The Visigothic kingdom was a Western European power from the fifth to eighth century, one of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire, originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths under their own king in Aquitaine (southern Gaul) by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of the Iberian peninsula. The kingdom maintained independence from the Byzantine Empire, the attempts of which to re-establish Roman authority in Iberia (Spania) failed. But by the early sixth century in Gaul the Franks had conquered all of the kingdom save Septimania. The whole kingdom eventually collapsed during a series of Islamic invasions from Morocco. The Kingdom of Asturias eventually developed a conscious identity as the Visigothic successor state.<br /> The kingdom was ruled by an elected monarch, who had to be a Goth, with the advice of the "senate", composed of the bishops and the lay magnates. Though several kings attempted to establish dynasties, none were successful. The early kings were Arian Christians and conflict with the Church was not unheard of, but after the Visigoths converted to Nicene Christianity, the Church exerted an enormous influence on secular affairs through the Councils of Toledo. Nonetheless, the Visigoths developed the most extensive secular legislation in Western Europe, the LiberIudiciorum, which formed the basis for Spanish law throughout the Middle Ages.<br />
Gothic architecture <br />is a style of architecture which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It was preceded by Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture.<br />
Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum), <br /> with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance as a stylistic insult. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.<br />
Introduction<br />The style had an evolution:<br />12th century: origin<br />13th century: plenitude<br />14th century until mid 15th century: international<br />Second half of the 15th century: flamboyant<br />
Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.<br />
Flying Buttress<br />Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. Of the six seen here the left hand five are supporting the nave, and the right hand one is supporting the transept. Notice their cast shadows on the windows<br />
<ul><li>Flying buttress</li></ul> Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. Of the six seen here the left hand five are supporting the nave, and the right hand one is supporting the transept. Notice their cast shadows on the windows<br /><ul><li>In architecture, a flying buttress, or arc-boutant, is usually on a religious building, used to transmit the thrust of a vault across an intervening space (which might be an aisle, chapel or cloister), to a buttress outside the building. The employment of the flying buttress means that the load bearing walls can contain cut-outs, such as for large windows, that would otherwise seriously weaken the vault walls.
The purpose of a buttress was to reduce the load on the vault wall. The majority of the load is carried by the upper part of the buttress, so making the buttress as a semi-arch provides almost the same load bearing capability, yet in a much lighter as well as a much cheaper structure. As a result, the buttress flies through the air, rather than resting on the ground and hence is known as a flying buttress.</li></li></ul><li>Cathedral<br />Cathedrals are the most representative building<br />They are full of accessional spirit<br />The technical innovations made possible the construction of these buildings, something ethereal.<br /><ul><li>The inside is full of light thanks to the numerous windows
The cathedral has three levels: low, gallery and clerestory
The walls are open, allowing a lot of light into the church, with different levels of intensity (more light in the highest parts because light comes directly).
