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  • 1. A Survey of Associate Models used within Large Software Ecosystems
    Joey van Angeren – Utrecht University
    JaapKabbedijk – Utrecht University
    Slinger Jansen – Utrecht University
    Karl Michael Popp – SAP AG
  • 2.
  • 3. Why would we research associate models?
    • Little research has been carried out within this domain so far
    • 4. To gain insight into the structure of an associate model and the set of commitments it consists of
    • 5. Useful for software ecosystem orchestrators when creating their own associate model
    • 6. Useful for participant to gather insight in the model(s) they are active in
  • The perspective
    • Software ecosystemorchestrationaroundoneparticular software vendor, platform owner, open sourceassociation
    • 7. The software ecosystemconsists of severalsubsystems (e.g. supplierecosystem, partner ecosystem)
    • 8. Clusters: A number of closelyrelatedactorswithin (a subsystem of) the software ecosystem
  • Why associate models
    • Associate models are a powerful tool forlarge software ecosystemorchestrators to:
    • 9. Manage clusters of participantswithintheirecosystems
    • 10. Achieve all kind of ecosystem goals (e.g. financial, customer, product, network and/or market-related)
    • 11. Gather information about their ecosystems
  • Research question
    “What are the identifyingcharacteristics of a commitmentwithinanassociate model?”
  • 12. Research approach
    • Literaturereview
    • 13. Design science
    • 14. Case studies (SAP, Open Design Alliance, Eclipse Foundation)
    • 15. Bystudyingavailabledocumentationon the associate model (e.g. website, contracts)
    • 16. Byconducting a semi-structured interview with a representative
    Hevner et al, 2004
  • 17. Conceptual overview
    • Createdbyapplying design sciencebasedon:
    • 18. Literaturereview
    • 19. Documentation software ecosystemorchestrators offer ontheirassociate model (notlimited to the three case studies)
    • 20. Expert reviews
    • 21. Describes the structure of anassociate model
    Hevner et al, 2004
  • 22. The structure of an associate model
    • Anassociate model consists of a set of commitmentsbetween cluster owner and participant
    • 23. Eachassociate model has a certain type (e.g. partnership ormembership model)
    • 24. Within the commitment the participant fulfillsoneor more rolesthatcan have multiple dimensionsthatcomewith:
    • 25. Benefits
    • 26. Requirements
    • 27. Costs
  • 28. Gold level
    system integrator
  • 29. Case study and classification
    • Case studies employed to:
    • 30. Evaluate conceptual overview
    • 31. Compare three different associate models through classification
    • 32. Classification table constructed by deriving associate model characteristics from:
    • 33. The conceptual overview
    • 34. The interview protocol
    • 35. Ecosystem goals as defined by Popp, 2010
  • Case study 1: SAP
    SAP:
    For-profitorganization
    Headquarterslocated in
    Germany
    Core business in enterprise
    applications
    Multiple partnership models
    (global model is subject of case
    study)
  • 36. Case study 1: SAP
    Structure:
    Role-based, 10 roles (+1 general
    umbrellarole)
    Mainbenefits:
    Targeted at business needs of
    Participant
    MainRequirements:
    Annual partnership model fee
    Devoting resources to product or
    service certification
    Locking
    Main goals strivedfor:
    Expansion of the SAP partner
    ecosystem
    Strengthen SAP offerings
    Monetizingon the partner
    ecosystem
    Extension of marketreach
  • 37. Case study 2: Open Design Allaince
    ODA:
    Non-profit association (member
    driven)
    Headquarterslocated in the USA
    Core business in engineering
    applications
    Membership model is the core of
    the business
    The Membership model consits of
    Over 1200 members
  • 38. Case study 2: Open Design Alliance
    Structure:
    Layered, 5 different levels, next level
    considered as superior to previousone
    Mainbenefits:
    Targeted at amount of access to the platform
    MainRequirements:
    Membership model fees (annual fee + one
    time onlyentrance fee)
    Main goals strivedfor:
    Product and platform development
    Expansion of the ODA ecosystem
  • 39. Case study 3: Eclipse Foundation
    EclipseSummary:
    Non-profit association (member
    supported)
    Headquarterslocated in Canada
    Core business in software
    devlopmentapplications
    Utilize a membership model
  • 40. Case study 3: Eclipse Foundation
    Structure:
    Layered, 5 different levels, based
    onan open sourcematurity curve
    Mainbenefits:
    Co-innovatingthroughindustry-specific
    workinggroups
    Influence in the governance of Eclipse
    Foundation
    MainRequirements:
    Contribution of resources to product and/or
    platform development
    Main goals strivedfor:
    Product and platform development
    Expansion of the Eclipse Foundation
    ecosystem
  • 41. Conclusions
    • Anassociate model consists of a set of commitmentsbetween model owner and participants
    • 42. Withineachcommitment a participant fullfills a role, thatcan have multiple dimensions, with a set of benefits, requirements and costs
    • 43. The threestudiedassociate models differfromeachother in:
    • 44. Primarystructure
    • 45. Entry barriers and model governance
    • 46. Goals
    • 47. Identifieddifferences are a resultfromorganizationsdifferingfromeachother in orrganizationalcharacteristics, thisinfluences the characteristics of the associate model and the commitmentsitconsists of
  • Future research on associate models
    • More cases are needed to verify and evaluate the conceptualoverview
    • 48. Edgedon the community of participantsthat is part of anassociate model
    • 49. Out of a participants’ perspective, (e.g. advantages, disadvantages, risks, expectations, goals, implicationsfor business model)
    • 50. Software ecosystemgovernance
  • Questions
    http://www.softwareecosystems.org/

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