LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGIC
PRESENTER: NZOKA, JOSEPH
1. Introduction to leadership
2. Leadership communication
3. Leadership strategies
4. School leadership in the context of societal
and organizational culture
5. Strategic management
6. Vision and strategic planning
1.0 Introduction to Leadership
1.1 Definition of leadership
There are many diverse definitions of leadership:
• a process of social influence in which one person can enlist
the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a
common task (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
• Its organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal.
• the process of influencing the behavior of other people
toward group goals in a way that fully respects their
freedom( Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester ).
• the art of motivating a group of people to act towards
achieving a common goal(About.com Guide).
• a process by which a person influences others to
accomplish an objective and directs the organization in
a way that makes it more cohesive and
coherent(Kenneth Boulding in The Image: Knowledge
in Life and Society ).
• common ideas that characterize leadership definitions
include exerting influence, motivating and
inspiring, helping others realize their potential, leading
by example, selflessness and making a difference.
1.2 Factors of Leadership
• There are four major factors in leadership
(U.S. Army, 1983):
• A leader must have an honest understanding of
who s/he is, what s/he knows, and what s/he can
• it is the followers, not the leader or someone else
who determines if the leader is successful.
• To be successful a leader has to convince his/her
followers, not him/herself or his/her
superiors, that s/he isworthy of being followed.
• Different people require different styles of leadership.
• A leader must know his/her people.
• The fundamental starting point is having a good
understanding of human nature, such as
needs, emotions, and motivation.
• A leader leads through two-way communication
much of which is nonverbal.
• What and how a leader communicates either
builds or harms the relationship between
him/her and his/her employees.
• All situations are different. What one does in
one situation will not always work in another.
• one must use his/her judgment to decide the
best course of action and the leadership style
needed for each situation.
1.3 Leadership Styles
• No matter what their traits or skills, leaders carry
out their roles in a wide variety of styles:
Common leadership styles:( Muray, A.; Lewin, K.;
i. Autocratic(Authoritarian). The manager makes
all the decisions and dominates team members.
This approach generally results in passive
resistance from team members and requires
continual pressure and direction from the
leader in order to get things done.
Leadership styles cont’d
• Generally, this approach is not a good way to get
the best performance from a team.
• However, this style may be appropriate when
urgent action is necessary or when subordinates
actually prefer this style.
ii. Participative(Democratic). The manager
involves the subordinates in decision making by
consulting team members (while still
maintaining control), which encourages
employee ownership for the decisions.
• A good participative leader encourages
participation and delegates wisely, but bears the
crucial responsibility of leadership.
• The leader values group discussions and input
from team members.
• The participative leader motivates team members
by empowering them to direct themselves.
• The limitation of this style is that a participative
leader may be seen as unsure, and team
members may feel that everything is a matter for
group discussion and decision.
iii. Laissez-faire(Delegative).(also called free-rein).
• Hands-off approach in which the leader encourages
team members to function independently and work
out their problems by themselves, although he or she
is available for advice and assistance.
• The leader usually has little control over team
members, leaving them to sort out their roles and
tackle their work assignments without personally
participating in these processes.
• Laissez-faire is usually only appropriate when the
team is highly motivated and skilled.
iv. Visionary. This style is most appropriate when an
organization needs a new direction. Its goal is to
move people towards a new set of shared dreams.
• Visionary leaders articulate where a group is
going, but not how it will get there – setting people
free to innovate, experiment and take calculated
v. Coaching. This one-on-one style focuses on
developing individuals, showing them how to
improve their performance, and helping to connect
their goals to the goals of the organization.
• Coaching works best with employees who show initiative
and want more professional development.
• But it can backfire if it’s perceived as “micromanaging” an
employee, and undermines his or her self-confidence.
vi. Affiliative. This style emphasizes the importance of team
work, and creates harmony in a group by connecting
people to each other.
• this approach is particularly valuable “when trying to
heighten team harmony, increase morale, improve
communication or repair broken trust in an organization.
• its emphasis on group praise can allow poor performance
to go uncorrected.
vii. Pacesetting. In this style, the leader sets high
standards for performance.
• He or she is obsessive about doing things better
and faster, and asks the same of everyone.
• The style should be used sparingly, because it
can undercut morale and make people feel as if
they are failing.
viii.Commanding. This is classic model of military
style leadership – probably the most often
used, but the least often effective.
• Because it rarely involves praise and
frequently employs criticism, it undercuts
morale and job satisfaction.
• it is only effective in a crisis, when an urgent
turnaround is needed.
1.4 Leadership Theories
• Students of leadership have produced theories
interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and
values, charisma and intelligence, among others(
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia):
1) Trait theory of leadership
• Based on the assumption that leadership is rooted in
the characteristics that certain individuals possess.
2) Behavioral and style theories
• Leadership is seen as a set of behaviors. E.g. to
lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful.
3) Situational theory
• This theory assumes that different situations
call for different characteristics.
