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Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011
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Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2011

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Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2010-2011

Asif Kabani and Maliha Kabani Pakistan Flood Assessment Report 2010-2011

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  • 1. 2010 District Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab) and District Nowshera and District Charsadda (KPK)INTERFAITHLEAGUE PARTICIPATORY RAPID HUMANITARIAN NEEDAGAINST ASSESSMENT (PRHNA) REPORTPOVERTY Report by: Asif Kabani and Maliha A. Kabani (Consultant) with support from I-LAP Team
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTSTable of Figures ................................................................................................................................................................... 6List of Tables ........................................................................................................................................................................ 9Abbreviations and Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................. 10Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11Research Methodology ...................................................................................................................................................... 15 Sampling ............................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Sample size and distribution ................................................................................................................................................. 15 Selection of the number of villages for the survey: ......................................................................................................... 15 Selection of UCs and villages ............................................................................................................................................ 15 Methodology - Data collection .............................................................................................................................................. 16 Data gathering process .................................................................................................................................................... 16 Information Management ................................................................................................................................................ 16About the Organization ..................................................................................................................................................... 19 Vision ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Mission .................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Objectives .............................................................................................................................................................................. 20Background of 2010 Flood in Pakistan ............................................................................................................................... 21 Impact of Flood Wave ...................................................................................................................................................... 22 Aftermath ......................................................................................................................................................................... 23Charsadda and Nowshera Floods Situational Assessment and Findings ............................................................................. 26 Chasadda: ............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 Nowshera .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 The Longer Term Impact ....................................................................................................................................................... 27 Need of the detailed Survey and ILAP Response ................................................................................................................... 27 I-LAP Targeted UCs of Charsadda ................................................................................................................................... 30 I-LAP Targeted UCs of Nowshera ................................................................................................................................... 30 Priority of Needs .............................................................................................................................................................. 311- Agriculture and Livelihood ........................................................................................................................................ 32 Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses ..................................................................................................................... 33 Losses to Stored Food Items .................................................................................................................................................. 34 Losses to businesses and employment .................................................................................................................................. 35 The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activities .................................................................... 36
  • 3. Losses in Livestock ................................................................................................................................................................. 372- Shelter solutions and the repair and rebuilding of their houses ............................................................................... 383- WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) .......................................................................................................................... 42 Water .................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Sanitation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Hygiene ................................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Environmental issues relating to public health ..................................................................................................................... 47 Nutrition ................................................................................................................................................................................ 48 Health .................................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Nowshera and Charsadda Health Issues: .............................................................................................................................. 494- Social Protection, Food Security and Social Safety Nets ............................................................................................ 51 Food stock ............................................................................................................................................................................. 51 Markets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 545- Others – Cross cutting issues of Vulnerability, Protection, Gender issues women/cultural issues/PEACE, MassCommunications and Environment .................................................................................................................................... 56 ID cards and documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 56 Vulnerability and Protection Issues ....................................................................................................................................... 56 Community Services and Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................ 56 Education .............................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Health service delivery .......................................................................................................................................................... 57 Mass Communication............................................................................................................................................................ 59 Vulnerable Children ............................................................................................................................................................... 59 Disputes at the Site ............................................................................................................................................................... 59 Violence against Women ...................................................................................................................................................... 60RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS ............................................................................ 64 Demography: ........................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Religion: ................................................................................................................................................................................ 64 Languages ............................................................................................................................................................................. 65 Literacy and education .......................................................................................................................................................... 65 The Flood ............................................................................................................................................................................... 66
  • 4. Priority of Needs .................................................................................................................................................................... 67 Tehsils & Unions in the District of Rahim Yar Khan .......................................................................................................... 681- Agriculture and Livelihood ........................................................................................................................................ 70 Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses ..................................................................................................................... 71 Losses to businesses and employment .................................................................................................................................. 74 The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activities .................................................................... 752- Shelter solutions and the repair and rebuilding of their houses ............................................................................... 773- WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) .......................................................................................................................... 80 Water .................................................................................................................................................................................... 80 Sanitation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 83 Hygiene ................................................................................................................................................................................. 83 Environmental issues relating to public health ..................................................................................................................... 84 Nutrition ................................................................................................................................................................................ 85 Health .................................................................................................................................................................................... 854- Social Protection, Food Security and Social Safety Nets ............................................................................................ 87 Food stock ............................................................................................................................................................................. 87 Markets ................................................................................................................................................................................. 895- Others – Cross cutting issues of Vulnerability, Protection, Gender issues women/cultural issues/PEACE, MassCommunications and Environment .................................................................................................................................... 91 ID cards and documentation ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Vulnerability and Protection Issues ....................................................................................................................................... 91 Community Services and Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................ 91 Education .............................................................................................................................................................................. 92 Health service delivery .......................................................................................................................................................... 92 Mass Communication............................................................................................................................................................ 94 Vulnerable Children ............................................................................................................................................................... 94 Disputes at the Site ............................................................................................................................................................... 94 Violence against Women ...................................................................................................................................................... 95RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 98 Livelihood (Agriculture, Livestock, Cash-for-Work and others) ............................................................................................. 98
  • 5. Agriculture/ Farming ............................................................................................................................................................. 98Livestock ................................................................................................................................................................................ 99Shelter and Food Security .................................................................................................................................................... 100Health and WASH................................................................................................................................................................ 101Interfaith Harmony and Peace ............................................................................................................................................ 104Education ............................................................................................................................................................................ 106
