North india architecture
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

North india architecture

on

  • 897 views

North india architecture

North india architecture

Statistics

Views

Total Views
897
Views on SlideShare
897
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
18
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

North india architecture North india architecture Presentation Transcript

  •  SUBMITTED TO :  SUBMITTED BY : MOHAN SUTHAR  CODE : 0942  SUBJECT : HISTRY
  • INTRODUCTION  Shimla is a beautiful hill station in the Himachal Pradesh state of India. It is popularly know as the "Queen of Hills". Shimla was a major town in the time of Britisher.  Being about 7500 ft above sea level Shimla is one of the favorite holiday destinations among tourists.  During the time of the British, Shimla was the summer capital. This is the reason why Shimla has buildings, homes, churches, and lodges that are typically British in architecture.  The architecture of Shimla is called colonial architecture. Renaissance influenced designs and neo gothic architecture are predominant in the buildings of Shimla.
  • CULTURE  Lifestyle : The living pattern of the majority of people in Shimla is still that of a rural. Agriculture and livestock keeping are the two main occupations of the people.  Art and Craft : The greatest example of the Culture of Shimla is the handworks of its people. The Thapada and Kohana- two styles of embroidery, bamboo items made by the Dom tribe.  Fairs and Festivals : Fairs and festivals are an essential part of Culture in Shimla. The main attractions amongst them are the Summer and Winter festivals, the Ice Skating Carnival and International Folk Festival.  Music : The tribal music in Shimla is very famous. Instruments like Ektara, Jhanjh, Manjara, Chimta,etc View slide
  •  Dance : The major dance forms of Shimla are the Rakshasa Dance or the Dance of the Demon, the Kayang Dance and the Rasa Dance.  Language : Hindi being officially the state language, people mostly use Pahari or several dialects of it.  Traditional Clothes : Clothes too reflect the Shimla Culture-be it Salwar, Kameez , Kurta or the long knee length gown known as Juan Chadiyan.  Climate : In winter, the temperature can drop below freezing point when heavy woollens are required. Summer temperatures are mild and light woollens/cottons are recommended. View slide
  • Climate  Shimla features a subtropical highland climate under the Köppen climate classification. The climate in Shimla is predominantly cool during winters, and moderately warm during summer. Temperatures typically range from −4 °C (25 °F) to 31 °C (88 °F) over the course of a year. The average temperature during summer is between 19 °C (66 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F), and between −1 °C (30 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F) in winter. Monthly precipitation varies between 15 millimetres (0.59 in) in November to 434 millimetres (17.1 in) in August. It is typically around 45 millimetres (1.8 in) per month during winter and spring and around 175 millimetres (6.9 in) in June as the monsoon approaches. The average total annual precipitation is 1,575 millimetres (62 in), which is much less than most other hill stations but still greatly heavier than on the plains. Snowfall in the region, which historically has taken place in the month of December, has lately (over the last fifteen years) been happening in January or early February every year.
  • Culture  The people of Shimla are informally called Shimlaites. With largely cosmopolitan crowds, a variety of festivals are celebrated here. The Shimla Summer Festival, held every year during peak tourist season, and lasting 3–4 days, is celebrated on the ridge. The highlights of this event include performances by popular singers from all over the country. Shimla has a number of places to visit. Local hangouts like The Mall and The Ridge are in the heart of the city. Most of the heritage buildings in the city are preserved in their original 'Tudorbethan' architecture. The former Viceregal Lodge, which now houses the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, and Wildflower Hall, now a luxury hotel, are some of the famous ones. A collection of paintings, jewellery and textiles of the region can be found at the State Museum (built in 1974). Further out from the city is the Naldehra nine-hole golf course, the oldest of its kind in India. Kufri is a ski resort (winter only) located 19 kilometres (11.8 mi) from the main city. Lakkar Bazaar, a market extending off The Ridge, is famous for souvenirs and crafts made of wood. Tatta Pani, 55 kilometres (34.2 mi) from the main city, is the name of hot sulphur springs that are believed to have medicinal value located on the banks of river Satluj. Shimla is also home to South Asia's only natural ice skating rink. State and national level competitions are often held at this venue. The Shimla Ice Skating Club, which manages the rink, hosts a carnival every year in January, which includes a fancy dress competition and figure skating events. Due to effects of global warming and increasing urban development in and around Shimla, the number of sessions on ice every winter have been decreasing in the past few years.
  •  Shimla has many temples and is often visited by devotees from nearby towns and cities. The Kali Bari temple, dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali is near the mall. Jakhoo Temple, for the Hindu god Hanuman is located at the highest point in Shimla.[39] Sankat Mochan, another Hanuman temple, is famous for the numerous monkeys that are always found in its vicinity. It is located on Shimla-Kalka Highway about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city. The nearby temple of Tara Devi is a place for performing rituals and festivals. Other prominent places of worship include a Gurudwara near the bus terminus and a Church on The Ridge.  The Shimla arts and crafts are highly in demand by the tourists. They range from excellent pieces of jewelry, embroidered shawls and garments to leather made articles and sculptures. Shimla is full of Pine and Deodar trees. The wood has been extensively used in building the temples and palaces of Shimla. The various kinds of arts and crafts of Shimla made out of wood includes small boxes, jeweleries, fruit bowls and other image carvings.  The paintings in Shimla bear the deep artistic insight of the people there. The Shimla art bears the testimony of the rich culture and tradition of Shimla.  The flamboyancy of the carpets and rugs of Shimla is a great attraction for the tourists. Different floral and other motifs make these carpets look really very beautiful. The wool from the sheep is used to make blankets and rugs.  The embroidered stuffs are very popular that includes handkerchiefs, hand fans, gloves, caps, etc. The arts and crafts of Shimla have that traditional touch in it. Among others, the shawls of Shimla are very well known for their fine quality. The leather craft of Shimla is also a demanded thing. Beautiful stuffs of leather comprises shoes, slippers and belts.  The other arts and crafts of Shimla includes a huge collection of amazing beaded and metal jeweleries. These intricately designed jeweleries bears the hallmark of the artistic craftsmanship of the Shimla designers.  The temples of Shimla shows the excellent stonework of the architects there. The sculptors have proved their mettle in upholding the art of Shimla.
