (carbon)
    Lipid storage
    Carbohydrate storage
  • 27. Cultivation
  • 28. Cell growth
  • 29. Temperature
  • 30.
  • 31. CO2
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 32. Nutrients
    • After Carbon, Nitrogen is the most important nutrient.
    • 33. Contributes to the biomass production.
    • 34. Influence on algae lipid yield
    • 35. Response to nitrogen limitations, mechanism of survival, increase lipid content.
    • 36. Stops its divisions and start to store energy in the form of lipids.
  • Nitrogen; Urea
    • Urea
    • 37. Each strain prefers different source.
    • 38. Kansas State University
    • 39. Best source for Scenedesmusdimorphusgrowth.
    • 40. Replacing nitrogen source KNO3
  • Harvesting
  • 41. Flocculation
  • 42. Flocculation
  • 43. Extraction
  • 44. Lipid Extraction
    Concentrated Algae
    Cell Disruption
    Mechanical
    Chemical
    Press
    Solvents
    Filtering
    Distillation
    Algae Oil
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 45. Lipid Extraction - Solvents
  • 46. Transesterification
  • 47. Transesterification
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 48. Transesterification Reaction
  • 49.
  • 50. Proposed Experiment
    Co2 vs. non Co2
    Algae Culture
    Daily
    Cell Count
    N Measure
    After 17 days
    Biomass Wt.
    Lipid Wt.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 51. Cell Count
  • 52. Nitrogen Measure
  • 53. Biomass and Lipid Weight
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 54. Proposed Experiment
    Optimal Lipid Yield
    Algae Culture
    1.2, 1.8, 2.4 g/L Urea
    Daily
    Cell Count
    N Measure
    After N Consumption
    Biomass Wt.
    Lipid Wt.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 55. Cell Count
  • 56. Nitrogen Measure
  • 57. Biomass and Lipid Weight
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 58. Proposed Experiment
    Biodiesel Production
    Algae Culture
    Daily
    Cell Count
    After a fixed period
    Process the oil
    Obtain Biodiesel
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 59. Biomass and Lipid Weight
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 60.
  • 61. Stock Culture
    Prepare the Stock Culture (SC) in a beaker of 1000mL.
    1.
    algae
    1000mL
    SC
  • 62. Stock Culture
    Leave the algae to grow and reproduce for about 7 days before using it.
    12:12
    2.
    Agitation
    SC
    90°F
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 63. Growth Media
    Prepare the Growth Media(GM) in an Erlenmeyer of 1000mL.
    1.
    GM
  • 64. Cultivation
    • To prepare one culture for any experiment.
    1000mL
    SC
    GM
    227mL GM
    23mL SC
    250mL
    Culture
  • 65. CO2 vs. Without CO2
    • For this experiment we want to determine if the use of carbon dioxide during algae cultivation is beneficial to its growth and lipid content.
    90°F
    12:12
    250mL
    250mL
    Culture
    Culture
    x3
    x3
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 66. Measuring Algae Growth
    • Measure the growing rate using a hemacytometer every day.
    100X
    magnification
    250mL
    Culture
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 67. Measuring Nitrogen Concentration
    Spectrophotometer
    250mL
    Culture
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 68. Lipid Yield
    • After certain days of algae culturing, extract 100 mL
    from the culture and transfer it to a 250 mL beaker.
    • Using aluminum sulfate flocculate the sample.
    • 69. With a 1.5µm filter , separate the sample using a
    vacuum Erlenmeyer of 1000 ml.
    • Measure and record the weight of a 500 mL bottle
    with cap.
    • Deposit the biomass contained in the filter in to the
    weighted bottle and measure again.
  • 70. Lipid Yield
    • For every gram of algae biomass add 18 ml of
    Hexane/Isopropyl (3:2) (solvent) and agitate manually until
    the biomass is dissolved.
    • Measure the weight of a vacuum Erlenmeyer of 1000 mL.
    • 71. With a 1.5µm filter, separatethe sample using the previously
    weighed Erlenmeyer.
    • Put the Erlenmeyer with the filtrated solution in the hood.
    • 72. Using a heat plate, apply heat to the solution (95˚C) to
    evaporate the solvent solution.
    • With the solution dry, measure the weight and evaluate the
    results.
  • 73. Dry Weight Biomass
    • After 17 days put a filter paper in an oven at 75˚C for
    5 hours.
    • Measure the weight of the paper.
    • 74. Take 30 mL from the culture and filtrate in a vacuum
    Erlenmeyer of 1000mL.
    • After filtrating the sample put the filter paper in the
    oven at 75˚C for 5 hours.
    • Leave the sample overnight in the desecator.
    • 75. Measure the weight of the sample.
    • 76. Compare the weight of the dry lipids vs. the dry
    biomass.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 77. Optimization of Lipid Yield
    • Prepare 15 cultures in 15 beakers of 250 mL with three different concentrations (1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 g/L Urea)
    1.2 g/L Urea
    1.8 g/L Urea
    2.4 g/L Urea
    • Measure the growing rate
    and the nitrogen
    consumption every day.
  • 78. Biodiesel
    Measure the growing rate every day.
    1.
    Measure the nitrogen consumption every day.
    2.
    90°F
    When the culture is prepared to be processes, flocculate the sample
    3.
    12:12
    With a 1.5µm filter , filtrate the sample using a vacuum.
    4.
    For every gram of biomass add 18 ml of a mixture of Hexane/Isopropyl (3:2)
    5.
    After agitation, filtrate the sample again.
    6.
    Separate by distillation the solvent from the oil.
    7.
    CO2 or Air
  • 79. Transesterification
    1. Add the extracted oil to a 1 liter flask.
    2. In another flask mix KOH with ethanol
    3. Heat the ethanol to dissolve KOH if needed.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 80. Transesterification
    4. Mix KOH and ethanol blend into algae oil
    and agitate vigorously.
    5. After 120 minutes of reaction time, allow time
    for separation. The mixture will separate into
    two layers biodiesel on top, glycerin on bottom.
    Biodiesel
    Glycerin
    6. Separate the biodiesel on another flask.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 81. Transesterification
    8. Allow 24-48 hours for water to settle,
    biodiesel will float to the top and become
    clearer.
    7. Place the biodiesel in a glass column
    and spray water into the top..
    Biodiesel
    Water
    9. Separate the biodiesel from water.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 82. References
    “Oil Crisis”. Health and Energy. 13 July 2009 <http://healthandenergy.com/oil_crisis.htm>.
    Sheehan, John, Terri Dunahay, John Benemann, and Paul Roessler. A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program—Biodiesel from Algae. Colorado: NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory, 1998.
    “Scenedesmus Dimorphus-Algae Culture”. Algae Depot. 2009. 12 June 2009 <http://www.algaedepot.com/servlet/the-1/Scenedesmus-dimorphus--dsh--Algae/Detail>.
    “Kunikane. S, M. Kakeko, and R. Maehara. Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Green Alga, Scenedesmus Dimorphous, Under a Wide Range of Nitrogen/Phosphorous Ratio-I. Setsunan, Japan: University of Setsunan, 1984.
    Shen, Ying, Zhijian Pei, Wenqiao Yuan, and Enrong Mao. Effect of Nitrogen and Extraction Method on Algae Lipid Yield. Kansas State: University of Kansas State, 2009.
    Tzann, Stelios T. “Non Mechanical Methods”. Tutorial on Cell Disruption. 3 June 1996. 7 July 2009 <http://128.113.2.9/dept/chem-eng/Biotech Environ/DOWNSTREAM/disrupt.htm>.
    Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
  • 83. Thanks for
    listening!