  • 6. TABLE OF FIGURESFIGURE 1: MAP INDICATING FOCUS AREA ............................................................................................................................................ 12FIGURE 2: DISTRICT RAHIM YAR KHAN OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................ 13FIGURE 3: NOWSHERA OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................................................... 14FIGURE 4: CHARSADDA OVERVIEW..................................................................................................................................................... 14FIGURE 5: DATA COLLECTION MECHANISM ......................................................................................................................................... 16FIGURE 6: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT MECHANISM .......................................................................................................................... 16FIGURE 8: TRAINING SESSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 17FIGURE 9: DATA COLLECTION WITH COMMUNITY .................................................................................................................................. 17FIGURE 7: TRAINING SESSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 17FIGURE 10: WE THE COMMUNITY ..................................................................................................................................................... 18FIGURE 11: GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS SELECTED FOR DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................................................ 18FIGURE 12: MAP OF FLOOD HIT AREAS IN PAKISTAN (2010) .................................................................................................................. 22FIGURE 13: TRACK OF FLOOD WAVE ALONG INDUS RIVER ....................................................................................................................... 23FIGURE 14: FLOOD FLOW ................................................................................................................................................................. 24FIGURE 15: PRIORITY NEEDS TO REVIVE COMMUNITY LIFE CYCLE ............................................................................................................ 31FIGURE 16 - CHANGE IN LIVELIHOOD .................................................................................................................................................. 32FIGURE 17 - PERCENTAGE OF CROPLAND LOST ..................................................................................................................................... 33FIGURE 18 - PERCENT OF CROP LOSS.................................................................................................................................................. 33FIGURE 19 - HOW LONG LOST ASSETS SHOULD HAVE LASTED.................................................................................................................. 34FIGURE 20 - EFFECT ON BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................................................. 35FIGURE 21 - DECLINE IN HOUSEHOLD INCOME ..................................................................................................................................... 35FIGURE 22 - 1ST HIGHEST NEEDS ...................................................................................................................................................... 36FIGURE 23 - 2ND HIGHEST NEEDS ..................................................................................................................................................... 36FIGURE 25: LIVESTOCK LOSS ............................................................................................................................................................. 37FIGURE 24: IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK LOSS.............................................................................................................................................. 37FIGURE 26 - LAND OWNERSHIP ......................................................................................................................................................... 38FIGURE 27 - MAIN MATERIAL AND TYPE OF HOUSE .............................................................................................................................. 39FIGURE 28: MAIN MATERIAL NEEDED ................................................................................................................................................. 40FIGURE 29: CURRENT SITUATION OF SHELTER ...................................................................................................................................... 41FIGURE 30 - DRINKING WATER SOURCES, BEFORE AND AFTER FLOODS..................................................................................................... 42FIGURE 31 - SUFFICIENT DRINKING WATER SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 43FIGURE 32 - STATUS OF REPAIR OF WATER SOURCES............................................................................................................................. 43FIGURE 33 - WATER CONTAINMENT METHOD ..................................................................................................................................... 44FIGURE 34 - WATER TREATMENT METHODS SINCE FLOODS.................................................................................................................... 44
  • 7. FIGURE 35 - SITE OF DEFECATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 45FIGURE 36 - SOAP AND WATER BEFORE EATING ................................................................................................................................... 46FIGURE 37 - SANITARY NAPKINS SINCE THE FLOODS .............................................................................................................................. 46FIGURE 38 - POOLS OF STAGNANT WATER .......................................................................................................................................... 47FIGURE 39 - NEAREST HEALTH FACILITY FOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ..................................................................................................... 49FIGURE 40 - HEALTH PROBLEMS........................................................................................................................................................ 50FIGURE 41 - AVAILABLE FOOD STOCK ................................................................................................................................................. 52FIGURE 42 - LOSS OF FOOD STOCKS ................................................................................................................................................... 53FIGURE 43 - SPENDING ON FOOD ...................................................................................................................................................... 53FIGURE 44 - ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ................................................................................................................................... 54FIGURE 45 - COMMODITIES AVAILABLE NOW ....................................................................................................................................... 54FIGURE 46 - WOMEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ....................................................................................................................... 55FIGURE 47 - MEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ............................................................................................................................ 55FIGURE 48 - COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 56FIGURE 49 - EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 57FIGURE 50 – HEALTH SETTINGS ......................................................................................................................................................... 57FIGURE 51 - HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY TIME ...................................................................................................................................... 58FIGURE 52 - HEALTH LEVEL OF DAMAGE ............................................................................................................................................. 58FIGURE 53 - MASS COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................................................... 59FIGURE 54 - CONFLICTS RESOLUTION ................................................................................................................................................. 60FIGURE 55 - PERCEPTION OF SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................... 60FIGURE 56 - MINORITIES.................................................................................................................................................................. 61FIGURE 57 - INTERFAITH DIALOGUE ................................................................................................................................................... 61FIGURE 58 - PEACE MISSION ........................................................................................................................................................... 62FIGURE 60: RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOOD SITUATION (COURTESY UNOCHA) ................................................................................................ 66FIGURE 61 - CHANGE IN LIVELIHOOD .................................................................................................................................................. 70FIGURE 62 - LIVE STOCK LOSSES ........................................................................................................................................................ 72FIGURE 63 - PERCENTAGE OF CROPLAND LOST ..................................................................................................................................... 72FIGURE 64 - PERCENT OF CROP LOSS.................................................................................................................................................. 73FIGURE 65 - HOW LONG LOST ASSETS SHOULD HAVE LASTED.................................................................................................................. 73FIGURE 66 - EFFECT ON BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................................................. 74FIGURE 67 - DECLINE IN HOUSEHOLD INCOME ..................................................................................................................................... 75FIGURE 68 - 1ST HIGHEST NEEDS ...................................................................................................................................................... 75FIGURE 69 - 2ND HIGHEST NEEDS ..................................................................................................................................................... 76FIGURE 70 - LAND OWNERSHIP ......................................................................................................................................................... 77
  • 8. FIGURE 71 - MAIN MATERIAL AND TYPE OF HOUSE .............................................................................................................................. 78FIGURE 72: MAIN MATERIAL UTILIZATION/ NEEDED............................................................................................................................... 79FIGURE 73 - DRINKING WATER SOURCES, BEFORE AND AFTER FLOODS..................................................................................................... 80FIGURE 74 - SUFFICIENT DRINKING WATER SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 81FIGURE 75 - STATUS OF REPAIR OF WATER SOURCES............................................................................................................................. 81FIGURE 76 - WATER CONTAINMENT METHOD ..................................................................................................................................... 82FIGURE 77 - WATER TREATMENT METHODS SINCE FLOODS.................................................................................................................... 82FIGURE 78 - SITE OF DEFECATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 83FIGURE 79 - SOAP AND WATER BEFORE EATING ................................................................................................................................... 84FIGURE 80 - SANITARY NAPKINS SINCE THE FLOODS .............................................................................................................................. 84FIGURE 81 - POOLS OF STAGNANT WATER .......................................................................................................................................... 85FIGURE 82 - NEAREST HEALTH FACILITY FOR ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE ..................................................................................................... 86FIGURE 83: I-LAP TEAM INVESTIGATING MNCH HEALTH ISSUES IN THE COMMUNITIES ................................................................................ 86FIGURE 84 - AVAILABLE FOOD STOCK ................................................................................................................................................. 87FIGURE 85 - LOSS OF FOOD STOCKS ................................................................................................................................................... 88FIGURE 86 - SPENDING ON FOOD ...................................................................................................................................................... 88FIGURE 87 - ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ................................................................................................................................... 89FIGURE 88 - COMMODITIES AVAILABLE NOW ....................................................................................................................................... 89FIGURE 89 - WOMEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ....................................................................................................................... 90FIGURE 90 - MEN ACCESS TO FUNCTIONAL MARKETS ............................................................................................................................ 90FIGURE 91 - COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................................ 91FIGURE 92 - EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................................................. 92FIGURE 93 - HEALTH ....................................................................................................................................................................... 92FIGURE 94 - HEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY TIME ...................................................................................................................................... 93FIGURE 95 - HEALTH LEVEL OF DAMAGE ............................................................................................................................................. 93FIGURE 96 - MASS COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................................................... 94FIGURE 97 - CONFLICTS RESOLUTION ................................................................................................................................................. 95FIGURE 98 - PERCEPTION OF SECURITY ............................................................................................................................................... 95FIGURE 99 - MINORITIES.................................................................................................................................................................. 96FIGURE 100 - INTERFAITH DIALOGUE ................................................................................................................................................. 96FIGURE 59: KEY AGRICULTURE DATA (COURTESY FAO) ......................................................................................................................... 98
  • 9. LIST OF TABLESTABLE 1: OVERVIEW........................................................................................................................................................................ 13TABLE 2: DISTRUCTION ANALYSIS OF KPK AND PUNJAB ......................................................................................................................... 14TABLE 3: SAMPLE SIZE ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15SOURCE: NDMA,PDMAS,GBDMA,FDMA TABLE 4 - PAKISTAN FLOOD LOSSES (AS OF 13 OCTOBER 2010)................................................ 24TABLE 5: FLOOD AFFECTED COMMUNITIES ........................................................................................................................................... 28TABLE 6: AFFECTED POPULATION OF KPK ........................................................................................................................................... 29TABLE 7: I-LAP TARGETED UCS OF CHARSADDA ................................................................................................................................... 30TABLE 8: I-LAP TARGETED UCS OF NOWSHERA .................................................................................................................................... 30TABLE 9 - SHELTER NEED ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 39TABLE 10 - ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 64TABLE 11 - TEHSILS & UNIONS IN THE DISTRICT OF RAHIM YAR KHAN ...................................................................................................... 69TABLE 12 - SHELTER NEED ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................................. 78
  • 10. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSRYK Rahim Yar KhanI-LAP Interfaith League Against PovertyUN United NationsUNDP United Nations Development ProgrammeMDG Millennium Development GoalsKPK Khyber Pakhtoon KhawaPRHNA Participatory Rapid Humanitarian Needs Assessment
  • 11. OVERVIEWOn 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding couldoccur from July to September in the north parts of the country. The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression, thatchange the whole socio economic scenario of Pakistan leading toworst crises and heighten gaps towards achievement of MillenniumDevelopment Goals.Keeping in consideration the disaster‟s magnitude and in-line with I-LAP‟s mission the organization immediately responded to supportthe people in catastrophe with all possible means. As part ofresponse phase I-LAP started with Food items, NFI distribution,shelter and WASH in three badly affected districts naming RahimYar Khan (Punjab), Nowshera (KPK) and Charsadda (KPK).A Participatory Rapid Humanitarian Needs Assessment (PRHNA) was conducted in the abovementioned three districts .This Rapid Assessment was conducted based on the international best practice, methods and tools usedin Pakistan Flood 2010 by Government, UN and development partners in Pakistan. This assessment wasconducted in 2 adversely flood affected provinces of Pakistan from 15th to 21st October 2010. Peopleliving in villages, as well as camps, collective centres and sites of spontaneous displacement weresurveyed across a total of 3 district Punjab: R.Y. Khan and KPK: Charsadda and Nowshera. Teams ofmale and female researchers carried out household assessments with close to 770 households andfacilitated separate male and female community focus group discussions in 96 villages and settlements.The aim of the assessment was to provide deep insight into situation in three adversely affected districtsand advice and facilitate response to these regions. The modus operandi for the research has beenbased on standard format and table so donor and partners can use the information and produce adetailed summary of findings in line with the information needs defined by the clusters in Pakistan underthe auspices of the Inter Cluster Coordination Mechanism.
