Basic facts about HIV&AIDS

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Basic facts about HIV&AIDS

  1. 1. 1 BASIC FACTS ABOUT HIV/AIDS a presentation by Global Health International
  2. 2. Definitions  HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus The virus which causes AIDS  SIV – Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Retrovirus found in numerous strains in primates; the specific strains infecting humans are HIV-1 & HIV-2  AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome A collection of symptoms & signs of illnesses due to immune depletion 2
  3. 3. Relationship of HIV & AIDS 3
  4. 4. 4 The HIV virus
  5. 5. 5 Types of HIV HIV Type 1 HIV Type 2 - Most predominant world wide - More virulent - Has subtypes M, N, O and P (M is most predominant) - Subtype M has strains A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J and K - Mainly in West Africa - Less easily transmitted - Longer period from initial infection and onset of illness
  6. 6. HIV origin: the theories  Hunter theory: Most accepted theory. That SIV was transferred to humans after chimps being killed & eaten or their blood getting into hunters’ cuts/wounds  Oral Polio vaccine theory: Congo, Ruanda & Burundi in the late 1950s. That the vaccine was cultivated using kidney cells of local chimps infected with SIV 6
  7. 7. HIV origin: the theories  Conspiracy theory: -HIV manufactured as a biological warfare programme, to wipe out black & homosexual people. -HIV was developed by the US as a weapon of germ warfare -Right wing American groups blamed the Soviets for the AIDS epidemic. 7
  8. 8. HIV origin: the theories  Colonialism theory: Locals were forced into labour camps where SIV could have infected them. They were inoculated with unsterile needles against diseases e.g. smallpox. Many camps employed prostitutes to keep workers happy  Heavenly theory: HIV came from an angry God who was unhappy with gays, IVDUs & promiscuity. Others believed that HIV came as a cosmic debris as part of the tail of a comet 8
  9. 9. 9 Origin of HIV/AIDS  HIV is a zoonotic infection-resembles SIV  Genetic analysis indicates HIV introduced into humans ~ 1931  1959 serum sample from Congo HIV+  Here chimpanzees are kept as pets and butchered forfood  HIV 1st discovered in 1980s by Luc Montagnier (Paris); Later in 1980s by Robert Gallo (US)
  10. 10. 10 Origin of HIV/AIDS  No. of people who developed AIDS before the 1980s are unknown  First cases of AIDS recognized in early 1980s  In 1984, 1st AIDS (‘slim disease’) case in Uganda was reported
  11. 11. Modes of HIV transmission  Sexual intercourse (heterosexual & same sex; commonest mode of transmission)  Mother to Child transmission (pregnancy, labour, birth, breast feeding)  Occupational exposure  Blood products infusion  Donor organ and tissue transplantation  (Intravenous) Injection drug use 11
  12. 12. 12 Phase 1  Rapid spread through urban sexual networks along major highways from its origin in the Lake Victoria region  The fight against HIV began only after the civil war in 1986. ACP set up in 1987  By this time Urban areas had prevalence rates of up to 29% . HIV/AIDS trend in Uganda
  13. 13. 13 Phase 1 cont’d  CBOs came up targeting education, HIV prevention(ABC) & stigma reduction TASO was one of the first  Philly Bongoley Lutaaya (19 October 1951 – 15 December 1989), a Ugandan musician spent his life writing songs about his battle with AIDS; toured many places spreading messages of prevention & hope. HIV/AIDS trend in Uganda
  14. 14. 14 HIV/AIDS trend in Uganda Phase 2: 1992 to 2000  HIV prevalence fell dramatically, from about 15% in 1991 in adults to about 5% in 2001  Reason: Gov’t. ABC prevention campaign & the high numbers of AIDS-related deaths  Prevention initiatives continued through the nineties with high levels of funding from both the gov’t & international donors e.g. World Bank
  15. 15. 15 HIV/AIDS trend in Uganda Phase 3: 2000 to 2005  The third phase saw the stabilization of HIV prevalence at 6.4%  Free ARV drugs were introduced in 2004  Funders included World Bank, Global Health, PEPFAR, CDC
  16. 16. HIV/AIDS trend in Uganda WHO 2010 HIV epidemiology report & 2011 Uganda demographics report:  HIV prevalence rate 6.5% among adults  HIV prevalence rate 0.7% among children  1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda  1.2 million children are orphans due to AIDS  130,000 new HIV infections occur annually  60,000 deaths occur annually  540,000 adults & children in need of ARVs  240,000 adults & children on ARVs 16
  17. 17. Global distribution of HIV by sex & age (Source WHO & UNAIDS 2010) 17
  18. 18. 18 18 Urban-Rural HIV Infection Prevalence: (Source WHO & UNAIDS 2010) 10.2 12.8 6.7 1.4 5.7 6.5 4.8 0.6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 All Females Males Children <5yrs Urban Rural  Urban residents have a significantly higher risk of HIV infection  The urban- rural disparity stronger for women and children than for men.