• According to the theory, what an individual
actually does when acting as a leader is in
large part dependent upon characteristics of
the situation in which he functions.
• according to this group of theory, no single
optimal psychographic profile of a leader
4) contingency theory
• A synthesis of the trait and situational approaches i.e
defining leadership styles and identifying which
situations each style works better in.
• defines the style of leadership as contingent to the
5) Functional leadership theory
• This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see
that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken
care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their
job well when they have contributed to group
effectiveness and cohesion.
6) Integrated psychological theory
• The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership
is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the
older theories (i.e.
traits, behavioral/styles, situational and
functional) while addressing their
limitations, largely by introducing a new element
– the need for leaders to develop their leadership
presence, attitude toward others and behavioral
flexibility by practicing psychological mastery.
• It also offers a foundation for leaders wanting to
apply the philosophies of servant leadership.
7) Transactional and transformational
• The transactional leader (Burns, 1978) is given
power to perform certain tasks and reward or
punish for the team's performance.
• It gives the opportunity to the manager to lead
the group and the group agrees to follow his lead
to accomplish a predetermined goal in exchange
for something else.
• Power is given to the leader to
evaluate, correct, and train subordinates when
productivity is not up to the desired level, and
reward effectiveness when expected outcome is
8) Neo-emergent theory
• The neo-emergent leadership theory (from
the Oxford school of leadership) espouses that
leadership is created through the emergence
of information by the leader or other
stakeholders, not through the true actions of
the leader himself.
• The reproduction of information or stories
form the basis of the perception of leadership
by the majority.
2.0 Leadership communication
• A leader must be able to communicate
effectively/must have good communicate skills
• Communication occupies 70 to 90 percent of
leaders’ time every day( Mintzberg, 1973;
Eccles & Nohria, 1991).
• Good communication skills enable, foster, and
create the understanding and trust necessary
to encourage others to follow a leader.
2.0 Definition of leadership communication
• The controlled, purposeful transfer of meaning by
which leaders influence a single person, a
group, an organization or a
• Leadership communication uses the full range of
communication skills and resources to overcome
interferences and to create and deliver messages
that guide, direct, motivate or inspire others to
• Consists of three primary rings: Core, managerial
• The higher up in an organization a leader
moves, the more complex his or her
communication demands become.
i. Core communication
• Strategy is the foundation on which any
effective communication depends.
• Leaders need to be able to analyze an audience
in every situation and develop a communication
strategy that facilitates accomplishing their
• They need to be able to write and to speak in the
language expected of business leaders
(clear, correct and concise).
• They also need to be able to create and deliver
oral presentations confidently and persuasively.
• These are the capabilities at the core of all
business communication upon which success in
managerial and corporate communication
ii. Managerial communication
• Managerial communication capabilities build on the
• Capabilities that more directly involve managing
others, from one-on-one contact to interacting with
groups and the broader organization.
• The skills needed to interact with individuals and to
• They include emotional intelligence, interpersonal
skills and understanding of cross-cultural
differences, listening, leading meetings and
iii. Corporate communication
• Involves expansion from the managerial skills to those
abilities needed to lead an organization and address a
3.0 Leadership strategies
• (Nelson, 2005;McSweeney,2009) provide 12 strategies for
• A leader needs to create a mission statement for his/her
life and job.
• Each professional and personal project one undertakes
should fall under the tenets of his/her creed and belief
• A leader ought to surround him/herself with
people that can provide insight and wisdom, even
if they disagree with them.
• One should always understand all sides of an
issue before making key decisions.
• Need to connect with others and network.
• Leaders need to empower themselves with
knowledge/be readers of all types of books.
• Leaders need to work hard at what they do.
• Success doesn’t just happen.
• An important part of working is asking. Kneading takes
commitment and perseverance.
• Never give up!
• A leader should have the heart of a servant.
• Feed well and feed others as well.
• Many problems can be resolved and goals discussed
over a full stomach.
• One needs to take time to invest in other
people’s lives either intellectually or
• One ought to grow his/her business or
ministry by planting seeds of wisdom, hope
and experience within others.
• The seed fund quietly help families that need
a little extra financial sustenance and students
that need scholarships.
• Leaders must yank negativity by the roots and
banish it from their organizations and homes.
• Be positive and stay positive even when
• Be quick with compliments and always respond
in a timely manner to phone calls and
correspondence. Don’t be in a rush to make
• Avoid it.
• Make each challenging situation a win/win for
• Share your success with others.
• Success comes from teamwork.
• Treat others the way you want to be treated.
• Each person needs to feel validated in life no
matter who they are or what they do.
• Go beyond expectations. Deliver quality and
quantity and always be consistent with delivering
your top performance.
• Go beyond the here and now of your life.
• Identify a real need in your community or in the
world and do something about it.
• You will inspire your employees, friends and
family with your actions to effect change.
4.0 School leadership in the context of societal
and organizational culture