Groups• DefinitionTwo or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives.
Formal and informal groups(1). Formal groups ……..are those defined by organizational structure with designated work assignments and establishing tasks.• For example the six members making up an airline flight crew are a formal group.
Formal and informal groups(2). Informal groups …….are those neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contact.For example Three employees from differentdepartments who regularly eattheir lunch together is aninformal group.
Classifying Groups Command Groups (1).Formal group Task Groups Interest Groups(2).Informal group Friendship Groups Prentice Hall, 2001 4
Four Types of Groups• Command group. – determined by the organization chart. It is composed of individuals who directly report to a given manager. An elementary school principal and her 18 teachers form a command group. or the area sales manager along with his sales force.
Four Types of Groups• Task group – it is also organizationally determined represent those working together to complete a job task, however a task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. For instance the hiring of new employees can be a task which can involve GM, HR manager and a particular functional manager.
Four Types of Groups• Interest group are such groups that affiliate to attain a specific objective of shared interest. for example employees who come together to have their vacations schedules altered, to support a colleague who has been fired or to seek improvement in working conditions is an interest group.
Four Types of Groups• Friendship group – members have one or more common characteristics. for example similar age or holding similar political views
Security Status What Makes Self-Esteem People Affiliation Join Groups? GoalPower Achievement
Stages of Group Development Stage I Stage IIForming StormingStage III Stage IV Stage VNorming Performing Adjourning
Stages of Group DevelopmentGroups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage model of group. Forming, storming, Norming performing and adjourning.The first stage forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group purpose, structure and leadership. members are uncertain about what type of behavior is acceptable. This stage is complete when members have begun to think themselves as part of a group.
Stages of Group Development2.The storming stage• is one of the intra group conflict. members accept the existence of the group, but there is a resistance to the constraints that the group imposes on individuals.• Furthermore there is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
Stages of Group Development3.The Norming stage The Norming stage completeswhen close relationships have been developed and the group demonstrates cooperation.• Cooperation further develops common set of expectations from the group members which defines their behavior.
Stages of Group Development• The fourth stage is performing. The group structure becomes fully functional and group energy moves from getting to know and understand each other to performing a task at hand.• For permanent work groups performing is the last stage of their development, however for temporary committees, task forces or other similar groups that have a limited task to perform, there is an adjourning stage.
Stages of Group Development5. Adjourning stage. In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment, where high task performance is no longer the group’s priority, instead attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.
Identity Expectations Group Roles Conflict PerceptionPrentice Hall, 2001 18
RolesAccording to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and all the men and women are players. similarly all the group members are actors. Role is defined as…… to engage in a set of expected behavior that are related to occupying a given positionin a social unit.
Role identity• Role Identity – the ability to recognize attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.• When workers are promoted to supervisory positions vital changes are observed in their behavior with other workers.
Role perception and role expectation• Role Perception – our view of how we’re supposed to act in a given situation is called role perception.
Role perception and role expectation• Role Expectations – how others believe you should act in a given situation is called role expectation.
Role conflict• Role conflict is that situation when there is much difference in role perception and role expectation.• That is, people expect an individual to behave in one way and the individual perceives to behave in another way.
Cohesiveness• The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group Related to the group’s productivity
Group Decision Making Advantages Disadvantages More Diversity of Views Dominant Individuals Increased information Unclear Responsibility Higher-quality decisions Time and money costs Improved Commitment Conformity pressuresIncreasedPrentice Hall, 2001 acceptance 25
Group Decision Making Groupthink Group shiftPrentice Hall, 2000 26
Symptoms of GroupthinkGroup members when making any decision, ask for the agreement of all group members.• Some individuals in the group, who have a difference of opinion, remain silent. They keep quiet in order to avoid any conflict among group members.• Their silence is considered as yes, although their silence is meant as NO.• In groupthink sometimes minority becomes victim of majority in decision making.
Group shiftWhen a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very careful and avoids all risks, because in case of failure he will be solely responsible for his decision.• But when the same manager is the member of some group, then he is making more risky decisions.• The reason is that in case of failure no single individual could be made responsible in group decision making.• Thus in group decision making the position of a manager shifts from normal decisions to more risky decisions, called group shift