  • 12. The assessment had a total working time frame of approximately 10 days to identify community needs.Information from the community was gathered on tools naming „Household Assessment‟ and„Community Assessment‟ by the enumerators who were priority trained on the tool and divided in teams.At second stage the information gathered through questionnaire was entered into database developed bythe consultant based on the international formats used by development partners. A highly qualified andcharged team of students provided their day and night services to enter such through data in a short timeof few hours. Another team of professionals supported in data normalization alongside I-LAP‟s fieldteams. Detail analysis of data was done by the consultant to diagnose areas where communities needimmediate humanitarian response to survive and recover from calamity. This report has been majorlydivided into two segments, the first part gives holistic picture of suffering and dire needs focused on thethree regions, and the second part discusses in detail all three regions (Rahim Yar Khan, Nowshera andCharsadda) separately and highlight elements that need to be addressed in context of local scenario.Figure 1: Map indicating focus area
  • 13. Villages/ Community Districts Tehsils UCs HH Level Province settlements Level Included Included included Interviews included Interviews Punjab 1 4 12 See list 400 36 KPK 2 3 8 See list 400 69 Total 3 7 20 See list 800 105Table 1: OverviewFigure 2: District Rahim Yar Khan Overview
  • 14. Figure 3: Nowshera Overview Figure 4: Charsadda Overview Province Persons affected Villages affected Homes destroyed or damaged Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 4,365,909 2,834 181,433 Punjab 8,200,000 3,000 500,000 Total 17,620,310 at least 10,952 1,237,493 Table 2: Distruction Analysis of KPK and Punjab
  • 15. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSampling The geographic scope of the floods and the time frame available, a geographically dispersed purposive sample of the population in areas most affected was covered in the assessment. The objective of the assessment was to survey at the household and community levels, against a pre- defined questionnaire, the circumstances, needs and priorities of people affected by the floods. As such, this kind of assessment paints a picture of humanitarian needs and gives a voice to those affected by the disaster. This information can be combined with other sources including population projections and historical baseline information to make assumptions of overall needs, but it cannot be statistically extrapolated to arrive at firm numeric conclusions.Sample size and distributionSelection of the number of villages for the survey: As of the 17th August, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) reported a total of 8,518 villages affected by the floods. Of the total, 3% (237) were in Gilgit Baltistan, 33% (2,834) were in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 32% (2,587) were in Punjab and 32% (2,760) were in Sindh. I- LAP has intervened in two of the mentioned provinces, with two districts in KPK and one district in Punjab. The sample has been taken from these three areas. The sample size is as follow: Province District Population size Sample % Confidential Level Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 5,500 7.27% 95% Khyber Charsada 4,000 6.49% 95% Pukhtankhan Nowshera 4,000 6.49% 95%Table 3: Sample Size Secondly, the available human resources and logistics that could be mobilized at short notice and considering the distances and accessibility of affected areas from provincial hubs in terms of what could be covered in the 2-6 days available for field research.Selection of UCs and villages  ILAP was working with the communities in KPK and Punjab on areas needing support for sustainable community development. When flood hit the areas, the organization
  • 16. immediately responded to the situation in the areas through rescue and relief efforts. Many members of the team comprise locals, thus they are very close to the real situation. Based on the fact, the UCs and villages were identified by the team where immediate response is much needed in comparison and where other aid agencies are not much present, to avoid duplication of funding. (see Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4) .Methodology - Data collection In each village/site, 2 types of questionnaires were administered;  Household questionnaires: administered by male and female enumerators/ social organizers with the most informed male and female household members. 10 household questionnaires were conducted per village/site.  Community questionnaires: administered separately by male and female social organizers with male and female community groups of approximately 10-15 people.Data gathering process Meeting with Revision and Assessment Tools Program Teams finalization of tool Physical Survey in Verfication of data Training of Field R.Y. Khan, Charsada received in field Teams and Nowshera OfficesFigure 5: Data Collection MechanismInformation Management Selectionof Forms Assessment Tools Management and Verification of Data Entry Information System data from field Technical Correction Review of data with to Clean and Pivot Analysis data Analyst Normalized dataFigure 6: Information Management Mechanism
  • 17. Figure 7: Training SessionFigure 8: Training Session Figure 9: Data collection with community
  • 18. Figure 10: WE the communityFigure 11: Geographic Regions selected for data collection
  • 19. ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION The Interfaith League Against Poverty is a non-profit organization, works in partnership with International and National Partners. I-LAP is a nonpartisan, development organization dedicated to promote the religious tolerance, acceptance, and respect for all religions in Pakistani society. The organization has always responded to the people in difficult situation no matter it is natural calamity or man-made hard to survival situation. The organization has supported many communities in 2005 earthquake response and touched many lives that were at risk from all respects. When this year, flood hit majority areas of Pakistan and created a situation where survival was no less difficult than rescue as the population affected was more than ever expected. Since the day emergency has been announced in the areas I-LAP immediately started its operations in adversely affected areas including Nowshera and Charsadda in KPK and Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab. Besides providing food and non-food-items (NFIs) the organization has moved along the community in the response and rehabilitation phase and aims at Community Rebuilding and stand along community till the enter the era of revival of all everyday activities.
  • 20. Vision “To create a new generation of peace workers, peace defenders, and peace negotiators towards catalyzing positive changes in the community towards prevention of conflicts and promotion and sustenance of peace in the multi-ethnic, multi-cultural Pakistan and beyond”Mission Play vital role in creating awareness among citizens about the importance of interfaith harmony, peace, tolerance and respect for all on the basis of humanity and develop the sense of belongingness within the society.Objectives The objective of I-LAP shall be to render the essential services to the unrecalled people who live in the neglected areas of Islamabad District. The following are the main objectives of I-LAP.  To create interfaith harmony among people following varied religions to bring lasting peace and balance in the society leading to sustainable progress  To eradicate illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community to enhance moral, cultural and spiritual values of education.  Empower women and other vulnerable groups through providing facility of vocational centres and entrepreneurship opportunities with the participation of youth of low-income areas to enhance their capacities through skill development.
  • 21. “I will never forget the destruction and sufferings I have witnessed today”… United Nations Secretary General, Ban Ki-moonBACKGROUND OF 2010 FLOOD IN PAKISTAN On 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding could occur from July to September in the north parts of the country. The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression, that change the whole socio economic scenario of Pakistan leading to worst crises and heighten gaps towards achievement of Millennium Development Goals. Even UN- Secretary General Ban-Ki-Moon expressed in his visit that he has never seen such disaster with such big impact and magnitude. “A heart-wrenching day for me and for my delegation” said Ban Ki-moon. “ I will never forget the destruction and sufferings I have witnessed today, …In the past I have visited scenes of many natural disasters around the world, but nothing like this. The scale of this disaster is so large and there are so many people in so many places in so much need.”
  • 22. Figure 12: Map of Flood Hit Areas in Pakistan (2010)Impact of Flood WaveIn early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely-affectednorthern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland wasdestroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The crops affected were cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses,tobacco and animal fodder. Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres (3,000 km2) of cotton,200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and cane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000km2) of animal fodder. According to the Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2million bales of cotton, which led to an increase in futures of the commodity in international market.170,000 citizens (or 70% of the population) of the historic Sindh town of Thatta fled advancing floodwaters on 27 August 2010.By mid-September the floods generally had began to recede, although in some areas, such as Sindh, newfloods were reported; the majority of the displaced persons had not been able to return home.
  • 23. Figure 13: Track of flood wave along Indus RiverAt one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistans total land area was underwater. According toPakistani government data the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction ofproperty, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000. The number of individualsaffected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Oceantsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.AftermathThe power infrastructure of Pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood waterinundated Jinnah Hydro power and 150 power houses in Gilgit. The damage caused a power shortfall of3.135 gigawatt. Aid agencies have warned that outbreaks of diseases, such as: gastroenteritis, diarrhea,and skin diseases due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation can pose a serious new risk to floodvictims. On 14 August, the first documented case of cholera emerged in the town of Mingora, striking
  • 24. fear into millions of stranded floodvictims, who are already suffering fromgastroenteritis and diarrhea. Pakistanhas also faced a malaria outbreak. It hasbeen reported by the International RedCross that a large number ofunexploded ordinance, such as minesand artillery shells, have been flusheddown stream by the floods from areasin Kashmir and Waziristan andscattered in low lying areas, posing afuture risk to returning inhabitants. TheUnited Nations estimated that 800,000 Figure 14: Flood flowpeople have been cut off by floods inPakistan and are only reachable by air. It also stated that at least 40 more helicopters are needed to ferrylifesaving aid to increasingly desperate people. Many of those cut off are in the mountainous northwest,where roads and bridges have been swept away.Province Deaths Injured Houses Damaged Population AffectedKhyber Pakhtunkhwa 1,156 1,198 200,799 3,800,000Punjab 110 350 509,814 8,200,000Total 1,974 3,028 1,910,439 20,274,250Source: NDMA,PDMAs,GBDMA,FDMATable 4 - Pakistan Flood Losses (as of 13 October 2010)The degree of severity to which people have been affected by the floods varies depending on theirparticular losses and damages. UN assessments have been launched in at least three provinces to identifyseverely affected families who require life-saving humanitarian assistance. The UN experts haveidentified 2.7 million people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5.3 million in Punjab and 4.4 million in Sindh thatare in need of immediate humanitarian assistance.
