GUIDED BY : ADITI JOSHI
SUBMITTED BY : JUHI MODI
CODE : 0923
SEM : VI
Design, Architecture, Culture brings together the best
critical work on the analysis of all types of spaces.
Interiors play a crucial role in the construction of
identity and they represent power and control through the
contestation or transgression of boundaries.
Homes, offices, shopping malls, schools and hospitals,
churches and restaurants are all embedded with meaning
and evince particular, multi-sensory and psychological
Attempt to represent the City of
God on Earth; churches meant to
Often featured a “cross” design
Used imagery to teach
Pulpit replaces the altar as the
dominant feature; churches
became less ostentatious and
focus more on words, rather than
Through The Centuries
597 St Augustine arrived in Kent and soon established the first Cathedral
1070-1077 Cathedral rebuilt by Archbishop Lanfranc
1098-1130 New Quire built over a Crypt
1170 Thomas Becket murdered in the Cathedral
1175-1184 Quire rebuilt.
1220 Becket's body placed in new Shrine in Trinity Chapel
1377-1405 Lanfranc Nave demolished and rebuilt as seen today
1450 Pulpitum Screen constructed
1498 Bell Harry Tower extended and the Cathedral largely complete as seen today
1538 Becket's Shrine destroyed by Henry VIII
1540 Monastery dissolved by royal command
1541 New Foundation of Dean and Chapter established
1660-1704 Repair and refurbishing after Puritan damage
1834North West tower rebuilt
1954 Library rebuilt
1986 altar of the Sword's Point restored
1988 Compass Rose placed in the Nave
2000 International Study Centre opened in the Precincts.
Life in England was dominated by the feudal system.
Learn about feudalism during the times in sections on the
Feudalism Pyramid, Feudal Justice and the eventual
Decline of Feudalism.
The most important and interesting aspects and facts
about feudalism in times have been comprehensively
detailed including sections on the Feudalism
Pyramid, Medieval Feudalism, European Feudalism, the
Feudal System, Feudal Justice and the Decline of
For additional facts and information please refer
to Feudalism Pyramid, Feudal Justice and European
Canterbury Cathedral located in Canterbury, Kent at
It’s the famous church in England.
The church is constructed in Romanesque and Gothic
style in the year 1070-1834.
Its total Length is 157 metres (515 ft), in which Nave Length is
178 feet (54 m) and Choir Length is 180 feet (55 m).
Its Nave Width is 71 feet (22 m), Nave Height is 80 feet (24 m)
and Choir Height is 71 feet (22 m).
The church includes 3 Towers of 72 metres (236 ft) Height and
1 Spire of 58 metres (190 ft) Height.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the
oldest and most famous Christian structures in England
and forms part of a World Heritage Site.
It is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury,
leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of
the worldwide Anglican Communion.
Its formal title is the Cathedral and Metropolitical
Church of Christ at Canterbury.
Established in 597 CE by St. Augustine who had been sent
from Rome as a missionary by Pope Gregory the Great. Under
the orders from the Pope, St. Augustine stayed in Canterbury
and became its first Archbishop.
Founded in 597, the cathedral was completely rebuilt 1070-
The east end was greatly enlarged at the beginning of the
twelfth century, and largely rebuilt in the Gothic style
following a fire in 1174.
The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late
fourteenth century, when they were demolished to make
way for the present structures.
The number of pilgrimages that have been made to the
Cathedral have actually worn down the steps at the front
entrance of the building.
Canterbury Cathedral is both a church and the site of a
historic event, it has established itself as an extremely
powerful religious site within Catholicism.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
St Martin’s Church, the ruins of St Augustine’s Abbey, and
Christ Church Cathedral together reflect milestones in the
history of Christianity in Britain.
The reintroduction of Christianity to southern Britain by St
Augustine, commencing at St Martin’s Church where
Queen Bertha already worshipped, and leading to the
conversion of King Ethelbert.
The successive architectural responses to Canterbury’s
developing role as focus of the Church in England –
adaptation of Roman buildings, the development of Anglo-
Saxon building in mortared brick and stone, and the
flowering of Romanesque and Gothic.
Canterbury’s importance as a pilgrimage centre based on
Augustine and its other early saints was transformed by the
murder and canonization of Archbishop Thomas Becket.
