INDO ISLAMIC ( MUGHAL ) ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Another distinctive sub-style of Indo Islamic architecture is the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century and a fusion of Arabic, Persian and Hindu elements. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughal emperor Akbar constructed the royal city of Fatehpur Sikri, located 26 miles west of Agra, in the late 1500s. The most famous example of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal, the "teardrop on eternity," completed in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. </li></ul><ul><li>The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetric except for Shah Jahan's sarcophagus, which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. Another structure that showed great depth of Mughal influence was the Shalimar Gardens. </li></ul>
Adhai-Din-ka-Jhompra Junagarh fort Badshahi Masjid The Taj Mahal SOME OF THE BEST EXAMPLES OF MUGHAL STYELEBUILDINGS Qutub Minar
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDO ISLAMIC PALACES <ul><li>introduction of arches and beams. </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of decorative brackets, balconies, </li></ul><ul><li>pendentive decorations, etc . </li></ul><ul><li>the utilisation of kiosks (chhatris), tall towers (minars) and half-domed double portals. </li></ul><ul><li>As human worship and its representation are </li></ul><ul><li>not allowed in Islam, the buildings and other edifices </li></ul><ul><li>are generally decorated richly in geometrical and arabesque designs. </li></ul><ul><li>The designs were carved on stone in low relief, cut on plaster, painted or inlaid. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of lime as mortar was also a major element distinct from the traditional building style. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mughals are also credited to have introduced the double dome system of dome architecture and the pietra-dura style of inlay decorations. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>The chief element of the architecture of Akbar's time was the use of red sandstone. </li></ul><ul><li>In principle the construction was of the trabeate order </li></ul><ul><li>although the "Tudor" arch was also used. </li></ul><ul><li>The domes were of the "Lodi" type </li></ul><ul><li>the pillar shafts were many-sided with the capitals being in the form of bracket support. </li></ul><ul><li>The free-standing pavilions are constructed as stone analogues of the tents. </li></ul><ul><li>It is of cube-like form with an elaborate central column connected to the four corners by bridges. </li></ul><ul><li>The square plan, although of Central Asian origin, would have represented to the Hindu craftsmen the "mandala" model of the cosmos. </li></ul>BASIC ELEMENTS OF ISLAMIC PALACES
Brackets of red fort,Agra Balcony arch Chhatri Double dome Kiosk
Brief Evolution Of Palaces <ul><li>The raja mahal (royal palace) </li></ul><ul><li>At orchha was built by raja madhukar. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a compact building enclosed by walls </li></ul><ul><li>And arranged around a number of courtyards. </li></ul><ul><li>The palace is in the shape of a perfect square that is further divided into two courtyards. The main courtyard is flanked by the palace which has a four-storied building at one end of it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Raja Mahal is a fine example of Mughal architecture with typical stone jali (lattice) work and multifaced arches at the entrance. </li></ul>RAJA MAHAL
<ul><li>the Durbar-e-Khas and the Diwan-i-Am. </li></ul><ul><li>The Durbar-e-Khas, or the Durbar Hall, is situated on the first floor of the palace and is surrounded by high battlement walls. It is well fortified, and right above it are a number of musket holes through which the enemy was shot at. </li></ul><ul><li>The Diwan-i-Am is an assembly hall where the king often held meetings with his council of ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>The hall has three platforms, and from the highest one, the king held forth on affairs of the state. The Diwan-i-Am has massive columns and the ceiling has been decorated with paintings belonging to the Mughal and the Bundela schools of art. The exterior of the palace is decorated with elephant and lotus-shaped brackets. The entire architecture of the Raja Mahal is exquisite and speaks loftily of the stone carvers who sculpted it. </li></ul>INTERIOR OF THE PALACE
Jahanagiri Palace at Orchha <ul><li>The jahangiri mahal is a solid four sided and five Floored palace and is connected throughout by </li></ul><ul><li>Screen galleries. </li></ul><ul><li>The rooms and their antechambers open onto an internal courtyard. </li></ul><ul><li>Eight pavilions with towers on the fourth floor are topped By segmented domes crown with the lotus and water vase. </li></ul><ul><li>The last floor is made up of terrace & chattris. </li></ul>
Jodhabai Palace <ul><li>The palace building consists of a rectangular block measuring 231'8"x215' in dimension, with a single magnificent gateway on eastern side, which was protected by guard rooms, having triangular ceiling and other apartments. Several Hindu motifs have been used in the building, which confirms that occupant of the building was a Hindu lady. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu motifs like hams (swan), parrot, elephants, lotus, srivatsa mark, ghant mala etc are decorated in the interior. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonnaded dalan contains curvilinear square pillars with beautiful moldings and extremely graceful brackets. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The western suite, which serves the purpose of temple, contains beautiful curvilinear pillars with brackets. This suite contains vedikas and several Hindu motifs. </li></ul><ul><li>The super structure of the building is comprises of chhatris, chhaparkhats with eight pillars, semi circular domes and triangular khaprel roofs, The corner domes and khaprel roofs bears traces of arabesque designs in glazed tiles. </li></ul>Plan of jodhabai palace Jodhabai palace is most remarkable; It was preceded by a portal with jarokha And chattris.
INTERIOR OF THE PALACE The interior of the palace was decorated with balconies supported by Ornate, niches with the pediments decorated with geometric & floral patterns, pilasters & beams With hanging capitals. This interior is one of four wings of the sandstone Jodhbai palace; rugs, drapes & awnings made from rich materials furnished the rooms . The niches in the walls were used as wardrobes & shelves.
ALHAMBRA PALACE IN SPAIN Site Plan of Alhambra