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:.JI,IUMr   OANDIDUM.                        J=>/ciU   s.
:                                   BO TAfJ                INTRODUCTIONSYSTEMATIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL                BOTANY....
:                      t   N8         DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS,                   to       wit   :                       ...
<            HON. JOHN LOWELL, L                         L. D.PRESIDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING        ...
PREFACE.      Nearly     all   the elementary works on Botany ex-tant are       derived from the Philosophic/, Botanica of...
;VI                                  PREFACE.after the        manner of Rousseaus                  delightful Letters     ...
PREFACE.                                              VUstitute for           the Linnaean system                :    and,...
Vlll                                           PREFACE.ganisation des Plantes                         ;   Mirbel, Elemens ...
CONTENTS.                            CHAPTER       I.                  page                                               ...
X                             CONTENTS.                             CHAPTER     XI.                   pageOf the   Class D...
CONTENTS.                    XI                           CHAPTER XXIV.                 page Of the   Class Diadelphia    ...
AN                       INTRODUCTION                             TO THE          STUDY OF BOTANY.                        ...
2                           LLLIACEOUS FLOWERS.   Let us not imagine that the science of Botany endsin the mere acquisitio...
;                  LILIACEOUS FLOWERS.                          «->Bell-flower,    Honeysuckle, or        Marvel of Peru, ...
4                LILIACEOUS FLOWERS.parts are found in the flowers of     most other plants.,-but in different proportion,...
L1LACE0US FLOWERS.                          Otaken from its parent trunk, excepting it be done inconnexion with a small po...
6               CRUCIFORM FLOWERS.any thing of its name. This is not then a mere laborof the memory, but a study and obser...
CRUCIFORM FLOWERS.                                  7flower,     namely, the calyx.             This consists of fourpiece...
O                    CRUCIFORM FLOWERS.     I   say that the      number of   the    stamina are in this tribe of plants r...
CRUCIFORM FLOWERS.                               9       The   second contains those whose seed-vessel               is   ...
;10              PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS.                      CHAPTER           III.              OF PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWER...
PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS.                               11their erect posture, to guard,  from the injuries of un-due moistu...
12               PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS.men ; indeed, this separation is always visible at thebase of the body of filament...
PAPILONACEOTJS FLOWERS.              lo     These cotyledones or seed-leaves are generally twoin number, and indicative of...
14                    PAPILONACEOUS PLANTS.Red-bud (Cercis            canadensis), and, in this plant, thecarina   formed ...
LABIATE AND PERSONATE FLOWEKS.                   15                            CHAPTER         IV.          OF LABIATE AND...
"16             LABIATE AND PERSONATE FLOWERS.five bristly points, four ovules, at length      becoming foupnaked seeds.  ...
!                       UMBELLATE PLANTS.                        I   ione, and five equal and perfect stamens ; so that, i...
IS                   CJMBELLATE PLANTS.gard to the flower demands some explanation. In thegreater number of plants, as the...
LMBELLATE PLANTS.                             10and either flat, as in the Parsnip, or more or less con-vex or protuberant...
20                     UMBELLATE PLANTS.the seed, when mature, a marked distinction is ob-servable in each genus. In some,...
COMPOUND FLOWERS.                         21ridges,   whereas Parsley has a seed marked with            fiveequal inconspi...
22                       COMPOUND FLOWERS.  "The white rays of the border, which look like bitsof tape, are also so many d...
COMPOUND FLOWERS.                         23the     Dandelion,     Succory (or Blue weed), Lettuce,Sowthistle,       and o...
24              THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY.double row, the outer spreading.        In the Thistle thecalyx is imbricated, and ea...
OK THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY.                      25  In Pyrus, which contains the Apple, Pear, and                           ...
26                    OF THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY.differs     from the Rose in having the whole calyx spreadout   flat,   and ...
CLASSES OF THE LINNiEAN SYSTEM.                               2   ithe same country, but bears a warm climate betterthan t...
-ZO          EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESsame or an indeterminate length, and less in numbeithan fifteen, then the number al...
OF THE LINNiEAN SYSTEM.                           29   No flower being known constantly possessed ofeleven stamens, the el...
