The word "mosque" is Arabic for "a place of prostration" or bowing down to Allah.
Mosques almost always include
In the Middle East will have domes and arches and inner courtyards.
An ablution fountain.
Mihrab A mihrab is a niche in the wall which points the worshipers toward Mecca. minbar (the steps on the right) Minbar A minbar is a place from which a religious leader speaks to the people. It looks something like a staircase.
Iwan A vaulted hall or space, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open. Iwans open on to a central courtyard, and have been used in both public and residential architecture.
Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan. King Saud Mosque, Jeddah, an Iwan in the central court. The entrance iwan of the Taj Mahal, Agra, India. Central iwan of Qila-i-Kuhna Mosque of Sher Shah Suri
Sahn A sahn is surrounded by an arcade from all sides. Huge sahn surrounded by arcades Tunisia flanking domed arcade. Tehran.
Domes Domes give a building a spiritual feeling in that they bring one's attention from the ground level (the world of man) to the heavens (the world of God). Domes normally took on the shape of a hemisphere. Mosque in Beirut, Lebanon Mughal architecture
Ablution fountain Before prayers, the faithful cleaned their faces, hands, feet, and rinsed their mouths. Symbolic and literal to prepare oneself to meet with God in prayer.