2010 District Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab) and District Nowshera and District Charsadda (KPK)INTERFAITHLEAGUE            PARTIC...
TABLE OF CONTENTSTable of Figures ...........................................................................................
Losses in Livestock .........................................................................................................
Priority of Needs ...........................................................................................................
Agriculture/ Farming ........................................................................................................
TABLE OF FIGURESFIGURE 1: MAP INDICATING FOCUS AREA .........................................................................
FIGURE 35 - SITE OF DEFECATION ..............................................................................................
FIGURE 71 - MAIN MATERIAL AND TYPE OF HOUSE .................................................................................
LIST OF TABLESTABLE 1: OVERVIEW..............................................................................................
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSRYK       Rahim Yar KhanI-LAP     Interfaith League Against PovertyUN        United NationsUNDP ...
OVERVIEWOn 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding couldoccur from July to...
The assessment had a total working time frame of approximately 10 days to identify community needs.Information from the co...
Villages/             Community                        Districts Tehsils          UCs                   HH Level          ...
Figure 3: Nowshera Overview  Figure 4: Charsadda Overview     Province                       Persons affected   Villages a...
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSampling        The geographic scope of the floods and the time frame available, a geographically disp...
immediately responded to the situation in the areas through rescue and relief efforts.                 Many members of the...
Figure 7: Training SessionFigure 8: Training Session                             Figure 9: Data collection with community
Figure 10: WE the communityFigure 11: Geographic Regions selected for data collection
ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION     The Interfaith League Against Poverty is a non-profit organization, works in partnership with  ...
Vision     “To create a new generation of peace workers, peace defenders, and peace negotiators towards     catalyzing pos...
“I will never forget the destruction and sufferings                                             I have witnessed today”…  ...
Figure 12: Map of Flood Hit Areas in Pakistan (2010)Impact of Flood WaveIn early August, the heaviest flooding moved south...
Figure 13: Track of flood wave along Indus RiverAt one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistans total land area was und...
fear into millions of stranded floodvictims, who are already suffering fromgastroenteritis and diarrhea. Pakistanhas also ...
Charsadda and Nowshera Floods Situational Assessment        and Findings----------------------------------Devastating floo...
CHARSADDA AND NOWSHERA FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS     The local population faced the accumulated flood wat...
governance capacity combined with frustrations caused by general lack of access to relief     assistance is generating pub...
Last but not the least the response must be guided by the considerations of humanity, neutrality         and impartiality ...
Table 6: Affected Population of KPK
I-LAP Targeted UCs of Charsadda                                                                  S.No     Name UC         ...
Priority of Needs         Food Security;         Livelihood Agriculture, Live stock, business and employment         WA...
1-       AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD                                                                                       ...
Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses   Agricultural losses are dramatic.   KPK reports the least agricultural ...
Loss of stored grain, seeds and                                               straw                           100%        ...
Losses to businesses and employment     Non-farm livelihoods were heavily affected by the floods     Households not enga...
The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activitiesNote: highest 1st and 2nd highest need are ...
Losses in Livestock      Livestock was a major livelihood source in the communities, in addition to that livestock was   ...
2-       SHELTER SOLUTIONS AND THE REPAIR AND REBUILDING OF THEIR HOUSES         42% of households surveyed reported that...
Table 9 - Shelter Need Assessment                                    Figure 27 - Main Material and Type of House
Figure 28: Main material needed       The assessment indicates dire need for shelter as only 4% of the communities are in...
Current Situation of Shelter                                    9%                                                        ...
3-       WASH (WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE)Water         Increased use of unprotected water sources for drinking across,  ...
Drinking Water Source Sufficient   100    90    80    70    60    50                                                      ...
Water Containment                                                                               Filtering                 ...
Sanitation     At the household level men and women reported separately about the availability and condition      of latr...
Hygiene        Interviews with households indicate that many people know about washing hands prior to eating         but ...
Environmental issues relating to public health      Stagnant water remained where people were living      The most stagn...
Nutrition               The floods have had a negative impact on infant feeding practices.               Nursing mothers...
Nowshera and Charsadda Health Issues:  Total 23 UCs are affected out of 47 affected completely and cut off from three side...
Figure 40 - Health Problems
4-        SOCIAL PROTECTION, FOOD SECURITY             AND   SOCIAL                                                       ...
Available Food Stock      100%       90%       80%       70%       60%                                                    ...
Loss of Food Stocks   100%    90%    80%    70%    60%    50%    40%                                                      ...
Markets        Communities and sites men had access to a functioning market.        Communities surveyed women had acces...