  • 25. Charsadda and Nowshera Floods Situational Assessment and Findings----------------------------------Devastating floods after the westerlies and monsoon combined
  • 26. CHARSADDA AND NOWSHERA FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS The local population faced the accumulated flood waters from Kabul and Swat rivers and from numerous flood channels flowing from the adjoining FATA regions and Malakand Division. Even when the flood waters receded the River Kabul continued to flow much beyond its normal span. Indus River had caused a massive flood water back flow resulting in extensive flooding in the southern parts of Nowhsera district and in Swabi. The Humanitarian losses are extensive in terms of loss of lives, livelihoods and housing, as follows:Chasadda: 27 deaths are reported by the district government. However, PDMA losses update of 1 August, 2200 hours, indicates 39 deaths; All 29 Union Councils affected; One million is affected by the disaster as per DCO (they require assistance in some shape); 60,000 are considered to be most vulnerable. They are being provided daily food support so far by the District Government and are among the poorest segments; Internally displaced persons are being housed in 500 educational intuitions across the district; There has been an extensive loss of standing sugarcane and other crops in particular along the eastern bank of River Kabul. Clearly the poorest sections who constitute 80% of the district population1 are the worst affected; Nearly 1000 people have temporarily migrated to Peshawar; and Dead livestock pose a serious health hazard.Nowshera Nowshera is the worse hit out the two districts as massive flooding along either banks of the Kabul River has caused immense losses in lives, habitats, standing crops and in livelihoods. With respect to Nowshera, the PDMA update of 1 August, 2200 hours indicates: Loss of Life: 167 (local civil and military authorities, however, indicate that the loss of life could be as high as 800- 900; Internally displaced: 500,000; and Nearly 4000 are still trapped in life threatening situations. Vulnerability to Water Borne Diseases: The stagnant flood waters pose a major threat of onset of water borne diseases in both the districts: diarrhea, AWT, malaria etc. Loss of Communication Infrastructure: Some road links have been restored but the severed road access, land lines and mobile cell services are seriously impeding assessments of losses and response services delivery. Governance Capacity: has been seriously undermined as many government officials are among the floods affected and are not attending to their functions; The poor
  • 27. governance capacity combined with frustrations caused by general lack of access to relief assistance is generating public frustration and causing serious law and order situations.The Longer Term Impact The short term vulnerabilities are likely to be accentuated by major losses sustained by the agricultural infrastructure of the region due to damages caused to the water regulatory Munda Headwork (in Upper Charsadda close to Mohmand Agency) and to the irrigation canals. This is likely to gravely undermine the winter crops yield over and above the current losses to the staple and cash crops.Need of the detailed Survey and ILAP Response Given the dire situation, the humanitarian response must concurrently address Humanitarian needs of the flood affected areas in Nowhsera district in particular; Assessments that facilitate in focusing the response to the needs; and Resource mobilization efforts. In the light of this need identification by relevant clusters / agencies ILAP decided to facilitate the process of deployment of respective response outreach across the affected regions. It was noticed that vulnerable communities seem to be poorly represented in the local decision making forums. Therefore it was decided by ILAP board to include them in the humanitarian response outreach; The dimensions of the floods disaster are still not fully known at this stage due to a massive gap in communicating at least what is known. Therefore, improving upon information management constitutes a priority area; It was highly recommended by the inter-agency network working in the region that assessment must factor support to the host families who, as in the past, are accommodating most IDPs across the affected regions; It has been observed that disaster response must factor serious constraints accruing from reduced capacity of the local governance, severed land communications and cell phone coverage; and
  • 28. Last but not the least the response must be guided by the considerations of humanity, neutrality and impartiality to avert the possibility of the response being guided by political and religious considerations.Table 5: Flood affected communities
  • 29. Table 6: Affected Population of KPK
  • 30. I-LAP Targeted UCs of Charsadda S.No Name UC Expected Population 1. Agra 30000 2. Mirza Dher 100000 3. Nissatta 60000 4. Hisara 40000 Yasinzai 5. Hisara 25000 6. Rajar 40000 7. Tangi 60000 8. Tarnab 50000 Table 7: I-LAP targeted UCs of CharsaddaI-LAP Targeted UCs of NowsheraS.No Name UC Expected Population 1. Naway Killay 5000 2. Chowki Town 4000 3. Chowki Memrez 20000 4. Akbar Pura 12000 5. Chowki Darab 8000 6. Balu 4000 7. Taru Jabba 20000 8. Kabal River 10000Table 8: I-LAP targeted UCs of Nowshera
  • 31. Priority of Needs  Food Security;  Livelihood Agriculture, Live stock, business and employment  WASH with emphasis on potable water distribution;  Health: preventing water borne diseases;  Shelter: The needs identified in the two targeted districts are 10,000 for each;  Clothing for the vulnerable;  Provision of de-watering pumps; and  Generating awareness of disease prevention through mass communication. Food Security; Awareness through mass Livelihood communication. Provision of de- watering pumps; WASH and Clothing for the Health vulnerable; Shelter Figure 15: Priority Needs to Revive Community Life Cycle
  • 32. 1- AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD Key Findings that Agricultural activities, livestock, and protection and restoration ofKey Findings are that Agricultural activities, livestock and protection and restoration of productive assets are crucial for revival of communities  Based on household recall of their main source of livelihood before the floods, significant changes in livelihood have occurred as a result of the floods.  Before flood most of the communities were dependent on farming/ landowner and livestock as major source of income as following graphs indicates, after flood major fall in the activity can be observed  After flood skilled wage labour has increased from 40% that indicates high need for CASH FOR WORK grants for community revival productive assets are crucial for revival of communities Change in Livelihood 100% Remittances 90% Unskilled wage labor 80% 70% Skilled wage labor 60% Shopkeeper/Trader 50% Income support (Zakat/Aid etc) 40% Services(Govt or Pvt) 30% Agri. Commodities trade (fruit 20% and vegetables) Livestock 10% 0% Farming/Landowner Before After Figure 16 - Change in Livelihood
  • 33. Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses Agricultural losses are dramatic. KPK reports the least agricultural land lost (around 50%). Significant losses in animal fodder. Over 40% of households report losing the majority or their entire rice crop. In spite of losses, households still possess livestock. A large proportion of fodder has been lost so feed for these animals is a priority. The most often cited reason for the inability to plant the next crop was that the households do not expect the floodwaters to recede in time. Percentage of Cropland Lost KPK Punjab 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90Figure 17 - Percentage of Cropland Lost Percent of Crop Loss 100% 80% 5=76-100% 60% 4=51-75% 40% 3=26-50% 2= 1-25% 20% 1= None 0% Rice Pulse Cotton Sugar Cane Maize VegetablesFigure 18 - Percent of Crop Loss
  • 34. Loss of stored grain, seeds and straw 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% One quarter 40% 30% Half 20% Three quarters 10% All 0%Figure 19 - How long Lost Assets Should have LastedLosses to Stored Food Items  Most of the communities have lost their stored food and grains  45% respondent communities have lost all types of food items  50% has lost stored seeds, resulting in crucial damage to ability to cultivate next crop creating an alarming situation to livelihood  50-60% have lost all fodder and shelter for their livestock in addition to animal loss  These figures raises alarming situation in reference to upcoming livelihood revival in the communities
  • 35. Losses to businesses and employment  Non-farm livelihoods were heavily affected by the floods  Households not engaged in agriculture report that there business or employment situation has been “totally effected” by the floods.  Households reported that their non-agricultural livelihood had not been impacted. Figure 20 - Effect on Business Employment Figure 21 - Decline in Household Income
  • 36. The highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activitiesNote: highest 1st and 2nd highest need are inter linked with other Inputs (seed, fertilizers, tools), Finance(cash for work, etc), Land reclamation Repair and Rehabilitation and Material Assistance. 1st Highest Needs of your household now A. Cash for work 8% B. Food for work 7% F. Livestock 23% C. Food aid E. Agricultural 17% Inputs 26% D. Shelter 19%Figure 22 - 1st Highest Needs 2nd Highest Needs of your household now M. Protection 2% G. NFI L. Health 22% 21% H. Nutrition K. Education 12% 19% J. WASH 24%Figure 23 - 2nd Highest Needs
  • 37. Losses in Livestock  Livestock was a major livelihood source in the communities, in addition to that livestock was also important for other areas in the country and to cover the nutrition of the local families, thus the loss will not only result in economic losses but will also reflect on local and national health specifically in reference to mother and child health, creating and alarming situation towards achievement of MDG Loss of Livelihood 3 and 4. Soruce  50-60% have lost all fodder and shelter for their livestock in addition to animal loss National  These figures raises alarming situation Impact Mother and in reference to upcoming livelihood (nutrition as Child Health revival in the communities major source (mal-nutrition) of protein) Figure 24: Impact of Livestock Loss Livestock (Animals) 100% 90% 80% 9. Animals Lost in Flood 70% 8. Camels 60% 7. Donkey/mules 6. Oxen 50% 5. Horses 40% 4. Poultry 30% 3. Sheep/goats 20% 2. Buffaloes 1. Cows 10% 0% Before After Figure 25: Livestock Loss
  • 38. 2- SHELTER SOLUTIONS AND THE REPAIR AND REBUILDING OF THEIR HOUSES  42% of households surveyed reported that their house was completely destroyed  Only 9% of households surveyed reported that their houses were not damaged  86% of households reported that they owned the land they lived on prior to the floods  27% reported that they are concerned that they have lost the land their house was build on  Materials to be used for re-building and repair o Tent o Temporary shelter o Cash to purchase non-food items Figure 26 - Land Ownership
  • 39. Table 9 - Shelter Need Assessment Figure 27 - Main Material and Type of House
  • 40. Figure 28: Main material needed  The assessment indicates dire need for shelter as only 4% of the communities are in settled in their residence, all rest 96% has suffered one way or the other.  The most needy are the 54% whose shelter are all destroyed and they have most of the building materials meaning they need immediate support in form of material and grant and shelter too  24% are left with debris that means they immediately need some material to re-use some of the material they are left with  Winter season has started in the region and already weather at night is chilli, just after a month the weather will be cold and if the shelter is still not provided many lives of vulnerable will be at risk and pneumonia could raise death toll.