  • Architecture In Shimla  Shimla is a beautiful hill station in the Himachal Pradesh state of India. It is popularly know as the "Queen of Hills". Shimla, originally known as Simla, was a major town in the time of Britisher. Thus the architecture in Shimla is largely influenced by the British.  The present day Shimla is the capital of Himachal Pradesh and is a popular tourist destination. It is a small hill station town with the population of 1.6 lacs. The main things to see and experience in Shimla are the grand buildings of British time, wooden handicrafts, and apples that are exported worldwide.  During the time of the British, Shimla was the summer capital of the Viceroy. The viceroy and the other administrative members used to spend the summers in Shimla. From May till July, Shimla used to hustle and bustle with administrative activities. The families of the administrative members also used to accompany them to spend the summer in Shimla. This is the reason why Shimla has buildings, homes, churches, and lodges that are typically British in architecture.
  • Architecture In Shimla  The architecture of Shimla is called colonial architecture. Renaissance influenced designs and neo gothic architecture are predominant in the buildings of Shimla. The Britishers and their family used to spend half of the year in this hill station. Thus the whole infrastructure of Shimla is based on their needs and lifestyle.  The architecture of Shimla can be analyzed with the help of a few iconic structures of the town. The first and foremost in this category is the Viceroy's Lodge.  At present the Viceroy's Lodge operates as the Indian Institute of Advance Study. The structure looks like a grand British house or rather a palace. The exterior is done in gray sandstone and light blue limestone. In typical Gothic style iron girders, beams, and trusses have been used. To give the look of a European castle, glass windows, and brick roof have been added.  In true British style, the interior of the Viceroy Lodge is adorned with glass ceiling and fireplace. The fireplace has been replaced by Indian Wheel of Progress. To suit European lifestyle there is a ballroom and a huge library.  The architecture in Shimla is a replica of European architecture. However, the material used in construction is all Indian or local. Wooden stairs, grey sandstone, teak panels, Walnut ceiling with Kashimiri design, are some of the popular construction materials used in the Viceroy's lodge.
  • Houses in Shimla  Large number of openings in the south, to avoid the north cold.  Sloped roof was used in all the structures to avoid the gathering of the snow.  Constructed using sandstone, wood and bricks.  Also there were fireplaces in the houses .
  • Houses in Shimla
  • Construction wooden houses A wooden frame in constructed and then covered up using the wooden panels
  • Architectural Aspects'  The architecture is a typical example of British colonial architecture.  Of the colonial buildings that still stand, the city offices and railway ministry are outstanding examples. The Vice regal lodge or the Rashtrapati Niwas has design of an authentic English building. Also the Christ chruch.  As the architecture was influenced by the gothic era it had features like: Ribbed vaults Flying buttressPointed arch
  • Viceroy Palace  Viceroy's residence is an eg. of fine Elizabethan style of architecture. Henry Irvine has also made significant contribution in designing of the building.  The exterior is done in gray sandstone and light blue limestone. In typical Gothic style iron girders, beams, and trusses have been used. To give the look of a European castle, glass windows, and brick roof have been added.  The Viceroy Regal was constructed in 1880. Woods were imported from Burma to adorn the interiors of the building. Woods like pine and cedar were used to construct this architecture.
  •  The south facing entrance portico sees the visitor into the reception hall. The hall is marked by a grand staircase which springs from the right and spirals up three full floors. Facing the main entrance is the grand fireplace.  A gallery with well-appointed teak panelling is the central space of the building around which the other rooms are arranged.  The state drawing room, ballroom, and the wood-paneled dining room – decorated with coats of arms of former Governor-Generals and Viceroys – lead to the gallery at the lower level.  A repetitive use of a arch is done. With a variation in its size  A large number of windows on its south direction to avoid the north colds
  • It also contained the ornamentation on the top which was carved out of stone. It had the description on it. It has the stone railing with the brick work below it.
  •  Viceroy Regal Lodge in Shimla is surrounded by pine trees, maidenhair tree, white mulberry and Japanese maple and gardens on all the sides. At present the Viceroy Regal Lodge houses the Indian Institute of Advanced Studies.  After India gained independence, the building was renamed Rashtrapati Niwas and was used as a summer retreat for the President of India. However, due to its neglect, Dr. S Radhakrishnan decided to turn it into a centre of higher learning.  The architectural elements in Shimla is a replica of European architecture. However, the material used in construction is all Indian or local. Wooden stairs, grey sandstone, teak panels, Walnut ceiling with Kashimiri design, are some of the popular construction materials used in the Viceroy's lodge.  The other prominent structure that has European architecture in Shimla is the Christ Church. Situated in the ridge area the Church signifies British period in India. The stained glass windows are typical to the Christian architecture originated in Europe.