The wealth and power of the Cathedral in the 12th century,
when the offerings of large numbers of pilgrims helped the
building of the magnificent enlargement of the east end, with its
exceptional stained glass windows and the rebuilding of the
choir and transepts following the fire of 1174.
The Cathedral’s rich panorama of Romanesque, early Gothic,
and late Gothic art and architecture.
The establishment of Canterbury as the seat of the spiritual
leader of the Church of England.
Criterion (i): Christ Church Cathedral, especially the east
sections, is a unique artistic creation. The beauty of its
architecture is enhanced by a set of exceptional early stained
glass windows which constitute the richest collection in the
Christ Church Cathedral, a major building of medieval architecture.
To the east, partially covering a huge Romanesque crypt with
admirably carved capitals, is some of the most beautiful
architectural space of early Gothic art: the choir, the east transept,
an unfinished apse, on either side of which stand Romanesque
chapels dedicated to St Andrew and St Anselm, Trinity Chapel and
the circular Corona Chapel.
The two architects, William of Sens, a Frenchman, and William the
Englishman, worked at the site from 1174 to 1184.
To the west the nave and the facade, with their very pure
Perpendicular style, provide balance to the constructions on the
The architecture and remarkable stained glass and furnishings of
Canterbury Cathedral thus provide a complete panorama of Gothic
art, from its earliest beginnings to its culmination and decline.
EXTERIOR VIEW OF
KENT INTERIOR OF
INTERIOR OF NAVE
GOTHIC SOUTHWEST TRANSEPT AND
TOWER (LEFT) AND ROMANESQUE
SOUTHEAST TRANSEPT AND TOWER
ROMANESQUE (12TH CENTURY)
STAIRCASE TOWER ON THE
SOUTHEAST TRANSEPT, DECORATED
WITH COPIOUS AMOUNTS OF BLIND
12TH-CENTURY ROMANESQUE CARVED
CAPITALS ON THE EXTERIOR OF THE
GOTHIC SOUTHWEST PORCH, BUILT
1424-25 BY THOMAS MAPILTON AND
1455-59 BY RICHARD BEKE AND
RESTORED WITH NEW STATUES BY
THEODORE PFYFFERS IN 1862
ALTAR AND PULPIT IN THE EAST PART
OF THE NAVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST
TO THE CHOIR SCREEN
POINTED ARCHES, RIB VAULTING AND
FLYING BUTTRESSES,etc elements are
used as GOTHIC STYLE.
showing the richly
ribbing of the
vaulting in the
Stone was a
and was used mostly
essential and sheer
The medieval stained
windows in Canterbury
Cathedral are among the
earliest and finest in Europe.
The oldest window, a
South window, West
window, North Choir
Aisle,etc all windows are
constructed in stained glass
Nave and Aisle Roofs: Essential repairs to stonework around
the clerestory windows and tracery. Re-leading of nave roof
and repairs to flying buttresses.
Bell Harry Tower: Critical works to the Cathedral’s most
imposing structure – preparatory photogrammetric studies
followed by major work on the carvings, pinnacles and stone
facings, many of which are over 500 years old.
North West Transept: An area of the Cathedral that is
particularly difficult to access and has suffered extreme
weather damage. Fundamental structural work within the roof
to replace timber supporting battens and concrete wall casings.
Removal of existing lead, re-casting and re-leading of roof.
South East Transept: Around £0.5 million is still needed to
complete the stonemasonry work on the South East Transept.
This structure dates from the Romanesque period and is one of
the oldest parts of the Cathedral having survived all major fires.
Library and Archives: Funding is needed to ensure that the
Cathedral’s precious collection of books and manuscripts is
preserved for future generations. Specialist conservation
treatment is required on paper, parchment, book-bindings and
photographs. Funds are also required to expand and enhance
access, using information technology to make books and
documents available to a worldwide audience. Improvements are
needed to the fabric of the library buildings including
improvements to the insulation to control temperatures inside the
building, replacement of worn-out copper roofs and conservation
of 17th Century stone and brickwork.
The Corona Chapel: Work on the North side of the Corona
Chapel including conservation to eight stone pinnacles and
the staircase tower.
Christ Church Gate : Full conservation of the 15th Century
gateway to the Precincts including repair of the 17th Century
wooden gates which replace those burnt in the Civil War.
Stained glass: For conservation of stained glass and
surrounding stonework throughout the Cathedral including
around £500k for the South Oculus window – one of the
world’s finest surviving examples of a late 12th Century round