Windows can be open because there are new supports that are not glued to the wall.</li></li></ul><li>Cathedral<br />Crossing<br />Transept<br />Spires<br />Ambulatory<br />Clerestory<br />Tribune<br />Gargoiles<br />Apse<br />Radial chapels<br />Rose window<br />Nave<br />Lateral façade<br /> Façade<br />Flying butresses<br />
GOTHIC PAINTING<br />Introduction<br />Wall painting disappeared during the gothic<br /> more windows<br /> too high vaults<br />Painting changed its place:<br />On wood<br />Altarpieces<br />Triptychs <br />
Altarpieces<br />They were put inside of the churches, instead of wall painting<br />They are found in the inside of the apses or in the chapels<br />They consist of several parts:<br />Predella or basis<br />Bodies horizontally<br />Streets vertically<br />Streets<br />Bodies<br />Predella<br />
Evolution<br />There are four phases: <br />Lineal Gothic or French Gothic 13th<br />Italo-Gothic or Three-hundreds’ 14th<br />International style 14th<br />Flemish style 15th<br />Lineal<br />Italian<br />International<br />Flemish<br />
Lineal Gothic<br />It began in the 13th century and lasted until the 14th<br />Characteristics:<br />Importance to the <br /> drawing lines<br />Intensity of the colours<br />Naïf naturalism, easy to understand<br /><ul><li>It is a gentle style
Miniature </li></li></ul><li>Italian Gothic<br />It appeared in Italy in the 13th century and expanded in Europe in the 14th<br />Characteristics:<br />Persecution of deepness<br />Analysis of human body<br />Importance of the light in relation to colour<br /><ul><li>A common image is the Virgin with the Child, of Byzantine influence
Other schools are those of Rome, Siena and Florence
In there the basis for the</li></ul> Renaissance are established<br /><ul><li>Authors:
Flemish Style<br />It evolved from the International Style<br />The use of oil to bring colours together:<br />Made colours more vivid<br />Gave more bright<br />Allowed the depiction of transparencies <br />Allowed the creation of composite colours<br />Compositions are detailed, with attention to human or objects’ features.<br />
International Style<br />It appeared in Central Europe from the fusion of<br />Lineal gothic<br />Italian gothic<br />Characteristics:<br />Importance of the anecdote <br />Taste for curve line<br />Abundance of folders and movement<br />Introduction of natural details with symbolic character<br />Detailed technique<br />
This style developed in the courts of Berry and Borgoña being specially important in miniature<br />It influenced in the Flemish painters<br />In Spain it developed in Aragon<br />There are schools in<br />Valencia<br />Catalonia<br />Aragon and<br />Castile<br />International Style<br />
GOTHIC SCULPTURE<br />Introduction<br />There is a change in the sculptural conception in the evolution from the Romanesque<br />Images are naturalistic and related to the time they represent in opposition to the lack of temporality and geometric shapes of the former period. <br />
Evolution<br />13th century: classicist.<br />They look foranidealisednaturalism.<br />14th century:<br />Mannerism in stylization, longerimages and withbends.<br />15th century:<br />Sculptures of kings, bourgeoises and aristocracy<br />
Sepulchres<br />It is one of the new locations for sculpture.<br />It can be of two types:<br />Adjacent: below an arch<br />Exempt: a funerary bed<br />The characteristics are:<br />Death person depicted on the bed, laying or praying<br />Symbolic animal images <br />They were commanded by nobility or bourgeoisie<br />They appear in the chapels.<br /><ul><li>Other places for sculptures are:
Altar pieces </li></li></ul><li>Iconography<br />It is mainly religious:<br />Last Judgement<br />Christ in majesty<br />Virgin<br />Saints lives (hagiography) <br />Fantastic animals (gargoyles)<br /><ul><li>Christ may appear as judge or in the images about his life.