  • 41. Current Situation of Shelter 9% 1. On the site of the house (damaged 3% house/tent) 2. Spontaneous settlement 37% 15% 3. Camp 4. Host family 5. Rented accommodation 6. Collective centers (schools/public 6% buildings) 30%Figure 29: Current situation of Shelter
  • 42. 3- WASH (WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE)Water  Increased use of unprotected water sources for drinking across,  Approximately a 20% drop in the sufficiency of water reported  The drop in access to protected water sources was most pronounced in Punjab  Reduction in the quantity of drinking water available across  Disrepair and damage to water sources as compared to the pre-flood situation.  Households in the survey report using some kind of water treatment method  Households reported having appropriate, safe water storage.  It is adult women who are most likely to be the ones collecting water. Drinking water source (WS1, WS2) 100% 90% 80% Other unimproved sources 70% Other Improved sources 60% Bowser/Tanker Piped water supply 50% Unprotected hand pump 40% Protected hand pump Unprotected well/spring 30% Protected well/spring 20% Canals/ponds/rivers 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 30 - Drinking Water Sources, Before and After Floods
  • 43. Drinking Water Source Sufficient 100 90 80 70 60 50 Before 40 After 30 20 10 0 1=SufficientFigure 31 - Sufficient Drinking Water Sources Status of Repair of Water Sources 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 3=Not working 50% 2= Disrepair 40% 1= Good 30% 20% 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 32 - Status of Repair of Water Sources
  • 44. Water Containment Filtering 3% Boiling 6% Closed container 39% Open storage 39% Dirty container 13%Figure 33 - Water Containment Method Water Treatment Method Since Floods Chemical disinfection 6% Boiling 12% Filtering 6% No Water Treatment Reported 47% Solar 20% Decanting 9%Figure 34 - Water Treatment Methods Since Floods
  • 45. Sanitation  At the household level men and women reported separately about the availability and condition of latrines.  The results show very little difference between the reporting of men and women and also illustrate that their perceptions were consistent.  Less than 10-20% of households had access to a toilet that was considered to be clean and in good working order.  For men, women, boys and girls there has been a decrease in the use of household latrines and an increase in the use of communal latrines and in defecating in the open. Site of Defecation 100% 90% 80% 5=(open field(away from shelter) 70% 4= Near to 60% Shelter(Excrement left) 50% 3=Near to shelter(Excrement 40% removed) 2=latrines(Household) 30% 20% 1=Latrines(communal) 10% 0% 1 Figure 35 - Site of Defecation
  • 46. Hygiene  Interviews with households indicate that many people know about washing hands prior to eating but are not available with sources. Only 6% of households report not washing hands at all. Soap and Water Before Eating Neither water nor soap 6% Yes, water and soap 26% Only water 68%Figure 36 - Soap and Water Before EatingFigure 37 - Sanitary Napkins since the Floods
  • 47. Environmental issues relating to public health  Stagnant water remained where people were living  The most stagnant water was reported in Punjab  Women are most likely, in all provinces, to be the ones responsible for removing garbage from houses/shelters.  Households reported a lot of vectors (in this case mosquito) around their dwellings.  Dengue cases are also an alarm to human life not only in the flood affected region but also the other areas of the country too as people are rapidly moving between regions these days. Pools of Stagnant Water 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 3. A lot 50% 2. Few 40% 1. None 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Figure 38 - Pools of Stagnant Water
  • 48. Nutrition  The floods have had a negative impact on infant feeding practices.  Nursing mothers report at the household level that they have reduced breast feeding and some have stopped breast feeding since the floods  Women report that they do not have sufficient privacy to breast feed  Mothers with young children report having to reduce the complementary food given.  Across both provinces there were reports of distribution of infant feeding supplies.  Specialized nutrition interventions were seldom reported by householdsHealth  Community groups report they are most likely to access health care from a hospital or heath centre.  Fever, skin disease are the most common health concerns in the communities.  Main issue is accessibility to the area due to destruction of roads and bridges.  Diarrheal cases are increasing due to contaminated water  The district health staff are also affected by the floods. Human resource support is provided by EDO H, Mardan  Medicines stock damaged/destroyed in most of the health facilities.
  • 49. Nowshera and Charsadda Health Issues: Total 23 UCs are affected out of 47 affected completely and cut off from three sides due to destruction of roads and bridges. The affected population is .7 million. Telephone and cellular service is not working in the district. Jalozai camp is also affected and Diarrheal Treatment Center is needed to be establish in Jalozai camp. One DTC each in Pabbi Satellite Hospital and DHQ Nowshera is needed.  DHQ Nowshera is fully affected by floods and hospital infrastructure is fully damaged.  Jalozai camp was cut off for last 3 days due to destruction of main bridge by floods.  Diarrheal cases are increasing in Jalozai camp due to contaminated water  The district health staff is also affected by the floods. Human resource support is provided by EDO H, Peshawar to Pabbi Satellite Hospital.  Drugs stock is damaged, Cholera kits, IEHK, MEHK needed. Health Facility for Access to Health Care 120 100 80 60 Male 40 Female 20 0 BHU ( Basic RHC( Rural THQ(Tehsil DHQ(district Civil dispensary Temporary Mobile Clinic Health Unit) Health Centre) Headquarters Headquarters Health Facility Hospital) Hospital) Figure 39 - Nearest Health Facility for Access to Health Care
  • 50. Figure 40 - Health Problems
  • 51. 4- SOCIAL PROTECTION, FOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL DISRUPTION OFSAFETY NETS LOCAL ECONOMY,Food stock MONEY AND MARKETS  Households reported having received food aide in the two The floods has resulted in weeks before the survey major change in socio- economic patterns of the  On average, male and female community groups report residing communities due that children aged between 1 and 5 years old receive less to disruption in livelihood than 2.5 meals a day. There is no reported difference in the sources and destruction of shelter. The situation has amount of food given to male and female children in this raised many social issues age group.11 questioning availability of  Mostly households lost all food stock as a result of the protection mechanism for children and women and floods. other vulnerable groups  The assessment indicated an absence of food stock of specifically minorities in households reported having no food stock the region.
  • 52. Available Food Stock 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Don’t know 2 – 4 weeks 50% 1- <2 weeks 40% < 1 week No food Stock 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Figure 41 - Available Food Stock Near to 60% of the respondents told that they have no food stock, meaning that they need very regular supply of food for their survival, and they are already mal-nourished as now it has been more than 90 days that they are in this situation. And 15% respondents have less than one week‟s food storage Only 7% of the respondents told that people have more than two weeks food stock with them Indicating high need of food items and food security as major area to be focused
  • 53. Loss of Food Stocks 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 3. None 30% 2=Part, 20% 1=Full, 10% 0%Figure 42 - Loss of Food Stocks Spend LAST WEEK for FOOD (Rs.) 9. Vegetables, Fruits 8. Meat ,fish ,eggs 7. Milk, Cheese, yogurt 6. Sugar 5. Oil, Ghee ,Butter 4. Dhal Chana 3. Maize 2. Rice 1. Bread Wheat, Wheat Flour 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350Figure 43 - Spending on Food
  • 54. Markets  Communities and sites men had access to a functioning market.  Communities surveyed women had access to a functioning market.  Communities the closest market was said to be closed.Figure 44 - Access to Functional MarketsFigure 45 - Commodities Available now
  • 55. Figure 46 - Women Access to Functional MarketsFigure 47 - Men Access to Functional Markets
  • 56. 5- OTHERS – CROSS CUTTING ISSUES OF VULNERABILITY, PROTECTION, GENDER ISSUESWOMEN/CULTURAL ISSUES/PEACE, MASS COMMUNICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTID cards and documentation  Households in both provinces surveyed reported the loss of documents such as National ID Cards, Property documents and Birth or Death certificates.Vulnerability and Protection Issues  Households report resorting to a range of coping strategies that are known to have negative impacts. These include; debt, borrowing, reducing meal size, skipping meals and women eating less than men.  A few weeks in to the disaster a small number of households report they will spend less on health care in order to purchase food and others report they will withdraw children from school.Community Services and Infrastructure  Very few services for women (such as, women‟s shelters, psychological counseling, legal aid, ID card issuance, or women‟s health facilities) were found to exist in the communities covered by the survey.  The highest priority in terms of the restoration of community infrastructure for both male and female community groups were mosques.  Most people surveyed don‟t know about the status of government buildings in their place of originFigure 48 - Community Infrastructure
  • 57. Education  The most frequently mentioned reason for children not going to school by both male and female community groups in the areas surveyed was that the schools had been damaged in the floods.  Although schools were on vacation at the time of the survey, the Education Cluster had opened some learning centres and these could be what is reflectedFigure 49 - EducationHealth service delivery  Most community groups (424 out of 689) had access to a health facility within an hour of where they are staying.  Many of these health facilities are damaged to some degree.  Community groups report using hospitals and health centres much more than any other kind of health facilityFigure 50 – Health settings
  • 58. Figure 51 - Health Service Delivery Time Figure 52 - Health Level of Damage
  • 59. Mass Communication  61% of households have an active cell phone.  SMS as a means of passing on information is mentioned by only 9% of households.  Word of mouth is the way most people receive information (82%)  The best way for women to receive information is from their husband or another male family member (81%). Figure 53 - MASS CommunicationVulnerable Children  137 male community groups (38%) and 107 female community groups (35%) reported seeing or knowing of children at the site who were considered “vulnerable”. Examples of vulnerable children were given as “orphans, without their usual care givers, who don‟t appear to be with adults, who are disabled”.  Unaccompanied elderly people had been observed by the community groups at the places they were staying.Disputes at the Site  Male community groups in 102 (out of 359) sites and female community groups in 84 (out of 309 sites) reported disputes in their community since the floods.  Reasons for disputes were ranked the same by separate male and female groups; access to food, access to NFIs, rubbish/waste disposal, use of latrines and bathing facilities were the most common causes of disputes.  Both men and women see family elders as the most effective in resolving disputes; this is followed in both groups by police.