Figure 46 - Women Access to Functional MarketsFigure 47 - Men Access to Functional Markets
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
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Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011

  1. 1. 2010 District Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab) and District Nowshera and District Charsadda (KPK)INTERFAITHLEAGUE PARTICIPATORY RAPID HUMANITARIAN NEEDAGAINST ASSESSMENT (PRHNA) REPORTPOVERTY Report by: Asif Kabani and Maliha A. Kabani (Consultant) with support from I-LAP Team
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSTable of Figures ................................................................................................................................................................... 6List of Tables ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9Abbreviations and Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................. 10Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11Research Methodology ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 Sampling ............................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Sample size and distribution ................................................................................................................................................. 15 Selection of the number of villages for the survey: ......................................................................................................... 15 Selection of UCs and villages ............................................................................................................................................ 15 Methodology - Data collection .............................................................................................................................................. 16 Data gathering process .................................................................................................................................................... 16 Information Management ................................................................................................................................................ 16About the Organization ..................................................................................................................................................... 19 Vision ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Mission .................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................................. 20Background of 2010 Flood in Pakistan ............................................................................................................................... 21 Impact of Flood Wave ...................................................................................................................................................... 22 Aftermath ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23Charsadda and Nowshera Floods Situational Assessment and Findings ............................................................................. 26 Chasadda: ............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Nowshera .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 The Longer Term Impact ....................................................................................................................................................... 27 Need of the detailed Survey and ILAP Response ................................................................................................................... 27 I-LAP Targeted UCs of Charsadda ................................................................................................................................... 30 I-LAP Targeted UCs of Nowshera ................................................................................................................................... 30 Priority of Needs .............................................................................................................................................................. 311- Agriculture and Livelihood ........................................................................................................................................ 32 Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses ..................................................................................................................... 33 Losses to Stored Food Items .................................................................................................................................................. 34 Losses to businesses and employment .................................................................................................................................. 35 The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activities .................................................................... 36
  3. 3. Losses in Livestock ................................................................................................................................................................. 372- Shelter solutions and the repair and rebuilding of their houses ............................................................................... 383- WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) .......................................................................................................................... 42 Water .................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Sanitation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Hygiene ................................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Environmental issues relating to public health ..................................................................................................................... 47 Nutrition ................................................................................................................................................................................ 48 Health .................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Nowshera and Charsadda Health Issues: .............................................................................................................................. 494- Social Protection, Food Security and Social Safety Nets ............................................................................................ 51 Food stock ............................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Markets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 545- Others – Cross cutting issues of Vulnerability, Protection, Gender issues women/cultural issues/PEACE, MassCommunications and Environment .................................................................................................................................... 56 ID cards and documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 56 Vulnerability and Protection Issues ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Community Services and Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................ 56 Education .............................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Health service delivery .......................................................................................................................................................... 57 Mass Communication............................................................................................................................................................ 59 Vulnerable Children ............................................................................................................................................................... 59 Disputes at the Site ............................................................................................................................................................... 59 Violence against Women ...................................................................................................................................................... 60RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS ............................................................................ 64 Demography: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Religion: ................................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Languages ............................................................................................................................................................................. 65 Literacy and education .......................................................................................................................................................... 65 The Flood ............................................................................................................................................................................... 66
  4. 4. Priority of Needs .................................................................................................................................................................... 67 Tehsils & Unions in the District of Rahim Yar Khan .......................................................................................................... 681- Agriculture and Livelihood ........................................................................................................................................ 70 Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses ..................................................................................................................... 71 Losses to businesses and employment .................................................................................................................................. 74 The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activities .................................................................... 752- Shelter solutions and the repair and rebuilding of their houses ............................................................................... 773- WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) .......................................................................................................................... 80 Water .................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 Sanitation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 83 Hygiene ................................................................................................................................................................................. 83 Environmental issues relating to public health ..................................................................................................................... 84 Nutrition ................................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Health .................................................................................................................................................................................... 854- Social Protection, Food Security and Social Safety Nets ............................................................................................ 87 Food stock ............................................................................................................................................................................. 87 Markets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 895- Others – Cross cutting issues of Vulnerability, Protection, Gender issues women/cultural issues/PEACE, MassCommunications and Environment .................................................................................................................................... 91 ID cards and documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Vulnerability and Protection Issues ....................................................................................................................................... 91 Community Services and Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................ 91 Education .............................................................................................................................................................................. 92 Health service delivery .......................................................................................................................................................... 92 Mass Communication............................................................................................................................................................ 94 Vulnerable Children ............................................................................................................................................................... 94 Disputes at the Site ............................................................................................................................................................... 94 Violence against Women ...................................................................................................................................................... 95RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 98 Livelihood (Agriculture, Livestock, Cash-for-Work and others) ............................................................................................. 98