Other common depiction is that of the Crucifixion, with some new characteristics:
Spain<br />Gothic sepulchres are commonly realised<br />The type with an arch appears on the wall<br />The buried person’s portrait lays on the funerary bed<br />Polychrome effects were used.<br />
French Gothic<br />Thedistinctivecharacteristic of Frenchcathedrals, and those in Germany and Belgiumthatwerestronglyinfluencedbythem, istheirheight and theirimpression of verticality. <br />They are compact, withslightor no projection of thetransepts and subsidiarychapels. <br />Thewestfrontshavethreeportalssurmountedby a rose window, and twolargetowers. <br />Theeastendispolygonalwithambulatory and sometimes a chevette of radiatingchapels.<br /> In thesouth of France, many of themajorchurches are withouttransepts and some are withoutaisles<br />
British Gothic<br />Thedistinctivecharacteristic of Englishcathedralsistheir extreme length and theirinternalemphasisuponthe horizontal.<br />Itisnotunusualforeverypart of thebuildingtohavebeenbuilt in a differentcentury and in a differentstyle, with no attempt at creating a stylisticunity. <br />Englishcathedralssprawlacrosstheirsites, withdoubletranseptsprojectingstrongly and Lady Chapelstackedon at a later date. <br />In thewestfrontthedoors are notsignificant<br />The West windowisverylarge and never a rose, which are reservedforthetranseptgables. <br />Thewestfrontmayhavetwotowersornone. <br />Thereisnearlyalways a tower at thecrossing and itmaybeverylarge and surmountedby a spire. <br />ThedistinctiveEnglisheastendissquare.<br />
Italian Gothic<br />It usespolychromedecoration, bothexternally as marbleveneeronthebrickfacade and alsointernallywherethearches are oftenmade of alternatingblack and whitesegments.<br />The plan isusually regular and symmetricalandhavefew and widelyspacedcolumns. <br />Theproportions are generallymathematically simple, basedonthesquare, thearches are almostalwaysequilateral. <br />Itmayincludemosaics in thelunettesoverthedoors. <br />Thefacadeshaveprojecting open porches and occularorwheelwindowsratherthan roses, and do notusuallyhave a tower. <br />Thecrossingisusuallysurmountedby a dome.<br />Thereisoften a free-standingtower and baptistry.<br />Thewindows are not as large as in northernEurope and, althoughstainedglasswindows are used, thedecorationis fresco ormosaic.<br />
German Gothic<br />Itischaracterisedbyhugetowers and spires.<br />ThewestfrontgenerallyfollowstheFrench formula, butthetowers are taller, and if complete, are surmountedbyenormousopenworkspires.<br />TheeasternendfollowstheFrenchform. <br />Thedistinctivecharacter of the interior of GermanGothiccathedralsistheirbreadth and openness.<br />Cathedralstendnottohavestronglyprojectingtransepts. <br />There are alsomanyhallenkirkewithoutclerestoreywindows.<br />
Spanish Gothic<br />SpanishGothiccathedralsare ofspacialcomplexity.<br />They are comparatively short and wide, and are oftencompletelysurroundedbychapels. <br />SpanishCathedrals are stylisticallydiverse. <br />Influencesonbothdecoration and form are Islamicarchitecture, and towardstheend of theperiod, RenaissancedetailscombinedwiththeGothic in a distinctivemanner. <br />The West frontresembles a Frenchwestfront, <br />There are spires of Germanstyle. <br />Fewpinnacles. <br />There are oftentowers and domes of a greatvariety of shapes and structuralinventionrisingabovetheroof.<br />
Symbolism and ornamentation<br />The Gothic cathedral represented the universe in microcosm and each architectural concept, including the loftiness and huge dimensions of the structure, were intended to convey a theological message: the great glory of God. The building becomes a microcosm in two ways. Firstly, the mathematical and geometrical nature of the construction is an image of the orderly universe, in which an underlying rationality and logic can be perceived.<br />Secondly, the statues, sculptural decoration, stained glass and murals incorporate the essence of creation in depictions of the Labours of the Months and the Zodiac and sacred history from the Old and New Testaments and Lives of the Saints, as well as reference to the eternal in the Last Judgment and Coronation of the Virgin.<br /> <br /> <br />
The decorative schemes usually incorporated Biblical stories, emphasizing visual typological allegories between Old Testament prophecy and the New Testament.<br />Many churches were very richly decorated, both inside and out. Sculpture and architectural details were often bright with coloured paint of which traces remain at Chartres cathedral. Wooden ceilings and panelling were usually brightly coloured. Sometimes the stone columns of the nave were painted, and the panels in decorative wall arcading contained narratives or figures of saints. These have rarely remained intact, but may be seen at the Chapterhouse of Westminster Abbey.<br />Some important Gothic churches could be severely simple such as the Basilica of Mary Magdalene in Saint-Maximin, Provence where the local traditions of the sober, massive, Romanesque architecture were still strong.<br />
THANK YOU<br />PPT Design & compose by KAUSHAL JOSHI<br />Source:- INTERNET <br />
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