Work Study & Value AnalysisPresentation Transcript
Quality ManagementWork Study and Value Analysis
Work Study (Time and Motion Study)• Why should work be studied?
Method Study• Selection of Jobs• Recording of facts• Critical Examination• Development and selection• Installation• Maintenance
Which Jobs to be examined and selected Inventory Defects up High Holding maintenance ces resour Complex High cost Specification sHigh stressLowproductivity
Thoughts “Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new.” --Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Discovery consists in seeing what everyone else has seenand thinking what no one else has thought.”--Albert Szent-Gyorgi, 1937 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
Customer Value Proposition • Has to be from a perspective of “how the customer would view it” • Customer should be able to “touch and feel” the value generated • Has to be independent of current processes • Does not have to be feasible or achievable at the outset
Value Examples– Value in case of Toyota is every car delivered– Value in case of Bank is every Customer serviced– Value in case of Logistics group is each Customer supplied material made available to the project teams– Value in case of recruitment group is each human resource made available to the project teams– Value for a software maintenance project is every bug fixed– Value for an application development project is the functionality delivered.
What is the Value Stream?SUPPLIERS YOUR PLANT OR BUSINESS CUSTOMER TO END USER TOTAL VALUE STREAMSee the Whole Process from Start to Finish
Go See Yourself
An example Value Stream
Guidelines for Mapping Start at the customer and work backwards Walk the actual flows Don’t Map the Organization but the flow through it Don’t be too detailed this is an overview Use pencil not power point…quick and crude
How to Create a Value Stream Map ?• Identify a representative customer…gather data about typical order quantities, delivery frequencies, product or service variations…..this will help calculate the takt time• Map the value stream….start with customer requirements• Add production flow, material flow, information flow and other icons to the value stream map• Create a lead time chart at the bottom of your value stream map showing the VA and NVA lead times• Review the map with all who work in the value stream to ensure you have not missed any activity
Sample Nomenclatures/IconsICON / SYMBOL REPRESENTS • Data capturing as part of Value stream mapping PROCESS STEP Value creating • Cycle time (C/T) step – Time taken by the engineer to go through all of their work elements to complete the process step before repeating the same Outside sources: Customers, • Value-Added Time (VCT) Outside suppliers, other Sources – Time of those work elements that actually departments transform the product in a way that the Estimated size = customer is willing to pay for 100 LOC Data related • Total time or Lead time (TT) to the process – The time it takes one piece to move all the way through the processes or a value stream, from start to finish. Inventory I • Changeover time (C/O) – Time taken for changing over from one set-up 2 BUGS/DAY to another set-up Value flow • Process cycle efficiency (PCE): Process Manual information Entitlement flow – Percentage of Total value added time to Electronic information Total time flow D Delay
Sample Nomenclatures/Icons – Material Flow Push Movement of material Pull Movement of material Automated Movement of material I Inventory 300 pieces 1 day FIFO FIFO( First In, First Out)
Sample Nomenclatures/Icons – Information Flow Manual Information Flow Electronic Information Flow Weekly Schedule Information Type 20 Production Kanban Signal Kanban
Sample Nomenclatures/Icons – Manufacturing Error Proofing D Q C Quick Change Over Constraining Operation Visual Management -V= 3 shifts 5% scrap Cycle time Data Box capacity
Some useful Tips !• Do not work from Memory…observe in ACTION• No judgments and decisions…record exactly what you see• Use Post it Notes as they can easily be rearranged• During data collection, identify if information is communicated in real time or in batches. If it is in batches, show the batch size and frequency