30                EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESclaws or bases of the petals, decides what plants oughtto    be referred      ...
OF       THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM.               31recede from the           rest,    and four others are symmetri-cal with the...
32                    EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESdelphous character of this tribe                  is   sometimes quiteambi...
OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM.                      06tier,    little resembling ordinary stamens, is concret-        buted   int...
,34                 EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSES  In the twenty-third class of Linnaeus, Polygamia,now generally abolished a...
;              ORDERS OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM.                       35                             CHAPTER           IX.EX...
; 36              ORDERS OF THE LINN^AN SYSTEM.Wallflower     also, similarly divided into two cells by a                 ...
;                   OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM.                        37presents nothing but flat or strap-shaped florets, no...
38               EXPLANATION OF THE ORDERSPolymnia, Parthenium, Chrysogonum, and Baltimora,are nearly all that appertain t...
OF THE LINN-SAN SYSTEM.                        39but, at this time, the         three orders of this perplexingclass are  ...
40   EXPLANATION   &.C.   OF THE LINNjEAN SYSTEM.   Linnxus, at one period, formed of the palms,which he had not then well...
A TABULAR VIEW                                     OF THE        CLASSES OF THE SYSTEM OF LINNAEUS.I.   Phjenogamous Plant...
THE CLASS MONANDRIA.                          CHAPTER              X.                  ON THE CLASS MONANDRIA.   We     co...
44                   THE CLASS MONANDRIA.ficationof form into another, as to lead to the belief,that  such divisions as ge...
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Introduction plant systematic and physiological

  1. 1. E
  2. 2. :.JI,IUMr OANDIDUM. J=>/ciU s.
  3. 3. : BO TAfJ INTRODUCTIONSYSTEMATIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BOTANY. By THOMAS NUTTALL, A. M., F. L. S., &c. CAMBRIDGF. : HILLIARD AND BROWN. BOSTON HILLIARD, GRAY, LITTLE, AND WILKINS, AND RICHARDSON AND LORD. 1827.
  4. 4. : t N8 DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, to wit : District Clerks Office. BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the 16th day of May, A. D.1827, and in the fifty-first year of the Independence of the Unit-ed States of America, Hilliard & Brown, of the said district, havedeposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof theyclaim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit " An Introduction to Systematic and Physiological Botany. ByThomas Nuttall, A. M. F. L. S. &c." In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States,entitled " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securingthe copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprie-tors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ;" and also Anto an act, entitled " An act supplementary to an act, entitled,act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies ofmaps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of suchcopies, during the times therein mentioned ; and extending thebenefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etchinghistorical and other prints." JNO. W. DAVIS, Clerk of the District of Massachusetts. CAMBRIDGE :University Press. — Hilliard, Metcalf, & Co.
  5. 5. < HON. JOHN LOWELL, L L. D.PRESIDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING AGRICULTURE, &C. &C. Sir, Permit me to lay before you this humble attempt,to render familiar to all, a science, to which I havebeen so long devoted, and for which your attachmenthas been conspicuous. If I have failed in my endea-vours, to answer this important end, I hope it may beattributed rather to inability, than to any want of zealto promote the cause of this interesting branch ofNatural History. That my imperfect labors may insome degree prove useful, is the sincere wish of Your humble servant, THE AUTHOR.
