TRADITIONAL  SOUTH INDIAN   ARCHITECTURE
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TRADITIONAL SOUTH INDIAN ARCHITECTURE Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TRADITIONAL SOUTH INDIAN ARCHITECTURE SUBMITTED BY: NILOSHA DOCTOR. SUBMITTED TO: ADITI JOSHI. SUBMITTED CODE: 0907. SUBMITTED ON: 19/07/2012.
  • 2. MYSORE PALACE IN MYSORE, KARNATAKA
  • 3. The rise of Maratha military power under Shivaji and his heirs in the immediate north of what is today considered South India had a profound influence on the political situation of South India, with Maratha control quickly extending as far east as Ganjam and as far south asThanjavur. Following the death of Aurangzeb, Mughal power withered, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyarkingdom of Mysore, which was originally in tribute to Vijayanagara and gained in strength over the next few decades, subsequently emerging as the dominant power in the southern part of South India. The Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad controlled the territory north and east of Mysore, while the Marathas controlled portions of what is today Karnataka. By the close of the "medieval" period, most of South India was either ruled directly from, or under tribute to Nayak dynasty or Wodeyars.
  • 4. The original palace in Mysore was of wooden construction and was burnt down by a disastrous fire in February 1897, said to have started at the closing function of the marriage of Princess Jayalakshmammanniyavaru [8]. The Maharani, then Regent, decided to build a new palace on the model and on the foundations of the old one. This should reflect the grandeur of the old Mysore Palace. Henry Irwin, who had at that point in time recently retired as Consulting Architect of the Government of Madras received the contract and his plans were approved. The speed with which he drew them up can be appreciated by the fact that construction was inaugurated in October 1897 by Her Highness, the Maharani - only eight months after the fire [9]. The journal Indian Engineering in its issue of October, 1898 speaks of the Government's directive regarding reconstruction of the palace: "...in the reconstruction, stone, brick and iron should be the chief materials used, and that the use of wood and other combustible materials should be avoided wherever possible". The estimated expenditure at the planning stage was Rs. 25 lakhs (Rs. 2 500 000). The report goes on to record: "Mr. Irwin, of Madras, was given the work of preparing a suitable design, which, it should be said in fairness to him, he did most creditably. The design was adopted, Mr. Irwin paid a fee of Rs. 12 000 and the work was put in hand in August 1897. But in an evil hour the Durbar determined that the work should be carried on departmentally...". A mistake was made, comments the editorial, in ordering manufacture of the bricks locally instead of getting them from Madras, as there was nothing wrong with bricks used for the new High Court building at Madras [also a Henry Irwin building]. As it turned out, the experiment proved a failure - according to the journal - both regards the quality of the bricks produced and the expenditure involved
  • 5. The Palace of Mysore or the Amba Vilas Palace is a palace situated in the city of Mysore in southern India. It is the official residence of the Wodeyars - the erstwhile royal family of Mysore, and also houses two durbar halls (ceremonial meeting hall of the royal court). Mysore is commonly described as the City of Palaces, however, the term "Mysore Palace" specifically refers to one within the old fort. The Wodeyar kings first built a palace in Mysore in the 14th century, it was demolished and constructed multiple times. The current palace construction was commissioned in 1897, and it was completed in 1912 and expanded later around 1940. Mysore palace is now one of the most famous tourist attractions in India after Taj Mahal with more than 2.7 million visitors.Although tourists are allowed to visit the palace, they are not allowed to take photographs inside the palace. Price of admission for foreign tourists is 200 INR., and for Indians 40 INR. All visitors must remove their footwear to enter the palace. The regent of Mysore, Maharani Vani Vilas Sannidhna, commissioned a British architect, Henry Irwin, to build yet another palace in its place. The construction was completed in year 1912. But slowly the beautification of the fort was also taken up and the inhabitants of the fort were slowly shifted out to newer Extension built outside. The present Public Durbar Hall wing was also added much later around 1940. HISTORY
  • 6. Construction of this palce was was necessitated in 1887 whaen the old, small wooden-built palace was burnt by accidental fire. while constructing it , the Wodeyar kings of Mysore knigdom reffered to the architectural plans of different palaces in the world and finally got created this plan, by assembling good features of all references.Hence it combines the best features of both Indian and certain western building designs. ERA MYSORE KINGS -HISTORY Kings who ruled Mysore state belonged to WODEYAR dynasty. This kingdom was started in 15th century .Originally they were subordinates to Vijayanagarrulers.But, with the destruction of that kingdom, in southern Karnataka,Mysore royal state flourished as strong independent state. The rulers of Mysore were pro-people. They took many steps-like, establishing a people representative council, implemented reservations for down-trodden communities, etc. They patronized arts, music, literature, and sports like boxing. In the present palace,lived and ruled Famous Krishnaraja wodeyar-the fourth, and Jayachamaraja wodeyar. When India became independent in 1947, the state of Mysore got merged in it in January 1948.Then, the rulership was gone.