Eight categories of waste Waste categories Possible SourcesOverproduction Ineffective planning, work allocation and schedulingTransportation Lack of reliable processesMotion Ineffective planning, work allocation and scheduling Inconsistent work methods Lack of workplace organizationInventory Ineffective planning, sequencing & schedulingWaiting Long setup time (for analysis and testing) Lack of workplace organizationOver-processing Ineffective planningDefects Lack of trainingUnused employee Ineffective staffing processesintellect Ineffective induction processes Wipro Confidential 21
LEAN - MAPPED TO WASTE ELIMINATION WASTE TYPE WBPO MAPPING SOURCES SOLUTIONThe Waste of Defects – Any Errors in Calls Skill Level , Hiring Quality Standardization , Automation,work that contains errors made/ processing Training, Adequacy in Mistake Proofing. Knowledgeleading to Rework & Scrap done Defined Processes Management , Aids to define what is goodThe Waste of Inventory – Calls not closed in Ineffective Scheduling , Standardize Work LocationsMore Information than what the first attempt, Planning ,Sequencing. and the amount of Datais needed for the process, Transactions in /Information to be Stored. Storing Un needed DataPartially done job personal Queues /Files , Extra Supplies Produce only what the partially completed downstream Customer needsThe Waste of Over Giving more Just in case thinking Create Visual Controls , CreateProduction – Producing too information that ,Expanding the Work Scope, Work Place Standards.much information or needed in Work allocation , In effectiveProducing earlier than calls/Filling in Planning.needed, Too much Details. information not used in forms
LEAN - MAPPED TO WASTE ELIMINATION WASTE TYPE WBPO MAPPING SOURCES SOLUTIONThe Waste of Motion / Searching of Call flow Lack of Proper Work Place 5S for Work Place OrganizationTransportation–Transportation diagrams ,other Organization , Lack of and Easy access of Information,Searching for Information information for access/ Optimization of Floor Layout , Centralized Storagethat is regularly used. Need to move from Temporary storage and FilingMoving information and seat to get access tomaterials from place to forms for data entryplace etc Absenteism,Queuing of Work/ Work Load Balancing, WorkThe Waste of Waiting – Waiting for answer from Place Organization, In creasedWaiting for people, agent , Being in the call Information Availability Factor of CustomerResponse ,Data queue for getting Lack of Work Place Agents, Reduction of AHT,,Information information (hold) Organization ,TAT or Cycle Improved Utilization time is highThe Waste of Over Wasteful steps in call Ineffective Planning, Value Added Reviews , ValueProcessing – Providing flow which do not add Sequencing, Over added Process Steps Sign Offsmore than what the value. Checking .Customer wants.
How to identify value/waste? Who else could perform the same Who? function?Activity 1 What? When else could When? (Function) the function be achieved? Why? What other Are there other Any other reasons functions does the ways to achieve why the function is activity achieve? the same function? required? How? Who? Activity 2 What? (Function) When? Why?
5 Whys• An RCA technique – simple yet powerful Example - Logistics Project in WT• Ask why five times CSM imports Cycle time is high Problem Statement : More number of issues reported in Acceptance test Level of Problem Corresponding level of Material landing to Deployment countermeasure cycle time is high Grasp the situation Shipment landing to 1 More number of FD and DD Fix the bugs and regress filing documents with WHY? bugs uncovered in AT thoroughly. Customs cycle time 2 Inadequate reviews in upper Quality team to ensure phase (FD, DD & CD) sufficient reviews before Physical doc WHY? intermediate deliveries. movement between Frieght 3 More time spent for coding Quality team to ensure review forwarder, and less time