  • 60. Figure 54 - Conflicts ResolutionViolence against Women  Households reported suspected violence against women in KPK, Punjab and Sindh  Over 10% of the total sample households reported violence against women with some of the households in these three provinces saying violence against women was common.  No reports of violence came from the province of Gilgit Baltistan at the household levelFigure 55 - Perception of Security
  • 61. Minorities been equally treated during food and NFI distributions AFTER flood YES Don’t Know 25% 19% NO 56% Figure 56 - Minorities Should a NGOs (I-LAP) hold a Interfaith Dialogue Maybe 15% No 5% Yes 80% Figure 57 - Interfaith Dialogue
  • 62. PEACE Mission and Committees Don’t Know 15% No 10% Yes 75% Figure 58 - PEACE Mission
  • 63. RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT ANDFINDINGS ……………………………….Waters when receded towards Rahim Yar Khan washed out alllife.........and left people with no food, no crop, no shelter & all pain
  • 64. RAHIM YAR KHAN FLOODS SITUATIONAL ASSESSMENT AND FINDINGS Rahim Yar Khan is a district in the Punjab province of Pakistan, the city of Rahim Yar Khan is the capital. The district lies between 27.40 - 29.16 north latitudes and 60.45 - 70.01 east longitudes. The Indus flows on the northern outskirts of the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh. Rahim Yar Khan is bounded on the north by Muzaffargarh District, on the east by Bahawalpur District, on the south by Jaisalmer (India) and Ghotki District of Sindh province and on the west by Rajanpur District. The district has an area of 11,880 square kilometers and comprises four Tehsils, which contain a total of 122 Union Council there are four municipal committees and five town committees in the district as follows: Province District Tehsil Punjab Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan Sadiq Abad Khan Pur Liaquat Pur Table 10 - Administrative divisionsDemography: According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the total population of Rahim Yar Khan district was 3,141,053 of which 19.16% were urban an intercensal percentage increase of 70.6 since March, 1981 when it was 1,841,451. The average annual growth rate was 3.2 percent during this period. The total area of the district is 11,880 square kilometers which gives population density of 264 persons per square kilometer as against 155 persons observed in 1981 indicating a fast growth rate of the district.Religion: The population of the district is predominantly Muslims i.e. 96.7 percent. The next higher percentage is of Hindu (Jati) with 1.8 percent, followed by Scheduled Castes 0.6 percent. While other minorities like Christians, Ahmadi etc. are very small in number. The proportion of population of Muslims is higher in urban than rural areas. Christians are mostly living in urban areas representing 1.2 percent as compare to 0.2 percent in rural areas. Ahmadis are equal in proportion in urban and rural areas
  • 65. Languages Siraiki is the predominant language being spoken in the district, representing 72.6 percent of the population, followed by Punjabi and Urdu spoken by 17.3 and 2.9 percent respectively and Sindhi by 2.0 percent while others speak Pushto, Balochi, Bravi, Dari etc.Literacy and education The literacy ratio in the district has increased from 20.0 percent in 1981 to 33.1 percent in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 43.4 percent as against 21.8 percent for females. The ratio is much higher in urban when compared with rural areas both for male and female. In 1998, 33.1 percent of the population was reported as being able to read at least one language. This was up from 20 percent in 1981. In urban areas, 65.0 percent of males and 48.4 percent of women were able to read. In rural areas, 37.9 percent of males, and 14.9 percent of females were able to read. there is a kh.freed college a university campus of islamia university of BWP a medical college and a women college.
  • 66. The Flood When flood entered Rahim Yar Khan, it washed away not only crops but hopes of thousands of families for better future as flood water totally destroyed ready crops of cotton, maize, mango trees and others. As reported by UN-OCHA in Rahim Yar Khan more than 100,000 families are vulnerableFigure 59: Rahim Yar Khan Flood Situation (Courtesy UNOCHA) and needed immediate response for survival. More than .5 million areaffected directly by the flood waters.40 out of 125 UCs are affected, 89 villages badly affected, affectedarea in acres is more than 110,775, crop area affected is112,229 acres, housed damaged/destroyed include13,425 (Source : Punjab Government Board of Revenue andCrisis and Relief Department report dated 7 Aug 2010).
  • 67. Priority of Needs  Food Security;  Livelihood Agriculture, Live stock, business and employment  WASH with emphasis on potable water distribution;  Health: preventing water borne diseases;  Shelter: The needs identified in the two targeted districts are 10,000 for each;  Clothing for the vulnerable;  Provision of de-watering pumps; and  Generating awareness of disease prevention through mass communication.
  • 68. Tehsils & Unions in the District of Rahim Yar KhanName Of Tehsil Name Of Union Council Name of Affected Survey Total Villages PopulationRahim Yar Rajan Pur Kalan Mud Manthar 2579Khan Code 1A1 Rasool Pur 2072Code 1A Kot Karam Khan Bait ALLAH Wasaya 1519 Code 1A2 Makhan Bella 2542 Chak 46 785 Kot Karam Khan 6297 Kacha Mahazi 1483 Muslim Abad 1234 Abad Pur Code Nonari 7190 1A3 Bait Meer Ahmed 3502 Chak 49 489 Abad Pur 5763 Shah Pur Ehsan Pur 3915 Code 1A4 Fateh Pur Tawana 1626 Chak Veha 910 Kacha Gopang 755 Thul Khair Muhammad Bait Dur Muhammad 542 Code 1A6 Faiz Abad 1176 Khalti 3390 Thul Hassan 3651 Haji Pur Haji pur 2196 Code 1A5 Kachi Zaman 3817 Manak 1120 Nawaz Abad 1090 Hamid Pur 2305
  • 69. Khan Pur Chacharan Sharif Chacharan Sharif 11480Code 1D Code 1D1 Bait Mugal 613 Ahmed Kudan 4007 Mud Adil 1561 Bait Faiz Abad 208 Mehran 430 Kadir Pur Choudhry 1130 Code 1D2 Waghwan 3671 Gud pur 350 Chak Ahmad Yar 1150 Chak Faiz Ahmad 208Laiquat Pur Jhok Ghulab Shah Bana Roya 3873Code 1C Code 1C1 Ghabol 3222 Bait ALLAH Wasay 2881 Bait Soi 2230 Tibi Jhulan 3790 Bait Imam Bukhsh Macchi 1621 Ahmed Ali Lar Ahmed Ali Lar 2592 Code 1C2 Mud Daulat Shah 1700 Fakhar Abad 1900Sadiq Abad Malik Ibrahim Chak 205 4500Code 1B Code 1B2 Chak 206 2300 Chak 216 2500Table 11 - Tehsils & Unions in the District of Rahim Yar Khan
  • 70. Key Findings that Agricultural activities, livestock, and protection and restoration of productive assets have Changes in Livelihood1- AGRICULTURE AND LIVELIHOOD  Based on household recall of their main source of livelihood before the floods, significant changes in livelihood have occurred as a result of the floods.  The percentage of household describing themselves as without a main source of livelihood  Farming has reduced from around 50 to 60%% of household‟s main form of livelihood to being cited as the main source of livelihood for less than 10%. Change in Livelihood 100% Remittances 90% Unskilled wage labor 80% 70% Skilled wage labor 60% Shopkeeper/Trader 50% Income support (Zakat/Aid etc) 40% Services(Govt or Pvt) 30% Agri. Commodities trade (fruit and 20% vegetables) Livestock 10% Farming/Landowner 0% Before AfterFigure 60 - Change in Livelihood
  • 71. Key Findings Agriculture and Livelihood losses Agricultural losses are dramatic. For Rahim Yar Khan estimate losses to cropland of between 90% and 100% Almost 50% of households growing cotton report losing their entire crop. Significant losses in animal fodder. Over 40% of households report losing the majority or their entire rice crop. In spite of losses, a few households still possess livestock. A large proportion of fodder has been lost so feed for these animals is a priority. The most often cited reason for the inability to plant the next crop was that the households do not expect the floodwaters to recede in time. The Potential Impact of the Loss of the Cotton Harvest on Women‟s Income Cotton, which was approaching harvest when the floods occurred, was the crop where most losses were reported. Around 45% of households involved in agriculture reported losing this year‟s entire cotton crop. A further 10% reported losing some of their cotton crop. The inability to harvest cotton will have a significant impact on women in areas where cotton is farmed. Harvesting cotton is an important form of income generation for women. The harvest is the only part of the cotton cycle that women are involved in and frequently, but the time of the harvest, Women have taken out loans from informal money lenders in anticipation of the income they will make.