  5. 5. Agriculture/ Farming ............................................................................................................................................................. 98Livestock ................................................................................................................................................................................ 99Shelter and Food Security .................................................................................................................................................... 100Health and WASH................................................................................................................................................................ 101Interfaith Harmony and Peace ............................................................................................................................................ 104Education ............................................................................................................................................................................ 106
  6. 6. TABLE OF FIGURESFIGURE 1: MAP INDICATING FOCUS AREA ............................................................................................................................................ 12FIGURE 2: DISTRICT RAHIM YAR KHAN OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 13FIGURE 3: NOWSHERA OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................................... 14FIGURE 4: CHARSADDA OVERVIEW..................................................................................................................................................... 14FIGURE 5: DATA COLLECTION MECHANISM ......................................................................................................................................... 16FIGURE 6: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MECHANISM .......................................................................................................................... 16FIGURE 8: TRAINING SESSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 17FIGURE 9: DATA COLLECTION WITH COMMUNITY .................................................................................................................................. 17FIGURE 7: TRAINING SESSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 17FIGURE 10: WE THE COMMUNITY ..................................................................................................................................................... 18FIGURE 11: GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS SELECTED FOR DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................................................ 18FIGURE 12: MAP OF FLOOD HIT AREAS IN PAKISTAN (2010) .................................................................................................................. 22FIGURE 13: TRACK OF FLOOD WAVE ALONG INDUS RIVER ....................................................................................................................... 23FIGURE 14: FLOOD FLOW ................................................................................................................................................................. 24FIGURE 15: PRIORITY NEEDS TO REVIVE COMMUNITY LIFE CYCLE ............................................................................................................ 31FIGURE 16 - CHANGE IN LIVELIHOOD .................................................................................................................................................. 32FIGURE 17 - PERCENTAGE OF CROPLAND LOST ..................................................................................................................................... 33FIGURE 18 - PERCENT OF CROP LOSS.................................................................................................................................................. 33FIGURE 19 - HOW LONG LOST ASSETS SHOULD HAVE LASTED.................................................................................................................. 34FIGURE 20 - EFFECT ON BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................................................. 35FIGURE 21 - DECLINE IN HOUSEHOLD INCOME ..................................................................................................................................... 35FIGURE 22 - 1ST HIGHEST NEEDS ...................................................................................................................................................... 36FIGURE 23 - 2ND HIGHEST NEEDS ..................................................................................................................................................... 36FIGURE 25: LIVESTOCK LOSS ............................................................................................................................................................. 37FIGURE 24: IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK LOSS.............................................................................................................................................. 37FIGURE 26 - LAND OWNERSHIP ......................................................................................................................................................... 38FIGURE 27 - MAIN MATERIAL AND TYPE OF HOUSE .............................................................................................................................. 39FIGURE 28: MAIN MATERIAL NEEDED ................................................................................................................................................. 40FIGURE 29: CURRENT SITUATION OF SHELTER ...................................................................................................................................... 41FIGURE 30 - DRINKING WATER SOURCES, BEFORE AND AFTER FLOODS..................................................................................................... 42FIGURE 31 - SUFFICIENT DRINKING WATER SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 43FIGURE 32 - STATUS OF REPAIR OF WATER SOURCES............................................................................................................................. 43FIGURE 33 - WATER CONTAINMENT METHOD ..................................................................................................................................... 44FIGURE 34 - WATER TREATMENT METHODS SINCE FLOODS.................................................................................................................... 44
  7. 7. FIGURE 35 - SITE OF DEFECATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 45FIGURE 36 - SOAP AND WATER BEFORE EATING ................................................................................................................................... 46FIGURE 37 - SANITARY NAPKINS SINCE THE FLOODS .............................................................................................................................. 46FIGURE 38 - POOLS OF STAGNANT WATER .......................................................................................................................................... 47FIGURE 39 - NEAREST HEALTH FACILITY FOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ..................................................................................................... 49FIGURE 40 - HEALTH PROBLEMS........................................................................................................................................................ 50FIGURE 41 - AVAILABLE FOOD STOCK ................................................................................................................................................. 52FIGURE 42 - LOSS OF FOOD STOCKS ................................................................................................................................................... 53FIGURE 43 - SPENDING ON FOOD ...................................................................................................................................................... 53FIGURE 44 - ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ................................................................................................................................... 54FIGURE 45 - COMMODITIES AVAILABLE NOW ....................................................................................................................................... 54FIGURE 46 - WOMEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ....................................................................................................................... 55FIGURE 47 - MEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ............................................................................................................................ 55FIGURE 48 - COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 56FIGURE 49 - EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 57FIGURE 50 – HEALTH SETTINGS ......................................................................................................................................................... 57FIGURE 51 - HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY TIME ...................................................................................................................................... 58FIGURE 52 - HEALTH LEVEL OF DAMAGE ............................................................................................................................................. 58FIGURE 53 - MASS COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................................................... 59FIGURE 54 - CONFLICTS RESOLUTION ................................................................................................................................................. 60FIGURE 55 - PERCEPTION OF SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................... 60FIGURE 56 - MINORITIES.................................................................................................................................................................. 61FIGURE 57 - INTERFAITH DIALOGUE ................................................................................................................................................... 