for reviews quality and coverage of all Wipro, Customs WHY? and testing. modules. Agent and Cause Customs taking Investigation time 4 430 KLOC added with the PM should ensure that effort Functions WHY? same schedule planned for and schedules are re-visited are not co- initial 250 KLOC. when there is an increase in located KLOC. Deputed person from Wipro to CHA 5 Initial estimations have gone Re-estimate before the start office to reduce document flow WHY? wrong. Re-planning of of the project and validate the effort and schedule not initial estimates and plan Self bonding approval from STPI done. accordingly. Shift implementation Wipro Confidential 26
Generating Ideas• Best practices and recommendations – standard solutions that have been known to work for standard problems (Lean, Theory of Constraints)• Brainstorming – Generate new ideas because many times best practices don’t work• Modeling/ Simulation – Get insights that cannot be reached through mere manual inspection
Developing and Selecting Ideas• Feasibility (technical and economic) – Review – Prototype• Risk• Value (Impact) – Performance – Quality – Cost
Installation and Maintenance• Roadmap and Plan• Management buy-in – Horizon of change – Value of change• Worker buy-in – Demonstrations – Incremental changes from existing process• Maintenance – Monitoring – Audit – Continuous Improvement
Future State Value Stream
Process cycle efficiency – traditional bank example STATEMENTS CLEARING DD Get Wait in Wait in Deposit Wait in account Get a DD queue status queue cheque queue Value Add 2 mins 3 mins 5 mins TIME 15 mins 12 mins 15 minsNon Value Add Process cycle efficiency : Value added/ Total time = 10/52 = 19%
Process cycle efficiency- Lean Bank TELLER TELLER TELLER Wait in Get account status queue Deposit cheque Get DD Value Add 2+3+5 =10 mins 12 mins TimeNon Value Add Process cycle efficiency : Value added/ Total time = 10/22 = 45%
Example: HP-Sagara Value stream mapping for HP-Sagara (Current state map): I Bug assigned by OC assigns the PM/PL assigns Customer to OC bug to PM/PL Reproduction of the bug to PE s Reproduction of Analysis Analylsis bugReproduction of Analysis bug bug Build by Code AdditionalMake release Smoke test Bug fixing and Build review testing by Bug fixing andto Customer by tester UT Bug fixing and engineer for P1 one tester UT UT defects I I Bottlenecks identified I Inventory
Value stream mapping – HP-Sagara 5S for lab set-up: ready made configurations & reduced set- Standardization: up time work flow for Bug assigned by OC assigns the analysis PM/PL assigns Customer to OC bug to PM/PL Reproduction of the bug to PE s Reproduction of Analysis Analylsis bugReproduction of Analysis bug bug Work allocation model to achieve resource levelling Visual board : Track and control the progress Weekly Tested bug Code reviewMake release Smoke test Bug fixing and build by check-in and clearance Bug fixing andto Customer by build UT Bug fixing build for build for UT UT engineer engineer In-station quality: Code review just after fixing bugs. UT scenarios discussed during this session to avoid reworkAdditional testing done by a single tester against 10 engineers fixing bugs has been removed.Additional testing is done by individual project engineers themselves Productivity Improvement from 1.3 bugs/person/week to 2.0 bugs/person/week
New Process Map Processing staff to Download the bank download bank book report from SAP statement dump online thru bank net portal X Waiting time X :- 3 Hrs Down to Manually reconcile 5 Min. each item:- 2 Hrs Down to 15 Min. Reconciled items are Reconcile bank book & auto cleared in SAP & the open entries bank statement by using various Ms-excel X E-mail sent to all concerned:- 30 Min. uploaded to the toolkit formulae’s & macro’s Down to 5 Min Features of online auto X Manual Transaction Down to feeding :- 30 Min. 3 Min. Online monitoring & control checks like duplicate entries, auto e-mail trigger follow-up thru visual controls displays, early X X with escalation matrix used Follow-up mails:- 30 Min. warning systems used Waiting time Waiting Time:- 5 Hrs :- 3 Hrs Down to 5 Min Eliminated Access right given to all concerned person to view all the X X Rework in case of Supervisor BRS located at the central server defective:- 1 Hr. Eliminated Review :- 30 Min. Eliminated Wipro Confidential 35