  19. 19. So, What happens when HIV enters the Human body? 1. Window Period  Time from initial infection with HIV to time antibodies are detectable (usually 3-8 weeks)  Period varies between individuals & depends on the test used  95% of people develop antibodies within 3-4 months  HIV antibody tests may give negative results in an infected person during this period  Very high Viral Load  Victim highly infectious 19
  20. 20. 2. Seroconversion  The change from non-detectable antibody test (Negative test) to detectable antibody levels (Positive test) is referred to as seroconversion  Seroconversion marks end of the window period  Presents with unspecific symptoms e.g. fever, flu, headache, general weakness, poor appetite, etc  Symptoms short lived; patient improves in 2-4 weeks 20 So, What happens when HIV enters the Human body?
  21. 21. 21 3. Development of Symptoms & Signs i.e. Stage I  Asymptomatic stage of HIV infection  There may only be enlarged lymph nodes So, What happens when HIV enters the Human body?
  22. 22. 22 ….when HIV enters the Human body Stage II Multiple symptoms and conditions e.g.  Skin rash  Herpes zoster  Oral ulcers  Fungal nail infections  Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections
  23. 23. 2323 ….when HIV enters the Human body Stage III Multiple symptoms & conditions e.g.  TB of the lungs  Diarrhoea > a month  Oral thrush  >10% unintended weight loss  Persistent fevers (unexplained) for > a month
  24. 24. 2424 ….when HIV enters the Human body Stage IV Multiple symptoms and conditions e.g.  Cancers like Kaposi’s sarcoma  Oesophageal candidiasis  Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia  Cryptococcal meningitis  TB outside the lungs
  25. 25. AND HOW WILL A PERSON WITH HIV/AIDS PRESENT CLINICALLY? 25
  26. 26. 26 MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV/AIDS 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections 2. Manifestations due to HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers 3. Manifestations due to Drugs used in treatment of HIV/AIDS 4. Other HIV/AIDS related conditions
  27. 27. 27 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Fungal skin infections 27
  28. 28. 28 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Oral thrush
  29. 29. 29 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Oral Hairy Leukoplakia
  30. 30. 30 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Angular Cheilitis (Candidiasis)
  31. 31. 31 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Mixed Infections
  32. 32. 32 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Herpes simplex virus
  33. 33. 33 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Extensive H.S. infection of lips & nose
  34. 34. 34 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Molluscum contagiosum
  35. 35. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Molluscum contagiosum 35
  36. 36. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Herpes zooster 36
  37. 37. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Generalised itchy Skin rash 37
  38. 38. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections TB of the skin 38
  39. 39. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Herpes simplex genitalia 39
  40. 40. 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections HPV 40
  41. 41. 41 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections HPV 41
  42. 42. 42 1. Manifestations due to Opportunistic Infections Vaginal Candidiasis 42
  43. 43. MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV/AIDS 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers 43
  44. 44. 44 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers Kaposi’s sarcoma: gum & legs affected
  45. 45. 45 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers Kaposi’s sarcoma: palate involvement 45
  46. 46. 46 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers Lymphoma
  47. 47. 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers Squamous cell carcinoma of the eye 47
  48. 48. 2. HIV/AIDS Associated Cancers Kaposi’s sarcoma 48
  49. 49. 49 MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV/AIDS 3. Manifestations due to Drugs used in HIV/AIDS Treatment 49
  50. 50. 3. Manifestations due to drugs Nevirapine rash 50
  51. 51. 51 3. Manifestations due to drugs Steven Johnson’s Syndrome 51
  52. 52. 52 3. Manifestations due to drugs Nevirapine side effects 52
  53. 53. 53 3. Manifestations due to drugs Severe Anaemia of AZT 53
  54. 54. 54 3. Manifestations due to drugs Fat maldistribution (Stavudine induced) 54
  55. 55. 55 3. Manifestations due to drugs Loss of body fat (as with Protease Inhibitors) 55
  56. 56. 56 MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV/AIDS 4. Other HIV/AIDS Associated Conditions
  57. 57. 4. Other HIV/AIDS Associated conditions Psoriasis 57
  58. 58. 58 4. Other HIV/AIDS Associated conditions Eczema 58
  59. 59. 59 4. Other HIV/AIDS Associated conditions HIV wasting syndrome 59
  60. 60. 60 May God have mercy upon mankind

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