61FIGURE 58 - PEACE MISSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 62FIGURE 60: RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOOD SITUATION (COURTESY UNOCHA) ................................................................................................ 66FIGURE 61 - CHANGE IN LIVELIHOOD .................................................................................................................................................. 70FIGURE 62 - LIVE STOCK LOSSES ........................................................................................................................................................ 72FIGURE 63 - PERCENTAGE OF CROPLAND LOST ..................................................................................................................................... 72FIGURE 64 - PERCENT OF CROP LOSS.................................................................................................................................................. 73FIGURE 65 - HOW LONG LOST ASSETS SHOULD HAVE LASTED.................................................................................................................. 73FIGURE 66 - EFFECT ON BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................................................. 74FIGURE 67 - DECLINE IN HOUSEHOLD INCOME ..................................................................................................................................... 75FIGURE 68 - 1ST HIGHEST NEEDS ...................................................................................................................................................... 75FIGURE 69 - 2ND HIGHEST NEEDS ..................................................................................................................................................... 76FIGURE 70 - LAND OWNERSHIP ......................................................................................................................................................... 77
  8. 8. FIGURE 71 - MAIN MATERIAL AND TYPE OF HOUSE .............................................................................................................................. 78FIGURE 72: MAIN MATERIAL UTILIZATION/ NEEDED............................................................................................................................... 79FIGURE 73 - DRINKING WATER SOURCES, BEFORE AND AFTER FLOODS..................................................................................................... 80FIGURE 74 - SUFFICIENT DRINKING WATER SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 81FIGURE 75 - STATUS OF REPAIR OF WATER SOURCES............................................................................................................................. 81FIGURE 76 - WATER CONTAINMENT METHOD ..................................................................................................................................... 82FIGURE 77 - WATER TREATMENT METHODS SINCE FLOODS.................................................................................................................... 82FIGURE 78 - SITE OF DEFECATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 83FIGURE 79 - SOAP AND WATER BEFORE EATING ................................................................................................................................... 84FIGURE 80 - SANITARY NAPKINS SINCE THE FLOODS .............................................................................................................................. 84FIGURE 81 - POOLS OF STAGNANT WATER .......................................................................................................................................... 85FIGURE 82 - NEAREST HEALTH FACILITY FOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ..................................................................................................... 86FIGURE 83: I-LAP TEAM INVESTIGATING MNCH HEALTH ISSUES IN THE COMMUNITIES ................................................................................ 86FIGURE 84 - AVAILABLE FOOD STOCK ................................................................................................................................................. 87FIGURE 85 - LOSS OF FOOD STOCKS ................................................................................................................................................... 88FIGURE 86 - SPENDING ON FOOD ...................................................................................................................................................... 88FIGURE 87 - ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ................................................................................................................................... 89FIGURE 88 - COMMODITIES AVAILABLE NOW ....................................................................................................................................... 89FIGURE 89 - WOMEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ....................................................................................................................... 90FIGURE 90 - MEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ............................................................................................................................ 90FIGURE 91 - COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 91FIGURE 92 - EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 92FIGURE 93 - HEALTH ....................................................................................................................................................................... 92FIGURE 94 - HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY TIME ...................................................................................................................................... 93FIGURE 95 - HEALTH LEVEL OF DAMAGE ............................................................................................................................................. 93FIGURE 96 - MASS COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................................................... 94FIGURE 97 - CONFLICTS RESOLUTION ................................................................................................................................................. 95FIGURE 98 - PERCEPTION OF SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................... 95FIGURE 99 - MINORITIES.................................................................................................................................................................. 96FIGURE 100 - INTERFAITH DIALOGUE ................................................................................................................................................. 96FIGURE 59: KEY AGRICULTURE DATA (COURTESY FAO) ......................................................................................................................... 98
  9. 9. LIST OF TABLESTABLE 1: OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................................................................ 13TABLE 2: DISTRUCTION ANALYSIS OF KPK AND PUNJAB ......................................................................................................................... 14TABLE 3: SAMPLE SIZE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15SOURCE: NDMA,PDMAS,GBDMA,FDMA TABLE 4 - PAKISTAN FLOOD LOSSES (AS OF 13 OCTOBER 2010)................................................ 24TABLE 5: FLOOD AFFECTED COMMUNITIES ........................................................................................................................................... 28TABLE 6: AFFECTED POPULATION OF KPK ........................................................................................................................................... 29TABLE 7: I-LAP TARGETED UCS OF CHARSADDA ................................................................................................................................... 30TABLE 8: I-LAP TARGETED UCS OF NOWSHERA .................................................................................................................................... 30TABLE 9 - SHELTER NEED ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 39TABLE 10 - ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 64TABLE 11 - TEHSILS & UNIONS IN THE DISTRICT OF RAHIM YAR KHAN ...................................................................................................... 69TABLE 12 - SHELTER NEED ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................. 78
  10. 10. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSRYK Rahim Yar KhanI-LAP Interfaith League Against PovertyUN United NationsUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeMDG Millennium Development GoalsKPK Khyber Pakhtoon KhawaPRHNA Participatory Rapid Humanitarian Needs Assessment
  11. 11. OVERVIEWOn 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding couldoccur from July to September in the north parts of the country. The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression, thatchange the whole socio economic scenario of Pakistan leading toworst crises and heighten gaps towards achievement of MillenniumDevelopment Goals.Keeping in consideration the disaster‟s magnitude and in-line with I-LAP‟s mission the organization immediately responded to supportthe people in catastrophe with all possible means. As part ofresponse phase I-LAP started with Food items, NFI distribution,shelter and WASH in three badly affected districts naming RahimYar Khan (Punjab), Nowshera (KPK) and Charsadda (KPK).A Participatory Rapid Humanitarian Needs Assessment (PRHNA) was conducted in the abovementioned three districts .This Rapid Assessment was conducted based on the international best practice, methods and tools usedin Pakistan Flood 2010 by Government, UN and development partners in Pakistan. This assessment wasconducted in 2 adversely flood affected provinces of Pakistan from 15th to 21st October 2010. Peopleliving in villages, as well as camps, collective centres and sites of spontaneous displacement weresurveyed across a total of 3 district Punjab: R.Y. Khan and KPK: Charsadda and Nowshera. Teams ofmale and female researchers carried out household assessments with close to 770 households andfacilitated separate male and female community focus group discussions in 96 villages and settlements.The aim of the assessment was to provide deep insight into situation in three adversely affected districtsand advice and facilitate response to these regions. The modus operandi for the research has beenbased on standard format and table so donor and partners can use the information and produce adetailed summary of findings in line with the information needs defined by the clusters in Pakistan underthe auspices of the Inter Cluster Coordination Mechanism.
  12. 12. The assessment had a total working time frame of approximately 10 days to identify community needs.Information from the community was gathered on tools naming „Household Assessment‟ and„Community Assessment‟ by the enumerators who were priority trained on the tool and divided in teams.At second stage the information gathered through questionnaire was entered into database developed bythe consultant based on the international formats used by development partners. A highly qualified andcharged team of students provided their day and night services to enter such through data in a short timeof few hours. Another team of professionals supported in data normalization alongside I-LAP‟s fieldteams. Detail analysis of data was done by the consultant to diagnose areas where communities needimmediate humanitarian response to survive and recover from calamity. This report has been majorlydivided into two segments, the first part gives holistic picture of suffering and dire needs focused on thethree regions, and the second part discusses in detail all three regions (Rahim Yar Khan, Nowshera andCharsadda) separately and highlight elements that need to be addressed in context of local scenario.Figure 1: Map indicating focus area