Value stream, NVA identification Activity CT VT 59% Process Cycle Efficiency Incident assigned 0 0 Total Time (TT) = CT + Inventory time Problem study 1.64 1.64 = 33 hours Replicate problem Efficiency = VT/TT = 19.4/33 = 59% 5.8 3 Problem analysis Review analysis 4.1 3.6 2 2 Challenges Rework analysis Detailed data about incidents not Magic update of analysis 0.62 0.62 available in incident status sheet Wait for code lock release 1.75 1 or other metrics sheet Data was collected by Code 1.5 0 impersonating as incident and Test 1.5 1.5 interviewing people who worked Review code on sample incidents 4.1 4.1 Rework code 0 0 Check-in code Benefits Wait for label 0 0 Uncovered hidden bottlenecks Create tinfo 0.5 0.5 Insight into what really happens 7.5 0 in the field Magic update Flow of valuable information to TOTAL 0.5 0.5 make better decisions 1.5 1 More blocks in value stream provide more opportunities to 33 19.4 drill down and eliminate waste Wipro Confidential 36
Information Spaghetti (Pre Lean) 7. Mail fo contrac r Cust / tr t cr eation r 23 ing fo il ask 2. Ma OW 5. Mail asking for S Estimates / Resource Loading 1. Mail Confirming w-up 8. Follo SOW 8. Follow-up signed for signed SOW Project Win f or VL 3. Draft SOW 4. Draft SOW22. Send STD For Review Documents 10. Mail for DM Project Audit ability DAM / 6. SOW Review 9. Mail confirming Project Win SQA Comments 12. SOW for 23. Feedback on Approval Auditability, eCUbe, ,iPAT 11. Customer 14. R 18 e Creation L oa d s ou r c e .Fo ing Sh PP llo eet 17 w- ba .. S 18 for bas up P se OW .F W lin 15. Org 15. Org 20 ecti ecti 13. Approval to Ob Ob Central oll e . P 0. v e v e Structure Structure j j ow P Start Project 2 M PM s Create - up Create OPS eli s for 21. Ask for STD ne Documents FINANCE 16. PM Assigned 19. PM Assistance for PP Baseline Problem Areas / Waste
(Post Lean) This Step will be eliminated soon 23-12+7=18 Mail asking for formal Handover 1. Mail Confirming Project Win Formal Project Handover using VL templateCentral DocRepository 10. Mail for DM Project Audit ability DAM / SQA 6. SOW Review Comments 11. Customer Creation ding 12. SOW for L oa ou rce t Approval Stru 15. O Re s S h e e c tu r g Pr re C oj Kit rea 18 ec te Central tH .F 13. Approval to Object oll O 20. PM PP for Start Project ow OPS ba - up se ives lin FINANCE e 16.PM Assigned 19. Assistance for PM PP Baseline Formal Project Kick Off
HP - Information Flow Spaghetti Diagram PM/PL Test Engineer Build Engineer o nf e tI r c en Project ou m Engineers es uire R q Onsite Re - Wipro Coordinator Other Bu dun Re g HP Projects o Inf Al dan In Wipro lo t In on ca ati tio fo c n: llo CPE Defects gA NP Bugs ATM Manager: Defect tracking Bu Test Manager fo Singapore InHP - Vancouver tool n tio ca ifi ar Cl CPE Defects Manager CPE Defects - Boise Manager - HP CPE Defects CPE Defects Manager – Manager – HP, San Diego Vancouver Wipro Confidential 39
HP – Improved Information Flow Build PM/PL Engineer o nf e tI r c en Project ou m Engineers es uire R q Onsite Re - Wipro Coordinator Other HP Projects o Inf In Wipro on ati t en c qu llo CPE Defects fre gA NP Bugs ATM Manager: ss Defect tracking Bu Test Manager Singapore -leHP - Vancouver tool fo In n io at c ifi ar Cl CPE Defects Manager CPE Defects - Boise Manager - HP CPE Defects CPE Defects Manager – Manager – HP, San Diego VancouverRouting bugs thru’ defect tracking tool; mandatory info captured for bugs; visual monitoring Wipro Confidential 40
• How to increase the overall value flowing to customer?• Where in the process is maximum value getting created, where is it minimum?• How to multiple processes work together to generate more value than the sum of individual processes?• Is value flowing at a rate that the customer is comfortable with?
What is the difference between Productivity and Quality?