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European Union
European Union as an empirical model for
the understanding of modern regional
integration studies
By Henok ...
Introductory cession
Stages of Economic Integration - Theory
 Free Trade Area (FTA):
- removes tariffs among members = fr...
overview
European Union
1. Historical emergence/development
2. Structure
3. Progresses, Problems and prospects
4. EU: exce...
Great World’s Regional Blocs
MOTIVES FOR EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
 Peace and stability and desire to keep Germany under
control by its integration within ...
 CHURCHILL’S SPEECH - ZÜRICH, 1946
“The first step in the re-creation of the European family must be a partnership betwee...
FOUNDING TREATIES
 1951 European Coal and Steel Community (expired in 2002)
- it eliminated trade barriers on coal, steel...
EU ENLARGEMENT WAVES
 1951 Belgium, France, Germany,
Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands,(ECSC)
(1957 EEC and EURATOM)
 1...
 Legislative Branch
 European Parliament (popularly elected but little
power)
 Council of Ministers (represents nationa...
 Institutions
- European Commission
- European Parliament
- Council of the EU
- Court of Justice of the European Communit...
III
POLICE AND
JUDICIAL
COOPERATION IN
CRIMINAL MATTERS
(PJC)
Intergovernmental
cooperations
I
EUROPEAN
COMMUNITY
supranat...
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
(I. Pillar)
 Free movement of goods,
workers, services and
capital
 Agriculture
 Visas, asylum, migr...
COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
(II pillar)
 Foreign policy
- E.g. preserve peace, human rights,
democracy, prevent co...
POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN
CRIMINAL MATTERS
(III pillar)
 Prevention and combating of racism
and xenophobia
 Pre...
CHARACTERISTICS OF
I pillar and, II and III Pillar Law
I pillar (European community)law
 Transfer of sovereign powers of ...
PERIODS OF PROGRESS AND CRISES
 1950S – mid 1960s – beginning
(ECSC → EEC and Euratom)
 Mid 1960s – 1986 – crisis
(“Empt...
AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE
CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY
 31 December 2007 – Lisbon Treaty signed:
 Elimination from the text of s...
Circumstances across time
 1960s – Peace through economics
 1969 – slow implementation
 1970s – economic crisis = prote...
Areas of Integration in EU
Fully integrated issue areas
 Trade policy
 No tariffs with EU, common tariffs with other
tra...
Mostly integrated issue areas
 Consumer health & safety regulations
 Harmonized rules allow for economies of
scale
 Fre...
Least integrated issue area
 Foreign and security policy
 Ireland, Austria, Finland, Sweden are
neutral
 Must compete w...
Lessons to be learnt
Caveats
 No single explanation or theory of EU
regional integration
 Lessons are manifold – but must be
adapted to regio...
Key to success
 Motivation (trigger factors)
 Consensus on goals and objectives
 Leadership (political and financial)
...
Transferable lessons
 Start small and grow (at right pace)
 Clear shared objectives
 Need leadership (willing to pay)
...
The role of business???
 Business is a crucial stakeholder in regional integration
(consumer and producer).
 Business ne...
Discussion question for
students
 What features of EU should Africa adopt
for its harmonized integration?
THE END: THANK YOU
Teka, Henok Gebremedhin
Lecturer, PADM Dep’t
+251 911 183527
P.O.Box 19
henokteka87@yahoo.com
Ambo Univ...
Eu as emprical model...
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The slide revises the historical development of EU, challenges, enlargement..etc. It also outlines the main lessons to be learned from EU to other regions in the world such as AU.

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  • African Union (AU)www.africa-union.orgAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN)www.aseansec.orgAndean Community of Nations (CAN)www.comunidadandina.orgCaribbean Community (CARICOM)www.caricom.orgCentral American Integration System(SICA)www.sica.intCommonwealth of Independent States(CIS)www.eccis.orgEconomic Community of West African States(ECOWAS)www.ecowas.intEuropean Union (EU)www.europa.euGulf Cooperation Council (GCC)www.gcc-sg.orgPacific Islands Forum (PIF)www.forumsec.orgSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation(SAARC)www.saarc-sec.orgSouthern African Development Community(SADC)www.sadc.intSouthern Common Market (MERCOSUR)www.mercosur.int
  • Transcript of "Eu as emprical model..."

