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Maximization of algae lipid yield Scenedesmus dimorphus for the production of biodiesel
 

Maximization of algae lipid yield Scenedesmus dimorphus for the production of biodiesel

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    Maximization of algae lipid yield Scenedesmus dimorphus for the production of biodiesel Maximization of algae lipid yield Scenedesmus dimorphus for the production of biodiesel Presentation Transcript

    • Polythecnic University of Puerto Rico
      Chemical Engineering Department
      Course – CHE- 5916
      Capstone Project Presentation
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
      Group:
      Sara Currás Medina
      Gustavo Mendez Santos
      Carlos A. Ramos Encarnación
      Germano Salazar Benites
      Advisor:
      Dr. Alessandro Anzalone
      Date:
      July 24, 2009
    • Acknowledgment
      Prof. Sylvia M. VélezVillamil
      Biology Department
      University of Puerto Rico at Humacao
      Prof. Edgardo González, Ph.D.
      Bureau of Forest Services, Director
      Department of Natural and Environmental Resources
      Alessandro Anzalone, Ph.D. – Advisor
      Chemical Engineering Department, Director
    • Agenda
    • Problem Statement
    • Introduction
    • Introduction: Algae Fuel
      Introduction
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • ResearchDescription
    • ResearchObjectives
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Research Contributions
      Determine if the use of CO2 during algae cultivation is beneficial to its growth and lipid content.
      Maximize the lipid content varying the urea concentration and nutrient depravation time.
      Detailed documentation of the process.
    • Literature Review
    • Biodiesel fromAlgae
      Production of Oil from differentcrops
      Advantages:
      • The yields of oil and fuels are much higher than competing energy crops.
      • Grows practically anywhere, ensuring no competition with food crops.
      • Excellent bioremediation agents - they have the potential to absorb massive amounts of CO2 and can play an important role in sewage and wastewater treatment.
      • Only feedstock that has the potential to completely replace world's consumption of transportation fuels.
    • Microalgae vs. Macroalgae
      Microalgae
      Macroalgae
      • Unicellular
      • Microscopic (µm)
      • Saline or fresh water
      • Grow extremely quickly
      • Large amounts of lipids within their cell structure
      • Multicellular
      • Macroscopic (up to 60 m)
      • Saline or fresh water
      • Grow extremely quickly
      • Food, medicine, fertilizer
    • Properties of Green Microalgae
    • Microalgae Strain
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Scenedesmusdimorphus
    • Production of Lipids from Microalgae
      Light (Photons)
      CO2
      O2
      Microalgae
      (Photosynthetic CO2 fixation)
      Nutrients
      (N, P, Si)
      Biomass (carbon)
      Lipid storage
      Carbohydrate storage
    • Cultivation
    • Cell growth
    • Temperature
    • CO2
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Nutrients
      • After Carbon, Nitrogen is the most important nutrient.
      • Contributes to the biomass production.
      • Influence on algae lipid yield
      • Response to nitrogen limitations, mechanism of survival, increase lipid content.
      • Stops its divisions and start to store energy in the form of lipids.
    • Nitrogen; Urea
      • Urea
      • Each strain prefers different source.
      • Kansas State University
      • Best source for Scenedesmusdimorphusgrowth.
      • Replacing nitrogen source KNO3
    • Harvesting
    • Flocculation
    • Flocculation
    • Extraction
    • Lipid Extraction
      Concentrated Algae
      Cell Disruption
      Mechanical
      Chemical
      Press
      Solvents
      Filtering
      Distillation
      Algae Oil
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Lipid Extraction - Solvents
    • Transesterification
    • Transesterification
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Transesterification Reaction
    • Proposed Experiment
      Co2 vs. non Co2
      Algae Culture
      Daily
      Cell Count
      N Measure
      After 17 days
      Biomass Wt.
      Lipid Wt.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Cell Count
    • Nitrogen Measure
    • Biomass and Lipid Weight
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Proposed Experiment
      Optimal Lipid Yield
      Algae Culture
      1.2, 1.8, 2.4 g/L Urea
      Daily
      Cell Count
      N Measure
      After N Consumption
      Biomass Wt.
      Lipid Wt.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Cell Count
    • Nitrogen Measure
    • Biomass and Lipid Weight
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Proposed Experiment
      Biodiesel Production
      Algae Culture
      Daily
      Cell Count
      After a fixed period
      Process the oil
      Obtain Biodiesel
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Biomass and Lipid Weight
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Stock Culture
      Prepare the Stock Culture (SC) in a beaker of 1000mL.
      1.
      algae
      1000mL
      SC
    • Stock Culture
      Leave the algae to grow and reproduce for about 7 days before using it.
      12:12
      2.
      Agitation
      SC
      90°F
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Growth Media
