SUBMITTED TO:- ADITI
TOWER OF PISA
Romanesque Architecture emerged during the Middle Ages or the
Medieval era strongly identified with the Normans. Romanesque
Architecture is the term used to describe the building styles which were
used between 800 AD to 1100 AD.
The name of this style of architecture leads to some confusion - the
immediate association with this style of architecture is with the Roman
The reason for this association are the similarities between Roman
Architecture especially the Roman 'barrel vault' and the Roman arch.
The Medieval Romanesque Architecture was the first major style of
architecture to be developed after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
Romanesque Architecture was primarily developed by the Normans.
The History of Romanesque Architecture is strongly influenced by the
religious fervour of the period which resulted in the construction of many
Romanesque churches in England.
Many medieval Knights had travelled to the Holy Land on Crusades.
They had seen the magnificent solid fortresses of the Byzantine Empire
and these massive buildings influenced and revolutionised castle building
ideas, engineering and architecture of the Romanesque period.
The Normans had developed the wooden Motte and Bailey castles at first
England was invaded by William the Conqueror and were defeated at the
Battle of Hastings in 1066.
The wooden Motte and Bailey castles were used by the Normans as a
means to subjugate the conquered English inhabitants.!
The Transromanica is a European cultural network
connecting the common Romanesque heritage of ten regions
in eight countries between the Baltic Sea and the
A common style with regional facets in art and architecture
influenced the overall picture.
Its aim is to study the Romanesque heritage in the
participating regions, to publicize this heritage, make it
accessible to a general public, and to use Romanesque
heritage for cultural purposes.
All regions and organizations involved in preserving and
promoting the Romanesque heritage in their
regions, developing cultural tourism, and seeking a
transnational exchange of ideas are welcome.
One of the “SEVEN wonders of the World.”
Located in PISA, Italy at the 'Piazza dei Miracoli' square.
Bell tower for the Cathedral.
Renowned all over the world for its peculiar inclination.
Popular tourist hotspot. Building was shut down to tourists
in 1990, but has open up because of extensive restoration
efforts by government agencies.
Building reopened in April, 2001.
• Construction began in
1173 and continued off
and on until 1372.
• Political crises caused
• Used multiple
• First began tilt in 1178
with 3rd floor. The first
lean of the tower was
• After trying to even the
floors, it leaned North.
• This is an over exaggerated
picture of the plan to make it
•Engineering was often trial and
error due to lack of technology.
•The foundation was poorly
constructed and was only about 3
•Built on an ancient riverbed just
6ft above sea level, made up of
weak sand and clay.
The Romans were a practical and utilitarian people, and
needed for their various structures greater economy of
material than was compatible with large blocks of
stone, especially for such as were carried to great
altitudes Some maintain that Archimedes of Sicily was
the inventor of the arch but to whoever the glory of the
invention is due, it is certain that the Romans were the
first of European nations to make a practical application
of its great qualities.
Roman arches enabled the ancient
Romans to rear vast edifices with
the humblest materials, to build
bridges, aqueducts, sewers, amphit
heatres, and triumphal arches, as
well as temples and palaces. Its
application extends to domes and
cupolas, to floors and corridors and
roofs, and to various other parts of
buildings where economy of
material and labor is desired. It was
applied extensively to doorways
and windows, and is an ornament
as well as a utility.
Weight = 14,700 metric tones
Ring shaped diameter = 19.6 m
Thickness of wall =4.1 m, and 2.7 m
for all other levels.
Inclination = 5 ½ degree’s to the south.
32,240 blocks ("ashlars") for facing the
exterior and interior of the cylindrical
15 half columns at the base.
180 columns for base.
12 columns for belfry.
Location of tower – ground comprised of layers of
sand & clay.
Layers ran parallel except under the the foundation
of the tower, where it formed a bow shape.
The unstable mixture of soil material caused the soil
to compact at a different rate, causing the tower to
sink 30-40 cm.
the unstable mixture of soil – caused the tower to
sink to the south side.
soil at south side compressed faster than the north
side – weight of the tower was the main factor of tilt.
tilting was also due to the fluctuations of the water
this caused the tower to keep shifting, as well as
rotate…later discovered by scientists that the tower’s
position shifted in relation to the ground water level.
It was thought that the tower would tip over due to
the angle of tilt.
However, it would Collapse due to enormous stress.
Stones on first few floors had most stress – they had
to support the weight = 14,700 tones.
Stones on south side had stress because of incline.
The stress kept increasing as the inclination
increased, therefore there was danger of the tower
The outside of the tower is made of strong
marble, but the inside is made up of rubble, hence the
walls cannot support the resulting stress.
Side of tower
where the stress
was causing the
tower walls to
In 1992, plastic coated steel wires were wrapped around the
south side of the second floor to prevent a type of failure
Buckling = occurs when overly stressed walls suddenly burst
The tower still continued to incline to the south side.
In 1993, the incline was halted by stacking lead ingots on the
north side of the tower.
There were 750 metric tons of lead. (Acted as support)
This caused the weight of north side = weight of south side.
Statics – the tower was built to stay in equilibrium however
external influences such as topography of the land cause it to
tilt, and rotate around its axis.
S.O.M – stress was increasing on the building as it tilted on
the south side. This could have cause the tower to collapse.
“Buckling” = when overstressed material may burst
Engineers must take every minute detail when constructing
any object. In the case of the Tower of Pisa, the topography
of the land was unsuitable for construction.