  13. 13. Villages/ Community Districts Tehsils UCs HH Level Province settlements Level Included Included included Interviews included Interviews Punjab 1 4 12 See list 400 36 KPK 2 3 8 See list 400 69 Total 3 7 20 See list 800 105Table 1: OverviewFigure 2: District Rahim Yar Khan Overview
  14. 14. Figure 3: Nowshera Overview Figure 4: Charsadda Overview Province Persons affected Villages affected Homes destroyed or damaged Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 4,365,909 2,834 181,433 Punjab 8,200,000 3,000 500,000 Total 17,620,310 at least 10,952 1,237,493 Table 2: Distruction Analysis of KPK and Punjab
  15. 15. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSampling The geographic scope of the floods and the time frame available, a geographically dispersed purposive sample of the population in areas most affected was covered in the assessment. The objective of the assessment was to survey at the household and community levels, against a pre- defined questionnaire, the circumstances, needs and priorities of people affected by the floods. As such, this kind of assessment paints a picture of humanitarian needs and gives a voice to those affected by the disaster. This information can be combined with other sources including population projections and historical baseline information to make assumptions of overall needs, but it cannot be statistically extrapolated to arrive at firm numeric conclusions.Sample size and distributionSelection of the number of villages for the survey: As of the 17th August, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) reported a total of 8,518 villages affected by the floods. Of the total, 3% (237) were in Gilgit Baltistan, 33% (2,834) were in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 32% (2,587) were in Punjab and 32% (2,760) were in Sindh. I- LAP has intervened in two of the mentioned provinces, with two districts in KPK and one district in Punjab. The sample has been taken from these three areas. The sample size is as follow: Province District Population size Sample % Confidential Level Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 5,500 7.27% 95% Khyber Charsada 4,000 6.49% 95% Pukhtankhan Nowshera 4,000 6.49% 95%Table 3: Sample Size Secondly, the available human resources and logistics that could be mobilized at short notice and considering the distances and accessibility of affected areas from provincial hubs in terms of what could be covered in the 2-6 days available for field research.Selection of UCs and villages  ILAP was working with the communities in KPK and Punjab on areas needing support for sustainable community development. When flood hit the areas, the organization
  16. 16. immediately responded to the situation in the areas through rescue and relief efforts. Many members of the team comprise locals, thus they are very close to the real situation. Based on the fact, the UCs and villages were identified by the team where immediate response is much needed in comparison and where other aid agencies are not much present, to avoid duplication of funding. (see Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4) .Methodology - Data collection In each village/site, 2 types of questionnaires were administered;  Household questionnaires: administered by male and female enumerators/ social organizers with the most informed male and female household members. 10 household questionnaires were conducted per village/site.  Community questionnaires: administered separately by male and female social organizers with male and female community groups of approximately 10-15 people.Data gathering process Meeting with Revision and Assessment Tools Program Teams finalization of tool Physical Survey in Verfication of data Training of Field R.Y. Khan, Charsada received in field Teams and Nowshera OfficesFigure 5: Data Collection MechanismInformation Management Selectionof Forms Assessment Tools Management and Verification of Data Entry Information System data from field Technical Correction Review of data with to Clean and Pivot Analysis data Analyst Normalized dataFigure 6: Information Management Mechanism
  17. 17. Figure 7: Training SessionFigure 8: Training Session Figure 9: Data collection with community
  18. 18. Figure 10: WE the communityFigure 11: Geographic Regions selected for data collection
  19. 19. ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION The Interfaith League Against Poverty is a non-profit organization, works in partnership with International and National Partners. I-LAP is a nonpartisan, development organization dedicated to promote the religious tolerance, acceptance, and respect for all religions in Pakistani society. The organization has always responded to the people in difficult situation no matter it is natural calamity or man-made hard to survival situation. The organization has supported many communities in 2005 earthquake response and touched many lives that were at risk from all respects. When this year, flood hit majority areas of Pakistan and created a situation where survival was no less difficult than rescue as the population affected was more than ever expected. Since the day emergency has been announced in the areas I-LAP immediately started its operations in adversely affected areas including Nowshera and Charsadda in KPK and Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab. Besides providing food and non-food-items (NFIs) the organization has moved along the community in the response and rehabilitation phase and aims at Community Rebuilding and stand along community till the enter the era of revival of all everyday activities.
  20. 20. Vision “To create a new generation of peace workers, peace defenders, and peace negotiators towards catalyzing positive changes in the community towards prevention of conflicts and promotion and sustenance of peace in the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural Pakistan and beyond”Mission Play vital role in creating awareness among citizens about the importance of interfaith harmony, peace, tolerance and respect for all on the basis of humanity and develop the sense of belongingness within the society.Objectives The objective of I-LAP shall be to render the essential services to the unrecalled people who live in the neglected areas of Islamabad District. The following are the main objectives of I-LAP.  To create interfaith harmony among people following varied religions to bring lasting peace and balance in the society leading to sustainable progress  To eradicate illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community to enhance moral, cultural and spiritual values of education.  Empower women and other vulnerable groups through providing facility of vocational centres and entrepreneurship opportunities with the participation of youth of low-income areas to enhance their capacities through skill development.
  21. 21. “I will never forget the destruction and sufferings I have witnessed today”… United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki-moonBACKGROUND OF 2010 FLOOD IN PAKISTAN On 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding could occur from July to September in the north parts of the country. The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression, that change the whole socio economic scenario of Pakistan leading to worst crises and heighten gaps towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals. Even UN- Secretary General Ban-Ki-Moon expressed in his visit that he has never seen such disaster with such big impact and magnitude. “A heart-wrenching day for me and for my delegation” said Ban Ki-moon. “ I will never forget the destruction and sufferings I have witnessed today, …In the past I have visited scenes of many natural disasters around the world, but nothing like this. The scale of this disaster is so large and there are so many people in so many places in so much need.”
  22. 22. Figure 12: Map of Flood Hit Areas in Pakistan (2010)Impact of Flood WaveIn early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely-affectednorthern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland wasdestroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The crops affected were cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses,tobacco and animal fodder. Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres (3,000 km2) of cotton,200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and cane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000km2) of animal fodder. According to the Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2million bales of cotton, which led to an increase in futures of the commodity in international market.170,000 citizens (or 70% of the population) of the historic Sindh town of Thatta fled advancing floodwaters on 27 August 2010.By mid-September the floods generally had began to recede, although in some areas, such as Sindh, newfloods were reported; the majority of the displaced persons had not been able to return home.
  23. 23. Figure 13: Track of flood wave along Indus RiverAt one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistans total land area was underwater. According toPakistani government data the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction ofproperty, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000. The number of individualsaffected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Oceantsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.AftermathThe power infrastructure of Pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood waterinundated Jinnah Hydro power and 150 power houses in Gilgit. The damage caused a power shortfall of3.135 gigawatt. Aid agencies have warned that outbreaks of diseases, such as: gastroenteritis, diarrhea,and skin diseases due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation can pose a serious new risk to floodvictims. On 14 August, the first documented case of cholera emerged in the town of Mingora, striking
  24. 24. fear into millions of stranded floodvictims, who are already suffering fromgastroenteritis and diarrhea. Pakistanhas also faced a malaria outbreak. It hasbeen reported by the International RedCross that a large number ofunexploded ordinance, such as minesand artillery shells, have been flusheddown stream by the floods from areasin Kashmir and Waziristan andscattered in low lying areas, posing afuture risk to returning inhabitants. TheUnited Nations estimated that 800,000 Figure 14: Flood flowpeople have been cut off by floods inPakistan and are only reachable by air. It also stated that at least 40 more helicopters are needed to ferrylifesaving aid to increasingly desperate people. Many of those cut off are in the mountainous northwest,where roads and bridges have been swept away.Province Deaths Injured Houses Damaged Population AffectedKhyber Pakhtunkhwa 1,156 1,198 200,799 3,800,000Punjab 110 350 509,814 8,200,000Total 1,974 3,028 1,910,439 20,274,250Source: NDMA,PDMAs,GBDMA,FDMATable 4 - Pakistan Flood Losses (as of 13 October 2010)The degree of severity to which people have been affected by the floods varies depending on theirparticular losses and damages. UN assessments have been launched in at least three provinces to identifyseverely affected families who require life-saving humanitarian assistance. The UN experts haveidentified 2.7 million people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5.3 million in Punjab and 4.4 million in Sindh thatare in need of immediate humanitarian assistance.