    1. 1. European Union European Union as an empirical model for the understanding of modern regional integration studies By Henok Gebremedhin Teka Ambo University Ambo, Ethiopia May 5, 2013
    2. 2. Introductory cession Stages of Economic Integration - Theory  Free Trade Area (FTA): - removes tariffs among members = free trade - members retain own trade policies & external tariffs  Customs Union (CU): - common trade policy, common external tariffs  Common/Single Market (CM): - eliminates all barriers to factor mobility  Economic Union (EU): - harmonization of economic policies  Political Union (PU): - full political and economic integration
    3. 3. overview European Union 1. Historical emergence/development 2. Structure 3. Progresses, Problems and prospects 4. EU: exception or a model
    4. 4. Great World’s Regional Blocs
    5. 5. MOTIVES FOR EUROPEAN INTEGRATION  Peace and stability and desire to keep Germany under control by its integration within Europe (Coal and steel producing regions of Alsace-Lorraine part of frequent wars between France and Germany)  Creation of a single market  Economic prosperity  Independence in relation to new world powers (USA/USSR)  New European democratic identity as opposed to totalitarianism and nationalism - Which motives stayed the same, which have changes and which have been achieved?
    6. 6.  CHURCHILL’S SPEECH - ZÜRICH, 1946 “The first step in the re-creation of the European family must be a partnership between France and Germany. In this way only can France recover the moral and cultural leadership of Europe. There can be no revival of Europe without a spiritually great France and a spiritually great Germany. The structure of the United States of Europe will be such as to make the material strength of a single State less important. Small nations will count as much as large ones and gain their honour by a contribution to the common cause.  SCHUMAN (French foreign minister)DECLARATION ,1950 “The pooling of coal and steel production should immediately provide for the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe, and will change the destinies of those regions which have long been devoted to the manufacture of munitions of war, of which they have been the most constant victims.”
    7. 7. FOUNDING TREATIES  1951 European Coal and Steel Community (expired in 2002) - it eliminated trade barriers on coal, steel, and iron ore.  - Was concluded between 6 states France, Germany, Italy, BENELUX  1957 Treaties of Rome were signed, creating  European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM)  the European Economic Community (EEC). - Removal of all intra-European tariffs to form common market and customs union (common external tariffs)  1967: The ECSC, EURATOM, and EEC merged.  And 1985: Single European Act - Removal of all non-tariff barriers to free movement of factors of production.  1992 European Union (Treaty of Maastricht) - Cooperation on defense, justice, and domestic policy
    8. 8. EU ENLARGEMENT WAVES  1951 Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,(ECSC) (1957 EEC and EURATOM)  1973 Denmark, Ireland and the UK  1981 Greece  1986 Portugal and Spain  1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden  2004 Cyprus , the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia  2007 Bulgaria and Romania  2012 Croatia  2013 Serbia  Turkey ??
    9. 9.  Legislative Branch  European Parliament (popularly elected but little power)  Council of Ministers (represents national governments)  Executive Branch  European Commission (main bureaucracy)  Council of Auditors (budget)  European Central Bank (monetary policy)  Judicial Branch  European Court of Justice (reviews national law) Structure of the EU
    10. 10.  Institutions - European Commission - European Parliament - Council of the EU - Court of Justice of the European Communities - Court of Auditors  but plenty more “bodies” - European Central Bank - Committee of Regions - Economic and Social Committee
    11. 11. III POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS (PJC) Intergovernmental cooperations I EUROPEAN COMMUNITY supranational organisation ECSC (expired) EUROATOM Area of freedom, security and justice II COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP) Intergovernmental cooperation EU institutions EU ACCORDING TO LISBON 3 PILLARS
    12. 12. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (I. Pillar)  Free movement of goods, workers, services and capital  Agriculture  Visas, asylum, migration  transport  Competition, taxation and approximation of laws  Economic and monetary union  Employment  Common commercial policy  Customs cooperation  Social policy, education, vocational traiing and youth  Culture  Public health  Consumer protection  Trans-Euroepan networks  Industry  Economic and social cohesion  Research and technological development  Environment  Development cooperations  Euratom
    13. 13. COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (II pillar)  Foreign policy - E.g. preserve peace, human rights, democracy, prevent conflicts and strengthen international security, relations with third countries  Security policy - EU security, disarmament, financial aspects of defence, long-term security measures