  6. 6. PREFACE. Nearly all the elementary works on Botany ex-tant are derived from the Philosophic/, Botanica ofLinnaeus, a work of great labor and utility to thosewho would wish to make themselves masters of thisfascinating branch of natural knowledge. Its techni-cal character, however, often proves appalling to ma-ny who would willingly become acquainted with thecharacters of plants, did any easier route present it-self. The first and most natural enquiry concerningplants, is the nature and character of those beautifulobjects we call the flowers ; these, by various interest-ing qualities, recommend themselves to every one.Their brilliant colors, beautiful forms, fragrant odors,and delightful association with the various seasons ofthe year, with the promise of fruits and of harvests,all combine to give them an importance, which noother part of the plant possesses. To indulge thisshorter route to the knowledge of plants as a science,
  7. 7. ;VI PREFACE.after the manner of Rousseaus delightful Letters onBotany, is the object of the present volume. Thearrangement of this author, and that of his well knowneditor, Professor Martyn of Oxford, has been themodel on which the author proceeded in the first partof this treatise. The technical history of the herba-ceous part of the plant, and the terminalogy as aseparate treatise, have appeared to him as scarcelyforming any necessary part of a direct introduction tosystematic botany, and all its purposes are probablyanswered by the glossary of terms given at the end ofthe volume, with the familiar explanations interspers-ed through some of the first chapters of the workthese, with the aid of the plates and the explanationsattached to them, it is to be hoped, will not leave muchto acquire of the technical part of the science. Tobe able at an early period of the study to commencethe arrangement of plants by their flowers, and to dis-tinguish them from each other, as well as to contem-plate their structure and observe their mutual relations,is a study certainly far more amusing and useful, thana mere attention to the names and characters of theunimportant and unattractive parts of the vegetable. I must also acknowledge, that, however attractivethe natural method of arranging plants may be to my-self, I do not yet, for the beginner, know of any sub-
  8. 8. PREFACE. VUstitute for the Linnaean system : and, indeed, its gen-eral prevalence to the present time, after so long atrial, is almost a tacit acknowledgment of its conve-nience, if not of its superiority over other systems ofarbitrary arrangement ; for, however natural groupsor orders of plants may be in their mutual affinities,all classes and higher divisions of the vegetable sys-tem are now confessedly artificial, even among thewarmest advocates for a natural method. Of the second part of this work I have but little tosay, as it is chiefly an abridgment of a very laboriousand useful work on Vegetable Physiology, makingpart of a course of Lectures by Mr. Anthony ToddThompson, published in London, and forming, in theestimation of the author, one of the best treatises onthe subject which has appeared in the English lan-guage. But a very small part of the volume has beenintroduced, and that only on the general compositionof vegetables, and the structure of the principal partsof the plant our limits not permitting any thing like ageneral system of vegetable physiology. If what hasbeen given should awaken a taste for additional know-ledge on the subject, the following works may be con-sulted with advantage. Greiv, on the Anatomy ofPlants ; Malpighi, Anatome Plantarum ; Rudolphi,Anatomie der Pflanzen ; Kieser, Memoire sur lOr-
  9. 9. Vlll PREFACE.ganisation des Plantes ; Mirbel, Elemens de Physiol-ogie Vegetale ; Senebier, Physiologie Vegetale ; DuHamel, La Physique des Arbres ; Hill, on the Con-struction of Timber ; Bauer, Tracts relative to Bota-ny, London, 1 809 ; Riechel, de Vasis Plantarum spi-ralibus ; Histoire dun Morceau de Bois, &-c. parA. A. du Petit Thouars , Keiths System of Physio-logical Botany ; Thompsons Lectures on the Ele-ments of Botany ; Supplement to the EncyclopaediaBritannica ; and Mr. Knights papers in the Philo-sophical Transactions.