  25. 25. Charsadda and Nowshera Floods Situational Assessment and Findings----------------------------------Devastating floods after the westerlies and monsoon combined
  26. 26. CHARSADDA AND NOWSHERA FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS The local population faced the accumulated flood waters from Kabul and Swat rivers and from numerous flood channels flowing from the adjoining FATA regions and Malakand Division. Even when the flood waters receded the River Kabul continued to flow much beyond its normal span. Indus River had caused a massive flood water back flow resulting in extensive flooding in the southern parts of Nowhsera district and in Swabi. The Humanitarian losses are extensive in terms of loss of lives, livelihoods and housing, as follows:Chasadda: 27 deaths are reported by the district government. However, PDMA losses update of 1 August, 2200 hours, indicates 39 deaths; All 29 Union Councils affected; One million is affected by the disaster as per DCO (they require assistance in some shape); 60,000 are considered to be most vulnerable. They are being provided daily food support so far by the District Government and are among the poorest segments; Internally displaced persons are being housed in 500 educational intuitions across the district; There has been an extensive loss of standing sugarcane and other crops in particular along the eastern bank of River Kabul. Clearly the poorest sections who constitute 80% of the district population1 are the worst affected; Nearly 1000 people have temporarily migrated to Peshawar; and Dead livestock pose a serious health hazard.Nowshera Nowshera is the worse hit out the two districts as massive flooding along either banks of the Kabul River has caused immense losses in lives, habitats, standing crops and in livelihoods. With respect to Nowshera, the PDMA update of 1 August, 2200 hours indicates: Loss of Life: 167 (local civil and military authorities, however, indicate that the loss of life could be as high as 800- 900; Internally displaced: 500,000; and Nearly 4000 are still trapped in life threatening situations. Vulnerability to Water Borne Diseases: The stagnant flood waters pose a major threat of onset of water borne diseases in both the districts: diarrhea, AWT, malaria etc. Loss of Communication Infrastructure: Some road links have been restored but the severed road access, land lines and mobile cell services are seriously impeding assessments of losses and response services delivery. Governance Capacity: has been seriously undermined as many government officials are among the floods affected and are not attending to their functions; The poor
  27. 27. governance capacity combined with frustrations caused by general lack of access to relief assistance is generating public frustration and causing serious law and order situations.The Longer Term Impact The short term vulnerabilities are likely to be accentuated by major losses sustained by the agricultural infrastructure of the region due to damages caused to the water regulatory Munda Headwork (in Upper Charsadda close to Mohmand Agency) and to the irrigation canals. This is likely to gravely undermine the winter crops yield over and above the current losses to the staple and cash crops.Need of the detailed Survey and ILAP Response Given the dire situation, the humanitarian response must concurrently address Humanitarian needs of the flood affected areas in Nowhsera district in particular; Assessments that facilitate in focusing the response to the needs; and Resource mobilization efforts. In the light of this need identification by relevant clusters / agencies ILAP decided to facilitate the process of deployment of respective response outreach across the affected regions. It was noticed that vulnerable communities seem to be poorly represented in the local decision making forums. Therefore it was decided by ILAP board to include them in the humanitarian response outreach; The dimensions of the floods disaster are still not fully known at this stage due to a massive gap in communicating at least what is known. Therefore, improving upon information management constitutes a priority area; It was highly recommended by the inter-agency network working in the region that assessment must factor support to the host families who, as in the past, are accommodating most IDPs across the affected regions; It has been observed that disaster response must factor serious constraints accruing from reduced capacity of the local governance, severed land communications and cell phone coverage; and
  28. 28. Last but not the least the response must be guided by the considerations of humanity, neutrality and impartiality to avert the possibility of the response being guided by political and religious considerations.Table 5: Flood affected communities
  29. 29. Table 6: Affected Population of KPK
  30. 30. I-LAP Targeted UCs of Charsadda S.No Name UC Expected Population 1. Agra 30000 2. Mirza Dher 100000 3. Nissatta 60000 4. Hisara 40000 Yasinzai 5. Hisara 25000 6. Rajar 40000 7. Tangi 60000 8. Tarnab 50000 Table 7: I-LAP targeted UCs of CharsaddaI-LAP Targeted UCs of NowsheraS.No Name UC Expected Population 1. Naway Killay 5000 2. Chowki Town 4000 3. Chowki Memrez 20000 4. Akbar Pura 12000 5. Chowki Darab 8000 6. Balu 4000 7. Taru Jabba 20000 8. Kabal River 10000Table 8: I-LAP targeted UCs of Nowshera
  31. 31. Priority of Needs  Food Security;  Livelihood Agriculture, Live stock, business and employment  WASH with emphasis on potable water distribution;  Health: preventing water borne diseases;  Shelter: The needs identified in the two targeted districts are 10,000 for each;  Clothing for the vulnerable;  Provision of de-watering pumps; and  Generating awareness of disease prevention through mass communication. Food Security; Awareness through mass Livelihood communication. Provision of de- watering pumps; WASH and Clothing for the Health vulnerable; Shelter Figure 15: Priority Needs to Revive Community Life Cycle
