Overview• Define leadership• Present the background & classic studies of leadership• Discuss the traditional theories of leadership• Identify modern frameworks for leadership• Relate the style implications from the classic studies & modern theories of leadership• Identify and analyze the skills needed for effective leadership
Leadership• The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals• “When you boil it down, contemporary leadership seems to a matter of aligning people toward common goals and empowering them to take the actions needed to reach them.” Sherman, 1995• Sanctioned vs. non sanctioned leadership
Managers Vs LeadersManager Characteristics Leader Characteristics• Administers • Innovates• A copy • An original• Maintains • Develops• Focuses on systems and structures • Focuses on people• Relies on control • Inspires trust• Short range view • Long range perspective • Asks what and why• Asks how and when • Eye on horizon• Eye on bottom line • Originates• Imitates • Challenges the status quo• Accepts the status quo • Own person• Classic good soldiers • Does the right thing• Does things right
Trait Theories• What characteristics or traits make a person a leader?• Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership• Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders• Trait view has little analytical or predictive value• Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)
Behavioral Theories• Ohio state studies: initiating structure (task or goal orientation) vs consideration (recognition of individual needs and relationships)• University of Michigan studies: Employee oriented ( genuine concern for people) vs production oriented genuine concern for task)
The Managerial Grid 1,9 9,9High 9 Country club management Team management Thoughtful attention needs of people Work accomplishment is from for satisfying relationships leads to committed people, interdependence 8 A comfortable, friendly organization through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship atmosphere and work tempo of trust and respect Concern for people 7 6 5 5,5 Organization Man Management 4 Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 3 9,1 1,1 Authority-Obedience Impoverished Management Efficiency in operations results 2 Exertion of minimum effort to get from arranging conditions of required work done is appropriate work in such a way that humanLow to sustain organization membership elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Low Concern for production High
Fiedler Contingency Model• Effective groups depend upon a proper match between a leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader• LPC measures task- or relationship-oriented leadership style ( think of all the coworkers you have ever had and describe one person you least enjoyed working with)
Fiedler-Defining the situation• After the individuals basic leadership style has been assessed through the LPC, it is necessary to match the leader with the situation• Leader member relations -the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have on their leader• Task structure -the degree to which task assignments are procedurized• Position power -influence derived from ones formal structural position in the organization
Contingency TheoriesFiedler’s contingency Model Relationship Oriented Task Oriented Performance Good poor Favorable Moderate Unfavorable Category I II III IV V VI VII VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Leader member relations High High Low Low High High Low Low Task structures Position power Strong weak strong weak strong weak strong weak
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Style of Leader (High) Low High Task Relationship and low and relationship Low task selli g atin ng ticip Relationship behavior Par High relationship ng And High Task te ati And llin leg low task g De High relationship (Low) Task behavior (High) Immature High Moderate Low Mature M4 M3 M2 M1 Maturity of follower( s)
Path Goal Theory Environmental Contingency Factors • Task Structure • Formal authority system • Work GroupLeader Behavior Outcomes•Directive •Performance•Supportive •Satisfaction•Participative•Achievement -oriented Subordinate contingency factors •Locus of control •Experience •Perceived ability
Charismatic LeadershipKey Characteristics of Charismatic leaders• Self Confidence- They have complete confidence in their judgment and ability.• A vision- This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader.• Ability to articulate the vision- They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, hence acts as a motivating force.• Strong convictions about vision- Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.• Behavior that is out of the ordinary- Those with charisma engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful , these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers.• Perceived as being a change agent- Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.• Environmental sensitivity- These leaders are able to make realistic assessments of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.
Transactional vs Transformational leadersCharacteristics of Transactional and transformational leadersTransactional Leaders• Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishment• Management by exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.• Management by exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met• Laissez faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisionsTransformational Leaders• Charisma : Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect trust.• Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.• Intellectual Stimulations: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.• Individualized consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.
The Activities of Successful & Effective leaders Description categories Type of Activity Derived from free Observation Exchange Information Routine Communication Handling paperwork Planning Traditional Management Decision Making Controlling Interacting with outsiders Networking Socializing /Politicking Motivating/Reinforcing Disciplining/PunishingHuman Resource Management Managing conflict staffing Training/Developing
Relative Distribution of Manager’s Activities Networking (19%) Traditional Management (32%) Human resources (20%) Routine Communication (29%)
What skills do leaders need?• Personal Skills •Coping with stressors 2.Managing •Managing time stress •Delegating 1.Developing 3. Solving Self-awareness Problems creatively •Using the rational approach •Determining values •Using the creative approach and priorities •Fostering innovation in others •Identifying cognitive style •Assessing attitude toward change
•Interpersonal Skills •Gaining power •Coaching •Exercise influence •Counseling •Empowering others •Listening 5. Gaining power and influences 4. Communication 6. Motivating others supportively 7. Management conflict •Diagnosing poor performance •Identifying causes •Creating a motivating environment •Selecting appropriate strategies •Rewarding accomplishment •Resolving confrontations
The right stuff Covey• Empower your inner child-children are genuine, speak their mind-so do successful leaders• Be slightly weird-effective leaders have their own approach to do things• Embrace compensation-everyone likes money, but successful leaders can talk about it• Focus carefully –successful leaders are able to handle more than 2-3 things at a time because they are able to filter out extraneous information and focus on critical issues• Speak openly- successful leaders say what they think• Dont get even-get mad-good leaders let off steam and get on to the next issue• Keep up on the latest developments- successful leaders know the latest jargon and trnds
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.