  10. 10. CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. page *The Character of a Lilaceous Flower - CHAPTER II.Of Cruciform Flowers - - CHAPTER III. 10Of Papilionaceous Flowers CHAPTER IV. 15Of Labiate and Personate Flowers CHAPTER V.Of Umbellate Plants 17 CHAPTER VI. 21Of Compound Flowers CHAPTER VII.Of the Rosaceous Family 24 CHAPTER VIII.Explanation of the Classes of the Linnaean System - 27 CHAPTER IX.Explanation of the Orders of the System of Linnaeus - 35 CHAPTER X.On the Class Monandria - 43
  11. 11. X CONTENTS. CHAPTER XI. pageOf the Class Diandria 46 CHAPTER XII.The Third Class. Of the Grasses 48 CHAPTER XIII.The Class Triandria continued 56 CHAPTER XIV.Of the Class Tetrandria 59 CHAPTER XV.The Class Pentandria 64 CHAPTER XVI.Of the other Orders of the Class Pentandria 75 CHAPTER XVII.The Class Hexandria 88 CHAPTER XVIII.The Classes Heptandria, Octandria, Enneandria, and Decandria 94 CHAPTER XIX.Of the Class Icosandria - 110 CHAPTER XX.Of the Class Polyandria 115 CHAPTER XXI.The Class Didynamia 124 CHAPTER XXII.Of the Class Tetradynamia 135 CHAPTER XXIII.Of the Class Monadelphia 141
  12. 12. CONTENTS. XI CHAPTER XXIV. page Of the Class Diadelphia 147 CHAPTER XXV. The Class Syngenesia 159 CHAPTER XXVI. Of the Class Gynandria 177 CHAPTER XXVII.Of the Class Monoecia 186 CHAPTER XXVIII.Of the Class Dioecia 200 CHAPTER XXIX.Of the Class Cryptogamia ....... 209 PART II. PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS. CHAPTER I.Remarks on the General Character of Plants ... 219 CHAPTER II.General Components of the Vegetable Structure - - 224 CHAPTERThe Anatomy of Stems ---.-. III. 250 CHAPTER IV.The Origin and Attachment of Branches .... 273Anatomy of Leaves ----... CHAPTER V. 28Glossary of Botanical Terms .... 315
  13. 13. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF BOTANY. CHAPTER I. THE CHARACTER OF A LILIACEOUS FLOWER. To acquire a knowledge of the vegetable world,so pleasing to all observers, it may not perhaps beamiss to anticipate the dry detail of technical phrases,*which has but too often deterred, at the very portalof Floras temple, the enquirer into the nature andcharacter of this beautiful and useful tribe of beings,and begin, at once, by examining plants as we findthem, in the manner our predecessors must havedone, from whom we have received their history. Weought then to commence by making ourselvesacquainted with the common names of those plantswhich are around us, and these few objects, knownby sight, will serve as so many points of comparisonin order to extend our knowledge of the subject. * A glossary of botanical terms will be found alphabetically-arranged at the close of the volume, intended to answer the gen-eral purpose of a treatise on terminalogy. 1
  14. 14. 2 LLLIACEOUS FLOWERS. Let us not imagine that the science of Botany endsin the mere acquisition of imposed names ; we maybecome acquainted with the structure of plants andtheir curious economy, like the human anatomist,without troubling ourselves materially with the particu-lar name given to the individual subject. cannot, Wehowever, proceed far, without employing somethinglike definite language for the several parts of the ob-ject under view. We shall begin, then, by defining a perfect plantto be composed of a root, of a stem with its branches,of leaves, flower, and fruit ; for, in Botany, by fruitis universally understood the whole fabric of the seed,and that which contains it ; but we must examinemore at large the principal part of the plant, namely,the fructification, a term which includes the idea ofboth floiver and fruit. The flower is first offered tous ; by it is elaborated natures choicest and mostwonderful work, the mystery of perpetuation ; thiscomplicated organ is commonly the most brilliant,symmetrical, and uniform part of the vegetable. Take a Lily or a Tulip; at first it is seen in —bud, and green ; at length it becomes distinctly color- ed, spreads open, and takes the form of a cup or vase, divided into several segments. This is called the corolla, and not the flower, as in common lan- guage, because the flower is a composition of several parts, of which the corolla is only the most conspicu-ous. You will easily perceive that the corolla of the Lily or the Tulip isnot of one piece ; when it withers and falls, it separates into six distinct pieces, which are called petals. Thus the corolla of the Lily or the Tulip is composed of six petals. A corolla, consist- ing of several pieces like this, called a polypetal- is ous corolla. If it were all of one piece, like the
  15. 15. ; LILIACEOUS FLOWERS. «->Bell-flower, Honeysuckle, or Marvel of Peru, itwould be called monopetalous. But to return to theLily. You will find, exactly in the middle of the corolla,a sort of little column rising from the bottom, andpointing directly upwards ; this, taken as a whole,is called the pistil or pointal : taken in its parts, it isdivided into three. 1 .The swollen base, with threeblunted angles, called the germ or ovary; 2. Athread placed upon this, the style; 3. The calledstyle crowned by a sort of capital with three notches :this capital is called the stigma. Between the pistil and the corolla you find six otherbodies entirely separate from each other, which arecalled the stamens. Each stamen is composed of twoparts, one long and slender, by which it is attached todie bottom of the corolla, and called the filamentthe other thicker, placed at the top of the filament,and called anthera or anther. Each anther is a kindof box or cell, which opens commonly on either sidelengthwise whenit is ripe, and throws out a yellowdust, which has often a strong odor, and this iscalled pollen or farina. Such is the general analysis of the parts which con-stitute a flower. As the corolla fades and falls, thegerm inci eases, and becomes an oblong triangularcapsule, within which are flat seeds arranged in adouble order in three cells. This capsule, consideredas the cover of the seeds, takes the name of pericarp.In the Tulip the second part of the pistil, or style, isabsent. All these parts of the flower, and in thesame number, though differing in size and form, willalso be found in the single Hyacinth.* The same * For a figure of these parts as composing a liliaceous flower,see the end of the volume.