  32. 32. 1- AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD Key Findings that Agricultural activities, livestock, and protection and restoration ofKey Findings are that Agricultural activities, livestock and protection and restoration of productive assets are crucial for revival of communities  Based on household recall of their main source of livelihood before the floods, significant changes in livelihood have occurred as a result of the floods.  Before flood most of the communities were dependent on farming/ landowner and livestock as major source of income as following graphs indicates, after flood major fall in the activity can be observed  After flood skilled wage labour has increased from 40% that indicates high need for CASH FOR WORK grants for community revival productive assets are crucial for revival of communities Change in Livelihood 100% Remittances 90% Unskilled wage labor 80% 70% Skilled wage labor 60% Shopkeeper/Trader 50% Income support (Zakat/Aid etc) 40% Services(Govt or Pvt) 30% Agri. Commodities trade (fruit 20% and vegetables) Livestock 10% 0% Farming/Landowner Before After Figure 16 - Change in Livelihood
  33. 33. Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses Agricultural losses are dramatic. KPK reports the least agricultural land lost (around 50%). Significant losses in animal fodder. Over 40% of households report losing the majority or their entire rice crop. In spite of losses, households still possess livestock. A large proportion of fodder has been lost so feed for these animals is a priority. The most often cited reason for the inability to plant the next crop was that the households do not expect the floodwaters to recede in time. Percentage of Cropland Lost KPK Punjab 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90Figure 17 - Percentage of Cropland Lost Percent of Crop Loss 100% 80% 5=76-100% 60% 4=51-75% 40% 3=26-50% 2= 1-25% 20% 1= None 0% Rice Pulse Cotton Sugar Cane Maize VegetablesFigure 18 - Percent of Crop Loss
  34. 34. Loss of stored grain, seeds and straw 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% One quarter 40% 30% Half 20% Three quarters 10% All 0%Figure 19 - How long Lost Assets Should have LastedLosses to Stored Food Items  Most of the communities have lost their stored food and grains  45% respondent communities have lost all types of food items  50% has lost stored seeds, resulting in crucial damage to ability to cultivate next crop creating an alarming situation to livelihood  50-60% have lost all fodder and shelter for their livestock in addition to animal loss  These figures raises alarming situation in reference to upcoming livelihood revival in the communities
  35. 35. Losses to businesses and employment  Non-farm livelihoods were heavily affected by the floods  Households not engaged in agriculture report that there business or employment situation has been “totally effected” by the floods.  Households reported that their non-agricultural livelihood had not been impacted. Figure 20 - Effect on Business Employment Figure 21 - Decline in Household Income
  36. 36. The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activitiesNote: highest 1st and 2nd highest need are inter linked with other Inputs (seed, fertilizers, tools), Finance(cash for work, etc), Land reclamation Repair and Rehabilitation and Material Assistance. 1st Highest Needs of your household now A. Cash for work 8% B. Food for work 7% F. Livestock 23% C. Food aid E. Agricultural 17% Inputs 26% D. Shelter 19%Figure 22 - 1st Highest Needs 2nd Highest Needs of your household now M. Protection 2% G. NFI L. Health 22% 21% H. Nutrition K. Education 12% 19% J. WASH 24%Figure 23 - 2nd Highest Needs
  37. 37. Losses in Livestock  Livestock was a major livelihood source in the communities, in addition to that livestock was also important for other areas in the country and to cover the nutrition of the local families, thus the loss will not only result in economic losses but will also reflect on local and national health specifically in reference to mother and child health, creating and alarming situation towards achievement of MDG Loss of Livelihood 3 and 4. Soruce  50-60% have lost all fodder and shelter for their livestock in addition to animal loss National  These figures raises alarming situation Impact Mother and in reference to upcoming livelihood (nutrition as Child Health revival in the communities major source (mal-nutrition) of protein) Figure 24: Impact of Livestock Loss Livestock (Animals) 100% 90% 80% 9. Animals Lost in Flood 70% 8. Camels 60% 7. Donkey/mules 6. Oxen 50% 5. Horses 40% 4. Poultry 30% 3. Sheep/goats 20% 2. Buffaloes 1. Cows 10% 0% Before After Figure 25: Livestock Loss
  38. 38. 2- SHELTER SOLUTIONS AND THE REPAIR AND REBUILDING OF THEIR HOUSES  42% of households surveyed reported that their house was completely destroyed  Only 9% of households surveyed reported that their houses were not damaged  86% of households reported that they owned the land they lived on prior to the floods  27% reported that they are concerned that they have lost the land their house was build on  Materials to be used for re-building and repair o Tent o Temporary shelter o Cash to purchase non-food items Figure 26 - Land Ownership
  39. 39. Table 9 - Shelter Need Assessment Figure 27 - Main Material and Type of House
  40. 40. Figure 28: Main material needed  The assessment indicates dire need for shelter as only 4% of the communities are in settled in their residence, all rest 96% has suffered one way or the other.  The most needy are the 54% whose shelter are all destroyed and they have most of the building materials meaning they need immediate support in form of material and grant and shelter too  24% are left with debris that means they immediately need some material to re-use some of the material they are left with  Winter season has started in the region and already weather at night is chilli, just after a month the weather will be cold and if the shelter is still not provided many lives of vulnerable will be at risk and pneumonia could raise death toll.