    14. 14. POLICE AND JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS (III pillar)  Prevention and combating of racism and xenophobia  Prevention and combating of crime, especially terrorism, trafficking in human beings, sexual exploitation of women and children, illicit drug trafficking, illicit arms trafficking, money laundering, corruption, counterfeiting of means of payment, computer crime and organised crime
    15. 15. CHARACTERISTICS OF I pillar and, II and III Pillar Law I pillar (European community)law  Transfer of sovereign powers of Member States on the Community  Direct effect  Supremacy of EC law II and III pillar(CFSP &PJC) law  Intergovernmental cooperation  No direct effect  No supremacy of EU law  Weaker power of EU institutions
    16. 16. PERIODS OF PROGRESS AND CRISES  1950S – mid 1960s – beginning (ECSC → EEC and Euratom)  Mid 1960s – 1986 – crisis (“Empty chair crisis” 1965 → Luxembourg compromise 1966 → Single European Act 1987)  1986 – 1993 – success (Treaty of Maastrichta – creation of the EU)  1993 – 2005 – enlargement, consolidation  2005 – 2009 – consitutional/identity crisis (failure of Constitutional Treaty after the French and Dutch referenda → Treaty of Lisbon 12 June 2008 Irish “no” )  2009 - … - Treaty of Lisbon
    17. 17. AFTER THE FAILURE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL TREATY  31 December 2007 – Lisbon Treaty signed:  Elimination from the text of state-like rhetoric: flag, hymn, certain terms, such as Minister of European Law  Content, although differently organized, mostly unchanged  Old technique for amending Treaties, by amendments on amendments, used Still, this enabled Member States to ratify the Lisbon Treaty without referenda All, but Ireland …
    18. 18. Circumstances across time  1960s – Peace through economics  1969 – slow implementation  1970s – economic crisis = protectionism  1980s – stagflation and low growth  1987 – Delors Commission  1990s – EU Global position under threat  2004 – Innovation/Competitive gaps  2008-9 – Lisbon? Recession? Swing to right? What will be the new direction?
    19. 19. Areas of Integration in EU Fully integrated issue areas  Trade policy  No tariffs with EU, common tariffs with other trading partners  Collective negotiation in WTO  Competition policy  Limitation on monopolies, etc.  Monetary policy  Single interest rate from Central Bank  Requires constraints on taxation, spending, deficits
    20. 20. Mostly integrated issue areas  Consumer health & safety regulations  Harmonized rules allow for economies of scale  Free movement of people  Citizens of EU states can travel & work in other EU states without visas or passports  Police cooperate in tracking across borders  Does not fully include UK, Ireland, or 10 new members  Some free movement suspended after terrorist attacks on London 7/7/2005
    21. 21. Least integrated issue area  Foreign and security policy  Ireland, Austria, Finland, Sweden are neutral  Must compete with NATO for relevance  So far, mostly focused on humanitarian intervention  Division over 2003 US invasion of Iraq
    22. 22. Lessons to be learnt
    23. 23. Caveats  No single explanation or theory of EU regional integration  Lessons are manifold – but must be adapted to regional circumstances  It is less about theory and more about practise  What do other regions want to achieve – and how best to do this  Regional integration is a continuous process – not a product
    24. 24. Key to success  Motivation (trigger factors)  Consensus on goals and objectives  Leadership (political and financial)  Institutions  Supra-nationality  Trust  Sequencing  Convergence of interests (esp. Economic)  Legal basis (Independent Court)
    25. 25. Transferable lessons  Start small and grow (at right pace)  Clear shared objectives  Need leadership (willing to pay)  Intergovernmental approach can only take you so far  Supranational or Dispute Settlement  Its all about the politics (political will)  Requires stakeholder participation and support (esp. Business)
    26. 26. The role of business???  Business is a crucial stakeholder in regional integration (consumer and producer).  Business needs to influence the politics at national and regional levels – can drive the process (In EU Business is an organised, active and very important stakeholder).  Challenges and opportunities of international business Creation of Single Market = Big Opportunity - free movement of goods within EU - lower cost of doing business - market of 500m, per capita GDP $28,213 BUT Creation of Single Market = Big Challenges - Increased competition (internal & external) - Less tariff barriers but more NTBs - Possibility of ‘fortress’ mentality (in recession) - ‘Special’ protected areas (agriculture) Trade Creation vs. Trade Diversion
    27. 27. Discussion question for students  What features of EU should Africa adopt for its harmonized integration?
    28. 28. THE END: THANK YOU Teka, Henok Gebremedhin Lecturer, PADM Dep’t +251 911 183527 P.O.Box 19 henokteka87@yahoo.com Ambo University Ambo Ethiopia May 5, 2013 CIAO!!!
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