  • 72. Livestock (Animals) 100% 90% 80% 9. Animals Lost in Flood 70% 8. Camels 7. Donkey/mules 60% 6. Oxen 50% 5. Horses 40% 4. Poultry 30% 3. Sheep/goats 20% 2. Buffaloes 10% 1. Cows 0% Before AfterFigure 61 - Live Stock Losses Percentage of Cropland Lost KPK Punjab 0 20 40 60 80 100Figure 62 - Percentage of Cropland Lost
  • 73. Percent of Crop Loss 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 5=76-100% 4=51-75% 50% 3=26-50% 40% 2= 1-25% 30% 1= None 20% 10% 0% Rice Pulse Cotton Sugar Cane Maize VegetablesFigure 63 - Percent of Crop Loss Loss of stored grain, seeds and straw 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% One quarter 50% Half 40% Three quarters 30% All 20% 10% 0% Stored food grains Stored seed Straw/Hay etc Animal ShelterFigure 64 - How long Lost Assets Should have Lasted
  • 74. Losses to businesses and employment  Non-farm livelihoods were heavily affected by the floods  Households not engaged in agriculture report that there business or employment situation has been “totally effected” by the floods.  Households reported that their non-agricultural livelihood had not been impacted. Figure 65 - Effect on Business Employment
  • 75. Figure 66 - Decline in Household IncomeThe highest priorities for resuming agricultural work and livelihood activitiesNote: highest 1st and 2nd highest need are inter linked with other Inputs (seed, fertilizers, tools), Finance(cash for work, etc), Land reclamation Repair and Rehabilitation and Material Assistance. 1st Highest Needs of your household now A. Cash for work 7% B. Food for work 7% F. Livestock C. Food aid 26% 14% E. Agricultural Inputs D. Shelter 30% 16%Figure 67 - 1st Highest Needs
  • 76. 2nd Highest Needs of your household now M. Protection 2% G. NFI L. Health 20% 20% H. Nutrition K. Education 11% 18% J. WASH 29%Figure 68 - 2nd Highest Needs
  • 77. 2- SHELTER SOLUTIONS AND THE REPAIR AND REBUILDING OF THEIR HOUSES  More 39% of households surveyed reported that their house was completely destroyed  Only 7% of households surveyed reported that their house was not damaged  66% of households reported that they owned the land they lived on prior to the floods  20% reported that they are concerned that they have lost the land their house was build on o Materials to use for re-building and repair o Tent o Temporary shelter o Cash to purchase non-food items Figure 69 - Land Ownership
  • 78. Table 12 - Shelter Need Assessment Figure 70 - Main Material and Type of House
  • 79. Figure 71: Main material utilization/ needed
  • 80. 3- WASH (WATER, SANITATION, HYGIENE)Water  Increased use of unprotected water sources for drinking across,  Approximately a 20% drop in the sufficiency of water reported  The drop in access to protected water sources was most pronounced in Punjab  Reduction in the quantity of drinking water available across  Disrepair and damage to water sources as compared to the pre-flood situation.  Households in the survey report using some kind of water treatment method  Households reported having appropriate, safe water storage.  It is adult women who are most likely to be the ones collecting water. Drinking water source (WS1, WS2) 100% 90% 80% Other unimproved sources 70% Other Improved sources 60% Bowser/Tanker Piped water supply 50% Unprotected hand pump 40% Protected hand pump Unprotected well/spring 30% Protected well/spring 20% Canals/ponds/rivers 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 72 - Drinking Water Sources, Before and After Floods
  • 81. Drinking Water Source Sufficient 100 90 80 70 60 50 Before 40 After 30 20 10 0 1=SufficientFigure 73 - Sufficient Drinking Water Sources Status of Repair of Water Sources 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 3=Not working 50% 40% 2= Disrepair 30% 1= Good 20% 10% 0% Before AfterFigure 74 - Status of Repair of Water Sources
  • 82. Water Containment Boiling Filtering 7% 3% Closed container 40% Open storage 33% Dirty container 17%Figure 75 - Water Containment Method Water Treatment Method Since Floods Chemical disinfection 13% No Water Treatment Boiling Reported 14% 42% Filtering 14% Decanting Solar 8% 9%Figure 76 - Water Treatment Methods Since Floods
  • 83. Sanitation  At the household level men and women reported separately about the availability and condition of latrines.  The results show very little difference between the reporting of men and women and also illustrate that their perceptions were consistent.  Less than 10-20% of households had access to a toilet that was considered to be clean and in good working order.  For men, women, boys and girls there has been a decrease in the use of household latrines and an increase in the use of communal latrines and in defecating in the open. Site of Defecation 100% 5=(open field(away 90% from shelter) 80% 70% 4= Near to Shelter(Excrement 60% left) 50% 3=Near to shelter(Excrement 40% removed) 30% 2=latrines(Household) 20% 10% 1=Latrines(communal) 0% 1 Figure 77 - Site of DefecationHygiene  Interviews with households indicate that many people know about washing hands prior to eating. Only 6% of households report not washing hands at all.
  • 84. Soap and Water Before Eating Neither water nor soap 7% Yes, water and soap 35% Only water 58%Figure 78 - Soap and Water Before EatingFigure 79 - Sanitary Napkins since the FloodsEnvironmental issues relating to public health  Stagnant water remained where people were living  The most stagnant water was reported in Punjab
  • 85.  Women are most likely, in all provinces, to be the ones responsible for removing garbage from houses/shelters.  Households reported a lot of vectors (in this case mosquito) around their dwellings. Pools of Stagnant Water 100% 80% 60% 3. A lot 40% 2. Few 1. None 20% 0% 1 Figure 80 - Pools of Stagnant WaterNutrition  The floods have had a negative impact on infant feeding practices.  Nursing mothers report at the household level that they have reduced breast feeding and some have stopped breast feeding since the floods  Women report that they do not have sufficient privacy to breast feed  Mothers with young children report having to reduce the complementary food given.  Across both provinces there were reports of distribution of infant feeding supplies.  Specialized nutrition interventions were seldom reported by householdsHealth  Community groups report they are most likely to access health care from a hospital or heath centre.  Fever, skin disease are the most common health concerns in the communities.  Main issue is accessibility to the area due to destruction of roads and bridges.  Diarrheal cases are increasing due to contaminated water  The district health staff are also affected by the floods. Human resource support is provided by EDO H, Mardan  Medicines stock damaged/destroyed in most of the health facilities.
  • 86. Health Facility for Access to Health Care908070605040 Male30 Female2010 0 BHU ( Basic RHC( Rural THQ(Tehsil DHQ(district Civil dispensary Temporary Mobile Clinic Health Unit) Health Centre) Headquarters Headquarters Health Facility Hospital) Hospital) Figure 81 - Nearest Health Facility for Access to Health Care Figure 82: I-LAP team investigating MNCH health issues in the communities
  • 87. 4- SOCIAL PROTECTION, FOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL SAFETY NETS Disruption of the local economy: money and marketsFood stock  Households reported having received food aide in the two weeks before the survey  On average, male and female community groups report that children aged between 1 and 5 years old receive less than 2.5 meals a day. There is no reported difference in the amount of food given to male and female children in this age group.11  Mostly households lost all food stock as a result of the floods.  The assessment indicated an absence of food stock of households reported having no food stock Available Food Stock 100% 90% 80% 70% Don’t know 60% 2 – 4 weeks 50% 1- <2 weeks 40% < 1 week 30% No food Stock 20% 10% 0% 1 Figure 83 - Available Food Stock
  • 88. Loss of Food Stocks 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 3. None 30% 2=Part, 20% 1=Full, 10% 0% Figure 84 - Loss of Food Stocks Spend LAST WEEK for FOOD (Rs.) 9. Vegetables, Fruits 8. Meat ,fish ,eggs 7. Milk, Cheese, yogurt 6. Sugar 5. Oil, Ghee ,Butter 4. Dhal Chana 3. Maize 2. Rice 1. Bread Wheat, Wheat Flour 0 50 100 150 200 250 300Figure 85 - Spending on Food
  • 89. Markets  Communities and sites men had access to a functioning market.  Communities surveyed women had access to a functioning market.  Communities the closest market was said to be closed.Figure 86 - Access to Functional MarketsFigure 87 - Commodities Available now
  • 90. Figure 88 - Women Access to Functional MarketsFigure 89 - Men Access to Functional Markets
  • 91. 5- OTHERS – CROSS CUTTING ISSUES OF VULNERABILITY, PROTECTION, GENDER ISSUESWOMEN/CULTURAL ISSUES/PEACE, MASS COMMUNICATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTID cards and documentation  Households in both provinces surveyed reported the loss of documents such as National ID Cards, Property documents and Birth or Death certificates.Vulnerability and Protection Issues  Households report resorting to a range of coping strategies that are known to have negative impacts. These include; debt, borrowing, reducing meal size, skipping meals and women eating less than men.  A few weeks in to the disaster a small number of households report they will spend less on health care in order to purchase food and others report they will withdraw children from school.Community Services and Infrastructure  Very few services for women (such as, women‟s shelters, psychological counseling, legal aid, ID card issuance, or women‟s health facilities) were found to exist in the communities covered by the survey.  The highest priority in terms of the restoration of community infrastructure for both male and female community groups were mosques.  Most people surveyed don‟t know about the status of government buildings in their place of originFigure 90 - Community Infrastructure
  • 92. Education  The most frequently mentioned reason for children not going to school by both male and female community groups in the areas surveyed was that the schools had been damaged in the floods.  Although schools were on vacation at the time of the survey, the Education Cluster had opened some learning centres and these could be what is reflectedFigure 91 - EducationHealth service delivery  Most community groups (424 out of 689) had access to a health facility within an hour of where they are staying.  Many of these health facilities are damaged to some degree.  Community groups report using hospitals and health centres much more than any other kind of health facilityFigure 92 - Health
  • 93. Figure 93 - Health Service Delivery Time Figure 94 - Health Level of Damage
  • 94. Mass Communication  61% of households have an active cell phone.  SMS as a means of passing on information is mentioned by only 9% of households.  Word of mouth is the way most people receive information (82%)  The best way for women to receive information is from their husband or another male family member (81%). Figure 95 - MASS CommunicationVulnerable Children  137 male community groups (38%) and 107 female community groups (35%) reported seeing or knowing of children at the site who were considered “vulnerable”. Examples of vulnerable children were given as “orphans, without their usual care givers, who don‟t appear to be with adults, who are disabled”.  Unaccompanied elderly people had been observed by the community groups at the places they were staying.Disputes at the Site  Male community groups in 102 (out of 359) sites and female community groups in 84 (out of 309 sites) reported disputes in their community since the floods.  Reasons for disputes were ranked the same by separate male and female groups; access to food, access to NFIs, rubbish/waste disposal, use of latrines and bathing facilities were the most common causes of disputes.  Both men and women see family elders as the most effective in resolving disputes; this is followed in both groups by police.
