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  2. 2. Romanesque Architecture emerged during the Middle Ages or the Medieval era strongly identified with the Normans. Romanesque Architecture is the term used to describe the building styles which were used between 800 AD to 1100 AD.  The name of this style of architecture leads to some confusion - the immediate association with this style of architecture is with the Roman Empire! The reason for this association are the similarities between Roman Architecture especially the Roman 'barrel vault' and the Roman arch.  The Medieval Romanesque Architecture was the first major style of architecture to be developed after the collapse of the Roman Empire.  Romanesque Architecture was primarily developed by the Normans.
  3. 3. The History of Romanesque Architecture is strongly influenced by the religious fervour of the period which resulted in the construction of many Romanesque churches in England. Many medieval Knights had travelled to the Holy Land on Crusades. They had seen the magnificent solid fortresses of the Byzantine Empire and these massive buildings influenced and revolutionised castle building ideas, engineering and architecture of the Romanesque period.  The Normans had developed the wooden Motte and Bailey castles at first in Normandy.  England was invaded by William the Conqueror and were defeated at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The wooden Motte and Bailey castles were used by the Normans as a means to subjugate the conquered English inhabitants.!
  4. 4. The Transromanica is a European cultural network connecting the common Romanesque heritage of ten regions in eight countries between the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean.  A common style with regional facets in art and architecture influenced the overall picture. Its aim is to study the Romanesque heritage in the participating regions, to publicize this heritage, make it accessible to a general public, and to use Romanesque heritage for cultural purposes. All regions and organizations involved in preserving and promoting the Romanesque heritage in their regions, developing cultural tourism, and seeking a transnational exchange of ideas are welcome.
  5. 5.  One of the “SEVEN wonders of the World.”  Located in PISA, Italy at the 'Piazza dei Miracoli' square.  Bell tower for the Cathedral.  Renowned all over the world for its peculiar inclination.  Popular tourist hotspot. Building was shut down to tourists in 1990, but has open up because of extensive restoration efforts by government agencies.  Building reopened in April, 2001.
  6. 6. • Construction began in 1173 and continued off and on until 1372. • Political crises caused breaks. • Used multiple architects. • First began tilt in 1178 with 3rd floor. The first lean of the tower was South. • After trying to even the floors, it leaned North.
  7. 7. • This is an over exaggerated picture of the plan to make it straight •Engineering was often trial and error due to lack of technology. •The foundation was poorly constructed and was only about 3 meters thick. •Built on an ancient riverbed just 6ft above sea level, made up of weak sand and clay.
  8. 8. The Romans were a practical and utilitarian people, and needed for their various structures greater economy of material than was compatible with large blocks of stone, especially for such as were carried to great altitudes Some maintain that Archimedes of Sicily was the inventor of the arch but to whoever the glory of the invention is due, it is certain that the Romans were the first of European nations to make a practical application of its great qualities.
  9. 9. Roman arches enabled the ancient Romans to rear vast edifices with the humblest materials, to build bridges, aqueducts, sewers, amphit heatres, and triumphal arches, as well as temples and palaces. Its application extends to domes and cupolas, to floors and corridors and roofs, and to various other parts of buildings where economy of material and labor is desired. It was applied extensively to doorways and windows, and is an ornament as well as a utility.
  10. 10.  Weight = 14,700 metric tones  Ring shaped diameter = 19.6 m  Thickness of wall =4.1 m, and 2.7 m for all other levels.  Inclination = 5 ½ degree’s to the south.  32,240 blocks ("ashlars") for facing the exterior and interior of the cylindrical wall structure.  15 half columns at the base.  180 columns for base.  12 columns for belfry.
  11. 11.  Location of tower – ground comprised of layers of sand & clay.  Layers ran parallel except under the the foundation of the tower, where it formed a bow shape.  The unstable mixture of soil material caused the soil to compact at a different rate, causing the tower to sink 30-40 cm.
  12. 12.  the unstable mixture of soil – caused the tower to sink to the south side.  soil at south side compressed faster than the north side – weight of the tower was the main factor of tilt.  tilting was also due to the fluctuations of the water levels.  this caused the tower to keep shifting, as well as rotate…later discovered by scientists that the tower’s position shifted in relation to the ground water level.
  14. 14.  It was thought that the tower would tip over due to the angle of tilt.  However, it would Collapse due to enormous stress.  Stones on first few floors had most stress – they had to support the weight = 14,700 tones.  Stones on south side had stress because of incline.  The stress kept increasing as the inclination increased, therefore there was danger of the tower collapsing.  The outside of the tower is made of strong marble, but the inside is made up of rubble, hence the walls cannot support the resulting stress.
  15. 15. Side of tower where the stress was causing the tower walls to collapse.
  16. 16.  In 1992, plastic coated steel wires were wrapped around the south side of the second floor to prevent a type of failure called “Buckling”.  Buckling = occurs when overly stressed walls suddenly burst outwards.  The tower still continued to incline to the south side.  In 1993, the incline was halted by stacking lead ingots on the north side of the tower.  There were 750 metric tons of lead. (Acted as support)  This caused the weight of north side = weight of south side.
  17. 17.  Statics – the tower was built to stay in equilibrium however external influences such as topography of the land cause it to tilt, and rotate around its axis.  S.O.M – stress was increasing on the building as it tilted on the south side. This could have cause the tower to collapse.  “Buckling” = when overstressed material may burst outwards..  Engineers must take every minute detail when constructing any object. In the case of the Tower of Pisa, the topography of the land was unsuitable for construction.