  16. 16. 4 LILIACEOUS FLOWERS.parts are found in the flowers of most other plants.,-but in different proportion, situation, and number. Bythe analogy of these parts, and their different combi-nations, the families of the vegetable kingdom aredetermined ; and these analogies are connected withothers in those parts of the plant which seem to haveno relation to them. For instance, this number ofsix stamens, sometimes only three, with six petals ordivisions of the corolla, and the triangular germ withits three cells, determine the liliaceous tribe ; in itsmost extensive sense, and in many of the most con-spicuous genera, the roots partake more or less ofthe nature of bulbs. That of the Lily is a squamousbulb, or composed of scales, disposed in an imbricatedorder, or laid over each other like tiles on the roof ofa house ; in the onion it is tunicated, or consisting ofa number of coats laid over each other circularly ; inthe Tulip the coatings are so indistinct, that the bulbappears nearly solid, and so approaches the natureof the tuberous root ; in the Crocus the bulbs appearto grow over each other, or, more properly, beneatheach other, for many bulbs have apparently a tenden-cy to descend as long as the soil permits them ; in theColchicum they grow out side by side. Bulbs appear often, if not always, to be producedby the subterraneous continuation of the bases of theleaves, taking upon them a thick and fleshy consistence,and containing within them resources of nourishmentfor the plant they are destined to support. In the squa-mous bulbs, also, each scale often appears, like a bud,to possess the germ of an independent existence, sothat the species may be increased by planting them.Bulbs have a prolific faculty superior to buds, withwhich they have been compared, as the scales them-selves are capable of budding and growing upwardsand downwards ; but ordinarily the bud perishes if
  17. 17. L1LACE0US FLOWERS. Otaken from its parent trunk, excepting it be done inconnexion with a small portion of the liber, or innerbark, and be then ingrafted into the trunk of a similarspecies of plant. In the bulb, all the nutritious, or cellularpart, iscarried inwards by the circulation to the supportof the bud or embryon plant, after which the coatsshrink, and at length turn into those brown scalycoverings, destitute of moisture and of life, which weobserve around the Tulip and the Onion. The Lily and the Tulip, which we have chosen toexamine because of the conspicuous size of the flow-ers and their parts, are, however, deficient in one ofthe constituent parts of a perfect flower, namely, thecalyx, which is that outer green part of the flower,usually divided into parts or small leaves, often fivein number, sustaining and embracing the corolla atthe bottom, and enveloping it entirely before opening,as you may have remarked in the Rose. The calyx,which accompanies so many other flowers, is wanting,in the greater part of the liliaceous tribe ; as theTulip, the Hyacinth, the Daffodil, the Crocus, andSnowdrop, &ic. and even in the Onion, Leek, Sic.which are likewise, generally speaking, also lilia-ceous, though they appear so very different at firstsight. In the whole of this tribe you will perceivethat the stems are simple and unbranched, the leavesentire, never cut or divided ; observations whichconfirm the analogy of the flower and fruit in thisfamily, by the prevailing similarity in the other partsof the plant. By bestowing some attention upon theseparticulars, and making them familiar by frequent ob-servation, you will be in a condition to determine, byan attentive inspection of a plant, whether it be ofthe liliaceous tribe or not ; aud this without knowing 1*
  18. 18. 6 CRUCIFORM FLOWERS.any thing of its name. This is not then a mere laborof the memory, but a study and observation of factsworthy the attention of a naturalist. CHAPTER II. OF CRUCIFORM FLOWERS. Several plants of this very natural family arecommonly cultivated for their beauty and fragrance,and may be readily known by the four petals theyproduce in the form of a cross, from whence theorder has derived its name of Crucifer^:. The onlydifficulty against which we have to guard, on this, ason all other occasions where we examine the luxuriantproductions of the garden, is the employment of thosemonstrous flowers which we term double, as in thePink, the Rose, the Stock, and Wallflower, in whichthe stamina become