      Prepare the Growth Media(GM) in an Erlenmeyer of 1000mL.
      1.
      GM
    • Cultivation
      • To prepare one culture for any experiment.
      1000mL
      SC
      GM
      227mL GM
      23mL SC
      250mL
      Culture
    • CO2 vs. Without CO2
      • For this experiment we want to determine if the use of carbon dioxide during algae cultivation is beneficial to its growth and lipid content.
      90°F
      12:12
      250mL
      250mL
      Culture
      Culture
      x3
      x3
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Measuring Algae Growth
      • Measure the growing rate using a hemacytometer every day.
      100X
      magnification
      250mL
      Culture
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Measuring Nitrogen Concentration
      Spectrophotometer
      250mL
      Culture
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Lipid Yield
      • After certain days of algae culturing, extract 100 mL
      from the culture and transfer it to a 250 mL beaker.
      • Using aluminum sulfate flocculate the sample.
      • With a 1.5µm filter , separate the sample using a
      vacuum Erlenmeyer of 1000 ml.
      • Measure and record the weight of a 500 mL bottle
      with cap.
      • Deposit the biomass contained in the filter in to the
      weighted bottle and measure again.
    • Lipid Yield
      • For every gram of algae biomass add 18 ml of
      Hexane/Isopropyl (3:2) (solvent) and agitate manually until
      the biomass is dissolved.
      • Measure the weight of a vacuum Erlenmeyer of 1000 mL.
      • With a 1.5µm filter, separatethe sample using the previously
      weighed Erlenmeyer.
      • Put the Erlenmeyer with the filtrated solution in the hood.
      • Using a heat plate, apply heat to the solution (95˚C) to
      evaporate the solvent solution.
      • With the solution dry, measure the weight and evaluate the
      results.
    • Dry Weight Biomass
      • After 17 days put a filter paper in an oven at 75˚C for
      5 hours.
      • Measure the weight of the paper.
      • Take 30 mL from the culture and filtrate in a vacuum
      Erlenmeyer of 1000mL.
      • After filtrating the sample put the filter paper in the
      oven at 75˚C for 5 hours.
      • Leave the sample overnight in the desecator.
      • Measure the weight of the sample.
      • Compare the weight of the dry lipids vs. the dry
      biomass.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Optimization of Lipid Yield
      • Prepare 15 cultures in 15 beakers of 250 mL with three different concentrations (1.2, 1.8 and 2.4 g/L Urea)
      1.2 g/L Urea
      1.8 g/L Urea
      2.4 g/L Urea
      • Measure the growing rate
      and the nitrogen
      consumption every day.
    • Biodiesel
      Measure the growing rate every day.
      1.
      Measure the nitrogen consumption every day.
      2.
      90°F
      When the culture is prepared to be processes, flocculate the sample
      3.
      12:12
      With a 1.5µm filter , filtrate the sample using a vacuum.
      4.
      For every gram of biomass add 18 ml of a mixture of Hexane/Isopropyl (3:2)
      5.
      After agitation, filtrate the sample again.
      6.
      Separate by distillation the solvent from the oil.
      7.
      CO2 or Air
    • Transesterification
      1. Add the extracted oil to a 1 liter flask.
      2. In another flask mix KOH with ethanol
      3. Heat the ethanol to dissolve KOH if needed.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Transesterification
      4. Mix KOH and ethanol blend into algae oil
      and agitate vigorously.
      5. After 120 minutes of reaction time, allow time
      for separation. The mixture will separate into
      two layers biodiesel on top, glycerin on bottom.
      Biodiesel
      Glycerin
      6. Separate the biodiesel on another flask.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Transesterification
      8. Allow 24-48 hours for water to settle,
      biodiesel will float to the top and become
      clearer.
      7. Place the biodiesel in a glass column
      and spray water into the top..
      Biodiesel
      Water
      9. Separate the biodiesel from water.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • References
      “Oil Crisis”. Health and Energy. 13 July 2009 <http://healthandenergy.com/oil_crisis.htm>.
      Sheehan, John, Terri Dunahay, John Benemann, and Paul Roessler. A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program—Biodiesel from Algae. Colorado: NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory, 1998.
      “Scenedesmus Dimorphus-Algae Culture”. Algae Depot. 2009. 12 June 2009 <http://www.algaedepot.com/servlet/the-1/Scenedesmus-dimorphus--dsh--Algae/Detail>.
      “Kunikane. S, M. Kakeko, and R. Maehara. Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Green Alga, Scenedesmus Dimorphous, Under a Wide Range of Nitrogen/Phosphorous Ratio-I. Setsunan, Japan: University of Setsunan, 1984.
      Shen, Ying, Zhijian Pei, Wenqiao Yuan, and Enrong Mao. Effect of Nitrogen and Extraction Method on Algae Lipid Yield. Kansas State: University of Kansas State, 2009.
      Tzann, Stelios T. “Non Mechanical Methods”. Tutorial on Cell Disruption. 3 June 1996. 7 July 2009 <http://128.113.2.9/dept/chem-eng/Biotech Environ/DOWNSTREAM/disrupt.htm>.
      Maximization of ScenedesmusDimorphusLipid Yield for the Production of Biodiesel
    • Thanks for
      listening!