  • 7. ARCHITECTURE The architectural style of the palace is commonly described as Indo- Saracenic, and blends together Hindu, Muslim, Rajput, and Gothic styles of architecture. It is a three-storied stone structure, with marble domes and a 145 ft five-storied tower. The palace is surrounded by a large garden. The three storied stone building of fine gray granite with deep pink marble domes was designed by Henry Irwin. The facade has seven expansive arches and two smaller ones flanking the central arch, which is supported by tall pillars. Above the central arch is an impressive sculpture of Gajalakshmi, the goddess of wealth, prosperity, good luck, and abundance with her elephants.
  • 8. South Indian culture South Indian culture refers to the culture of the South Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. South Indian culture though with its visible differences forms an important part of the Indian culture. The South Indian Culture is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body and motherhood. Cuisine Rice is the staple diet, with fish being an integral component of coastal South Indian meals. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala and costal part of Karnataka of South India, whereas the cuisine in Andhra Pradesh is characterized by the delicious pickles, spicy aromatic curries and the generous use of chili powder. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam etc. are popular throughout the region. Coastal areas like the state of Kerala and the city of Mangalore are known for their seafood. South Indian coffee is generally quite robust, and coffee is a preferred drink throughout the Malabar region Tamilnadu is well known for its idli,dosai,pongal,sambhar,vadai which is the common breakfast in Tamil families.
  • 9. Music The sophisticated Indian Classical Music of South India is known as Carnatic music (after Carnatic, the name by which south India was known in the earlier colonial days. Sarang Dev coined south Indian classical music as karnatic Music). It includes sensuous rhythmic and structured music by composers such as Purandara Dasa, Tyagaraja, Dikshathar, Shyama Sasthri, and Swati Tirunal. Dance The South Indian culture is celebrated in the elaborate dance forms of South India - Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Oyilattam, Karakattam, Kuchipudi,Kathakali, Theyyam , Bhuta Kola, Ottamthullal, Oppana, Kerala Natanam, Mohiniaattam and Yakshagana. The Bharatanatyam is the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body.This is done through its tenets of having a perfectly erect posture, a straight and pout curving stomach, a well rounded and proportionate body mass- to the body structure, very long hair and curvaceous hips.
  • 10. Architecture and paintings The ruins at Hampi attest to the richness of Vijayanagara architecture.
  • 11. Raja Ravi Varma's paintings combined European techniques with a distinctly south Indian sensibility.
  • 12. South India boasts of having two enchanting styles of rock architecture, the pure dravida style of Tamil Naduand the Vesara style (also called Karnata dravida style) present in Karnataka. The inspirational templesculptures of Mahabalipuram, Tanjore, Hampi, Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole, Belur, Halebidu, Lak kundi,Shravanabelagola, Madurai and the mural paintings of Travancore and Lepakshi temples, also stand as a testament to South Indian culture. The paintings of Raja Ravi Varma are considered classic renditions of many a scenes of South Indian life and mythology. There are several examples of Kerala Mural paintings in theMattancherry Palace and the Shiva kshetram at Ettamanoor. South India is home, as of April 2006, to 5 of the 26 World Heritage listed sites in India. Sculptures and figurine Sculptures at Hampi embodying human expression, Karnataka.
  • 13. Sculptures became one of the finest medium of South Indian expression after the human form of dance. In this medium it was possible to etch the three dimensional form in time. The traditional South Indian sculptor starts his sculpture of the divinities from the navel which is always represented unclothed by the sari. A koshta or grid of the sculpture would show the navel to be right at the centre of the sculpture, representing the source of the union of the finite body and the infinite universe. Sculptures adorn many of the temples around the complexes and also inside them. They are also depiction of dance steps of various stylizations and have served to preserve danceforms and revive it. Literature and philosophy Tiruvalluvar, the author of the Tirukkural.