transformed into so many petals,or even give place, as in the Pink, to an almost in-numerable quantity of petals, bearing no proportionto the ordinary number of stamens. In what mannerthischange is produced may often be perceived onexamination. Sometimes, as in the Hollihock, it isthe anthers which are transformed into petals, butmore commonly, as in the Stock and the Rose, theflat filaments become petals. In the Waterlily (JVym-phce) the filaments are always a kind of petals, anddiffer but little, except in color, from the true petals. Having premised thus much concerning the natureof double flowers, let us now proceed to the analysisof the flower of the single Stock-gilliflower or Wall-flower ; and here you will immediately perceive anexterior part which was wanting in the liliaceous
  19. 19. CRUCIFORM FLOWERS. 7flower, namely, the calyx. This consists of fourpieces, simply called leaves, without any appropriatename expressive of distinction, as that of petals forflower-leaves, without we adopt the very modern termof sepals for these parts, as is done by several eminentFrench botanists. These four leaves, in our plant,are commonly in unequal pairs,two of them beingenlarged or swelled out at the bottom so as to exhibita very sensible protuberance. Within the calyx you will find a corolla of fourbroadish or roundish petals disposed opposite to eachother in the manner of a cross. Each of these petalsis attached to the receptacle or base of the germ, bya narrow pale part, which is called unguis or the clawof the petal, and above and out of the calyx spreadsthe large, flat, colored part, called the lamina orborder. Each petal, you will observe, instead of corres-ponding place with each leaflet of the calyx, is, on inthe contrary, placed between two, so that it occupiesthe opening space between them, and this alternateposition is common to all flowers having as manypetals as leaves in the calyx. In the centre of the corolla is one pistil, long, andsomewhat cylindric, composed of a germ terminatedby an oblong stigma which is bifid, or cleft into twoparts, and reflected backwards. The stamens in the stock are remarkable for theirnumber and proportion ; there are six, as in the lilia-ceous flowers, though only four petals, but they aredisposed in two sets, namely, four by opposite pairswhich are long, and another pair which are short, inconsequence of a small gland being interposed betweentheir base and the germ, and which also gives occa-sion to that enlargement already observed at the baseof two of the leaves of the calyx.
  20. 20. O CRUCIFORM FLOWERS. I say that the number of the stamina are in this tribe of plants remarkable, for, generally speaking, there exists a symmetrical proportion between the number of the parts of the flower and that of the sta-mens, where the number does not exceed ten, orwhere they are constant and definite in quantity, andthe principal exception to this rule is in the presentclass of plants, and in those with gaping or irregularflowers, which, though divided into five unequal parts,commonly produce and perfect only four stamens ofunequal length, with occasionally, however, the rudi-ment of a fifth. The Orchis tribe, (hereafter de-scribed,) so singular in every thing else, have also, itis true, only two instead of three or six stamens ormasses of pollen, and the Grasses three stamens toa corolla with only two parts. But to finish the history of the Stock. It is neces-sary to observe the changes produced on the germ,after the departure of the flower ; it now lengthensvery considerably, but remains narrow, merely swell-ing alittle with the growth of the seeds. When ripe,it becomes a somewhat cylindric, but flattened pod,called a silique. This silique composed of two valves or parts, iswhich, at open from the bottom upwards, length, flyand their interior sides form so many cells or cham-bers for the protection of the seed. These cells areseparated from each other by a thin partition, calledthe dissepiment, and the seeds, which are in this plantflat and round, are arranged along each side of thepartition, alternately to the right and left by shortpedicles to the sutures or edge of the partition. Botanists distinguish the cruciferous flowers into twoorders or sections, from the distinctions apparent in thefruitor seed-vessel. Thus, the first order compre-hends those which produce a silique or long pod, asin the Stock, Mustard, and such like.