  41. 41. Current Situation of Shelter 9% 1. On the site of the house (damaged 3% house/tent) 2. Spontaneous settlement 37% 15% 3. Camp 4. Host family 5. Rented accommodation 6. Collective centers (schools/public 6% buildings) 30%Figure 29: Current situation of Shelter
  42. 42. 3- WASH (WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE)Water  Increased use of unprotected water sources for drinking across,  Approximately a 20% drop in the sufficiency of water reported  The drop in access to protected water sources was most pronounced in Punjab  Reduction in the quantity of drinking water available across  Disrepair and damage to water sources as compared to the pre-flood situation.  Households in the survey report using some kind of water treatment method  Households reported having appropriate, safe water storage.  It is adult women who are most likely to be the ones collecting water. Drinking water source (WS1, WS2) 100% 90% 80% Other unimproved sources 70% Other Improved sources 60% Bowser/Tanker Piped water supply 50% Unprotected hand pump 40% Protected hand pump Unprotected well/spring 30% Protected well/spring 20% Canals/ponds/rivers 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 30 - Drinking Water Sources, Before and After Floods
  43. 43. Drinking Water Source Sufficient 100 90 80 70 60 50 Before 40 After 30 20 10 0 1=SufficientFigure 31 - Sufficient Drinking Water Sources Status of Repair of Water Sources 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 3=Not working 50% 2= Disrepair 40% 1= Good 30% 20% 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 32 - Status of Repair of Water Sources
  44. 44. Water Containment Filtering 3% Boiling 6% Closed container 39% Open storage 39% Dirty container 13%Figure 33 - Water Containment Method Water Treatment Method Since Floods Chemical disinfection 6% Boiling 12% Filtering 6% No Water Treatment Reported 47% Solar 20% Decanting 9%Figure 34 - Water Treatment Methods Since Floods
  45. 45. Sanitation  At the household level men and women reported separately about the availability and condition of latrines.  The results show very little difference between the reporting of men and women and also illustrate that their perceptions were consistent.  Less than 10-20% of households had access to a toilet that was considered to be clean and in good working order.  For men, women, boys and girls there has been a decrease in the use of household latrines and an increase in the use of communal latrines and in defecating in the open. Site of Defecation 100% 90% 80% 5=(open field(away from shelter) 70% 4= Near to 60% Shelter(Excrement left) 50% 3=Near to shelter(Excrement 40% removed) 2=latrines(Household) 30% 20% 1=Latrines(communal) 10% 0% 1 Figure 35 - Site of Defecation
  46. 46. Hygiene  Interviews with households indicate that many people know about washing hands prior to eating but are not available with sources. Only 6% of households report not washing hands at all. Soap and Water Before Eating Neither water nor soap 6% Yes, water and soap 26% Only water 68%Figure 36 - Soap and Water Before EatingFigure 37 - Sanitary Napkins since the Floods
  47. 47. Environmental issues relating to public health  Stagnant water remained where people were living  The most stagnant water was reported in Punjab  Women are most likely, in all provinces, to be the ones responsible for removing garbage from houses/shelters.  Households reported a lot of vectors (in this case mosquito) around their dwellings.  Dengue cases are also an alarm to human life not only in the flood affected region but also the other areas of the country too as people are rapidly moving between regions these days. Pools of Stagnant Water 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 3. A lot 50% 2. Few 40% 1. None 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Figure 38 - Pools of Stagnant Water
  48. 48. Nutrition  The floods have had a negative impact on infant feeding practices.  Nursing mothers report at the household level that they have reduced breast feeding and some have stopped breast feeding since the floods  Women report that they do not have sufficient privacy to breast feed  Mothers with young children report having to reduce the complementary food given.  Across both provinces there were reports of distribution of infant feeding supplies.  Specialized nutrition interventions were seldom reported by householdsHealth  Community groups report they are most likely to access health care from a hospital or heath centre.  Fever, skin disease are the most common health concerns in the communities.  Main issue is accessibility to the area due to destruction of roads and bridges.  Diarrheal cases are increasing due to contaminated water  The district health staff are also affected by the floods. Human resource support is provided by EDO H, Mardan  Medicines stock damaged/destroyed in most of the health facilities.
  49. 49. Nowshera and Charsadda Health Issues: Total 23 UCs are affected out of 47 affected completely and cut off from three sides due to destruction of roads and bridges. The affected population is .7 million. Telephone and cellular service is not working in the district. Jalozai camp is also affected and Diarrheal Treatment Center is needed to be establish in Jalozai camp. One DTC each in Pabbi Satellite Hospital and DHQ Nowshera is needed.  DHQ Nowshera is fully affected by floods and hospital infrastructure is fully damaged.  Jalozai camp was cut off for last 3 days due to destruction of main bridge by floods.  Diarrheal cases are increasing in Jalozai camp due to contaminated water  The district health staff is also affected by the floods. Human resource support is provided by EDO H, Peshawar to Pabbi Satellite Hospital.  Drugs stock is damaged, Cholera kits, IEHK, MEHK needed. Health Facility for Access to Health Care 120 100 80 60 Male 40 Female 20 0 BHU ( Basic RHC( Rural THQ(Tehsil DHQ(district Civil dispensary Temporary Mobile Clinic Health Unit) Health Centre) Headquarters Headquarters Health Facility Hospital) Hospital) Figure 39 - Nearest Health Facility for Access to Health Care
  50. 50. Figure 40 - Health Problems
  51. 51. 4- SOCIAL PROTECTION, FOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL DISRUPTION OFSAFETY NETS LOCAL ECONOMY,Food stock MONEY AND MARKETS  Households reported having received food aide in the two The floods has resulted in weeks before the survey major change in socio- economic patterns of the  On average, male and female community groups report residing communities due that children aged between 1 and 5 years old receive less to disruption in livelihood than 2.5 meals a day. There is no reported difference in the sources and destruction of shelter. The situation has amount of food given to male and female children in this raised many social issues age group.11 questioning availability of  Mostly households lost all food stock as a result of the protection mechanism for children and women and floods. other vulnerable groups  The assessment indicated an absence of food stock of specifically minorities in households reported having no food stock the region.
  52. 52. Available Food Stock 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Don’t know 2 – 4 weeks 50% 1- <2 weeks 40% < 1 week No food Stock 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Figure 41 - Available Food Stock Near to 60% of the respondents told that they have no food stock, meaning that they need very regular supply of food for their survival, and they are already mal-nourished as now it has been more than 90 days that they are in this situation. And 15% respondents have less than one week‟s food storage Only 7% of the respondents told that people have more than two weeks food stock with them Indicating high need of food items and food security as major area to be focused
  53. 53. Loss of Food Stocks 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 3. None 30% 2=Part, 20% 1=Full, 10% 0%Figure 42 - Loss of Food Stocks Spend LAST WEEK for FOOD (Rs.) 9. Vegetables, Fruits 8. Meat ,fish ,eggs 7. Milk, Cheese, yogurt 6. Sugar 5. Oil, Ghee ,Butter 4. Dhal Chana 3. Maize 2. Rice 1. Bread Wheat, Wheat Flour 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350Figure 43 - Spending on Food
  54. 54. Markets  Communities and sites men had access to a functioning market.  Communities surveyed women had access to a functioning market.  Communities the closest market was said to be closed.Figure 44 - Access to Functional MarketsFigure 45 - Commodities Available now
  55. 55. Figure 46 - Women Access to Functional MarketsFigure 47 - Men Access to Functional Markets

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