  • 95. Figure 96 - Conflicts ResolutionViolence against Women  Households reported suspected violence against women in KPK, Punjab and Sindh  Over 10% of the total sample households reported violence against women with some of the households in these three provinces saying violence against women was common.  No reports of violence came from the province of Gilgit Baltistan at the household levelFigure 97 - Perception of Security
  • 96. Minorities been equally treated during food and NFI distributions AFTER flood YES Don’t Know 20% 20% NO 60% Figure 98 - Minorities Should a NGOs (I-LAP) hold a Interfaith Dialogue Maybe No 15% 5% Yes 80% Figure 99 - Interfaith Dialogue
  • 97. PEACE Mission and Committees Don’t Know 14% No 9% Yes 77%
  • 98. RECOMMENDATIONSBased on the assessment conducted by I-LAP in the selected communities and also after the desk reviewof available rapid assessments of the region mentioned by varied UN Agencies with support of localorganizations, the situation analysis reflects following key recommendations to be strategies as priorityto save millions of lives from any further loss and to ensure revival of life in the washed-offcommunities. These significant recommendations are not only meant for only these communities but ifnot responded as urgent the situation will reflect on Pakistan‟s economy badly might leading to nationalfood-security issues and out-break of epidemic resulting massive life loss. Rise in food prices across thecountry, non-availability of food in flood hit areas, rising Dengue virus cases, mal-nourished childrensince last 90 days, loss of 48 learning days of school going age are already alarming indicators ofupcoming threats. Thus following recommendations must be considered of high significance and crucial.Livelihood (Agriculture, Livestock, Cash-for-Work and others)Agriculture/ Farming  Agriculture was the main sources of income before the disaster. The floods have badly affected this income sources. Enabling farmers to plant in time for September/October wheat planting season (Rabi season). If missed, the impact will be catastrophic on food security and agricultural livelihoods and may last up to two years  Crop maximization project needs to be focused to introduce new farming techniques, better yielding Figure 100: Key Agriculture Data (Courtesy FAO) methods, value addition through better seeding input, and packaging.  Organizing Farming Community, Social Mobilization  Productivity Enhancement of Crops  Capacity Building of Farmers
  • 99. The United Nations humanitarian operations  Empowerment Of Farmers spokesman Maurizio  Establishment of Animal First Aid Centre Giuliano said:  Establishment of Revolving Fund at village level  Establishment of Agriculture Implements Pool "The devastation to crops is  Establishment of Input Sales & Marketing Centre immense. I think it’s safe to  Initiating Income Diversification Interventions say it will take some billions  Additional mechanisms may include providing necessary of dollars to recover. Even support like seeds, tractors, tools and even the use of food though we don’t have vouchers for those communities who can readily access estimates yet, I am referring  Provision of emergency cash or immediate cash-for-work to livelihood for agriculture activities would significantly help families meet their basic and farming to get back in needs. shape."Livestock  Keep existing livestock alive and healthy. Immediate need of feed and veterinary input is has to be meet at emergency basis otherwise much more stock will perish.  Keeping surviving livestock alive will enable herds to be rebuilt through a programme of natural herd increase during the next calving season. The additional young animals are necessary to rebuild livestock numbers, while milk production will contribute as an indispensable source of food security for vulnerable families.
  • 100. Shelter and Food Security  Immediate need for rebuilding houses, at many sites debris in from of bricks and other material is available. People need some construction material input and guidance to Build Better Back.  Provision of Cash-for-Work grants for community infrastructure rebuilding will not support in revival of community activities but will also provide people with work opportunities at their own site.  Agriculture input will lead to solutions to food security too. Provision of food supplies till enough stock get replenished with each house hold is must otherwise will lead to infant mortality.  Functioning markets, options include the subsidization of staple foods for affected communities  Animal shelter should be developed on urgent basis before winter to protect the animals from harsh winter weather.
  • 101. Health and WASHProvision of clean latrine is high need of the time. Feared outbreak of diarrhea, skin allergy, eyediseases, cholera, dysentery, malaria, typhoid, scabies, gastroenteritis and other waterborne diseasescould badly affect a large number of displaced people in the flood-affected areas, especially in RahimYar Khan district, as mentioned by Punjab health secretary Fawad Hasan Fawad.The current situation, water purification tablets or drops, instructions and information sessions on theiruse, and provision of appropriate water carriers may be the fastest way to address the need for drinkingwater.
  • 102.  Establishment of Diarrheal Treatment Center in DHQs Diarrhea treatment kits, IEHK kits and Anti snakes venoms are needed. Psychosocial support is urgently needed because the affected population has lost property and shelter. Hygiene promotion interventions – water purification tabs, mineral water, water tinkering is some areas is needed for next 5-6 days. Chlorination of water Tents are needed for temporary health facilities at different places., Referral system needed to be strengthened. Vaccination campaigns Mass communication campaigns/awareness NFIs for winter good i.e blankets, matters, winter tentes, wrinter cloting, must be distributed to these and other flood-affected communities. Cooking utensils, water storage containers, and
  • 103. women‟s/children‟s hygiene kits should be prioritized. As there are reports that sewage systems have been blocked, provision of soap and towels will help reduce the risk of disease. NGOs should provide medical care through mobile teams with free medicines in mobile health units to affected areas. Free Ambulance transportation services could be provided to the sick or injured on the portions of roads which are still intact, helping them reduce the time and energy they need to spend traveling to receive health support. Medicines must be supplied to functioning health facilities. Doctors and trained health workers should be mobilized to such health facilities. Pregnant women nearing child birth should be identified and Lady Health Workers should be mobilized in affected communities to help women address reproductive health concerns
  • 104. Interfaith Harmony and PeaceSeveral affected communities belonging to the middle and lower middle class social groups refuse to come out in the public and seek any form of aid. These communities were observed to be aggregating in hidden clusters at considerable distances from the main roads and away from regular IDP camps.“In the Bible it findsmention in the expression Love thy neighbor asyourself ; in the Koran itis, no one of you is abeliever until he desiresfor his brother that whichhe desires for himself; inTalmud regard yourneighbors gain as your Special efforts are needed to supply aid to these communities in aown gain and your dignified manner so that they accept assistance. Presently theneighbors loss as your communities are in desperate need for food stock, functionalown loss, in Buddhism itfinds expression in terms markets and are feeling vulnerable and needs protection, especially,such as hurt not others women and children. Many of the food and non-food items aid isin ways that you yourself dependent on the provision of some identity specifically CNIC.would find hurtful .” Communities and people belonging to minorities who have lost the ID cards and documentation are suffering much more than others. Inorder to avoid increased suffering and neglection towards any community all people needs to bepreached concept of harmony in difficult teams between groups and clans of different cast, ethnicity or
  • 105. religion, as no religion or school of thought denies love and sacrifice for others. Following are thesalient steps towards achievement of the goal  Mass awareness campaign to create and foster spirit of generous consideration amongst the people, professing and practicing different faiths.  Engaging religious heads, spiritual masters and intellectual leadership in multidimensional exchanges and dialogue.  To unite the people in the bonds of eternal human relations, friendship, good fellowship, co- operation, harmony and mutual understanding.  Facilitating relevant actions at the end of people, communities, societies and comity of nations to discourage violence in all its forms and manifestations.  Engaging government and non-governmental organizations in propagating the theory of peaceful co- existence in every nook and corner of the world.  To assist and help in building a strong base for a just moral and social world order.  To create a network for preserving human dignity of individual and also its human rights.
  • 106. EducationEducation is a fundamental human right for all people. Education is especially critical for millions ofchildren and youth affected by disasters, and yet it is often significantly disrupted in emergencysituations, denying learners the transformative effects of quality education.Education in emergencies comprises learning opportunities for all ages. It encompasses early childhooddevelopment, primary, secondary, non-formal, technical, vocational, higher and adult education. Preparedness Response Recovery Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, RecoveryCommunities prioritise education in times of crisis. Schools and other learning spaces are often at theheart of the community and symbolise opportunity for future generations and hope for a better life.Learners and their families have aspirations, and education is the key to increasing each person‟s abilityto participate fully in the life of their society – economically, socially and politically.Until recently, humanitarian relief entailed the provision of food, shelter, water and sanitation and healthcare. Education was seen as part of longer term development work rather than as a necessary response toemergencies.However, education‟s life-sustaining and life-saving role has been recognised and the inclusion ofeducation within humanitarian response is now considered critical.Education is an integral part of the planning and provision of humanitarian response, which goes beyondproviding immediate relief. Coordination and collaboration between education and other emergencysectors are essential for an effective response that addresses the rights and needs of all learners.Immediate needs include:
  • 107.  Thorough assessment of school infrastructure and supplies damage (already initiated by PMIU) Arrangement of education facilities through Child Friendly Learning Spaces, that will help children in psychosocial up-healing, getting-back to track and covering the gap made in their education year. These CFLS can be set-up with support of communities at some central easily accessible safe point and teachers can serve till the school revive Reconstruction of schools based on the assessment Provision of teaching learning aids to schools and children who have lost their bags and books in flood Setting-up accelerated learning centers to support children in catching-up their education who are busy with their families in building back School based nutrition and health facilities Teacher training on Disaster Risk Reduction Organization of children and their training on DRR In addition, community-based family tracing and reunification systems should be instated, as well as child protection and referral networks, to ensure that children are reconnected with their families and the most vulnerable receive the support they need. It is also crucial to resume educational services for children immediately to help restore a sense of normalcy to their lives. School infrsture improvements, and Materials, provide.

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