  21. 21. CRUCIFORM FLOWERS. 9 The second contains those whose seed-vessel is asilicle, or small and short pod, as in the Cress, Candy-tuft,and Shepherds purse, where it is almost as wideas long. The most part of these silicles or short podspresent valves which are not flat, but hollow, and form-ed like the keel of a boat ; in these the partition or dis-sepiment is very narrow, and in place of being parallelwith the valves, cuts across them or is transverse.This character is not, however, uniform, or withoutexception, for in Lunaria or Honesty the fruit is anelliptic, broad, flat pod, with the dissepiment as wide asthe valves, and in Myagrum sativum and other genera,the valves, instead of being keeled, are only convex,and have, consequently, the partitions nearly equal, orapparently so, with the valves.* In fine, we meet innature with none of those broad, abrupt distinctions,which system-makers are so fond of seizing. On thecontrary, we every where perceive an interlinking ofobjects in various directions, not pursuing that regularchain of finite connexion, which some have thought toexist in nature, like a succession of units, each in sim-ple connexion with that which follows or precedes it,but each object is connected variously, so that a viewof the relations existing among them would nearer re-semble a geographical map, or a tree with its branch-es, than a chain of simple links. * For figures of these, and the flowers of the other natural fami-lies described, see the close of the volume.
  22. 22. ;10 PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS. CHAPTER III. OF PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS. From a fancied resemblance to the butterfly, theseplants derive the present The same tribe are name. some botanists by the name ofalso distinguished withLeguminosje, from the legume being their uniformfruit or seed-vessel. The Pea may serve as a type of this very naturaland curious family of plants. The grand division of flowers is into regular andirregular. The regular, present a symmetry andequality in all their parts, each portion forming thesegment of a circle, as in the Rose, Tulip, and Pinkin which we perceive no distinction of the flower intoan upper and an under part, no difference betwixtright and left; such is the case with the two tribes wehave already examined. But you will perceive, at first sight, that the flowerof the Pea is irregular ; and that it is readily distin-guishable into an upper and an under part. In dis-tinguishing these parts of an irregular flower into up-per and under, the natural position of the flower onits stem is always presupposed. In examining the flower of the Pea you will firstobserve a one-leafed, or, technically speaking, a mo-nophyllous calyx ; that is, one of an entire piece, end-ing in five distinct leafy points, in two sets, the twowider it the top, and the three narrower at the bottom.This calyx, as well as its peduncle or supportingstalk, also bends downwards, as is, indeed, commonlythe case with most flowers at particular times andseasons, for in rainy weather, and at the approach ofnight, the flowers close their petals, and droop from
  23. 23. PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS. 11their erect posture, to guard, from the injuries of un-due moisture, the internal organs essential to the ex-istence and propagation of the plant. In this apparentcontrivance of wisdom, the plant itself takes no in-stinctive share, as it is produced mechanically by themere descent, or languid motion of the sap, inducedby the absence of the lisht and heat of day. Having now examined the calyx, (and examine youmust, for yourself, if the structure of plants is to beany amusement,) you may now pull it off, so as toleave the rest of the flower in its natural place, andyou will now plainly see that the corolla is polypetal-ous. The first piece is a large petal, at first covering the and occupying the upper part of the corolla,rest,known to botanists by the name of the vexillum,standard, or banner. The standard being removed, the two side petals towhich adhered are brought to view ; these are called italee or the wings, from their peculiar situation and ap-pearance with the rest of the flower. Taking off the wings, you discover the last piece ofthe corolla, which covers and defends the stamens andpistillum. This last piece, formed, in fact, of two pe-tals ingrafted together above, is, on account of its form,termed the carina, keel or boat. In drawing downwards this sheathing petal, youbring to view the stamens, which are ten in number,or double the proportion of the other parts of theflower ; these are very singular in their disposition, forinstead of being so many distinct stamens, they havethe filaments joined together at the sides, so as, at firstsight, to present a cylinder embracing the pistillum, butthey are only so in appearance, and as the germ ad-vances in size, you perceive that the cylinder is cleftabove, and that the chasm is closed by a solitary sta-
  24. 24. 12 PAPILIONACEOUS FLOWERS.men ; indeed, this separation is always visible at thebase of the body of filaments, where one of them ap-pears constantly separated from the rest. The next great characteristic of this tribe is in thekind of fruit they produce, which we term, legume, dis-tinguished from the pod or silique of the cruciformplants by its consisting of but a single cell, or withoutthe partition, and having the seeds (peas or beans)attached only to the upper edge or suture. The le-gume, also, opens lengthwise and rolls backwards,whereas in the silique, the valves separate and roll orstand out from the bottom upwards. The seeds ofthis tribe have commonly a very marked scar, blackspot, or line by which they adhered to the legume,and known to the Botanist as the hylum, or umbilicalpoint of attachment. Near this scar there exists aminute opening into the body of the seed, throughwhich vivifying moisture is imbibed at the periodof first growth or germination ; it continues to swell,and, at length, bursts the imprisoning integument, andnow presents,between the divided halves of the pea,the rudiments of the first true leaves, and the shortsheathed root. These two hemispheres, which never,as in oiher plants, expand into proper seed leaves, arestill, as well as them, termed eotyledones, in allu-sion to the important part they take in the nourish-ment and early protection of the infant plant. In thePea they contain a sweetish farinaceous substance,which is slowly imbibed by the growing embryon, af-fording nutrition of the most necessary and suitablekind to the infant vegetable, not yet prepared to ela-borate the means of its own support. Thus we see,independent of the existence of sentiment or of in-stinct, in plants, as in animals, a certain dependanceon a female parent, which endures from early concep-tion to a period which might be termed adolescence.
  25. 25. PAPILONACEOTJS FLOWERS. lo These cotyledones or seed-leaves are generally twoin number, and indicative of that double system whichso generally prevails throughout organic nature. Insuch plants as the Lilac, Ash, Privet, and many others,this double system, commenced in the seed, is perpe-tually continued, the leaves coining out in constantpairs ; but in many others, as in the Oak, Elm, Ches-nut, Beach, and Alder, no opposite, or paired leavescome out after the opposite seed-leaves, so that theyappear subject, as in very many other cases, to a per-petual abortion of one half of their supposed exist-ence. In the liliaceous plants and grasses, however, andsome other tribes, there appears lo exist no properleaf-like cotyledones,and the uncleft, unchanged sub-stance of the seed, serves to nourish the growing em-bryon. Among the anomalies which nature ever presents tobaffle our feeble systems, and to assert her predilec-tion for endless variety, we may observe, that thoughwe can, in general, circumscribe and define with suf-ficient precision the character of the very natural familyof the papilionaceee, yet there exist among them somenotable exceptions ; thus, in Amorpha, there existsbut a single petal occuping the place of the vexillum ;and the ten stamens, all united into an uncloven cyl-inder. Nay more, in the Petalostemon of Michaux, aplant of the western regions of the United States, re-sembling Saint-foin, there are no proper petals in theirtrue place, but five of the filaments of the stamens, inplace of anthers, developing as many petals, so thatthe tube presents alternately five anthers and five pe-tals. In the Wild Indigo (Podalyria tinctoria),with a truly papilionaceous corolla, there are ten dis-tinct stamens, as there are also in the Judas-tree ov 2
  26. 26. 14 PAPILONACEOUS PLANTS.Red-bud (Cercis canadensis), and, in this plant, thecarina formed of two distinct petals. is In the common Red-clover ( Trifolium pratense) allthe petals are united together into a tubular base, sothat it is, monopetalous. In the Cassia, of any in fact, which the most common, with us, is thespecies, (ofCassia marilandica,) the corolla, though evidentlyunequal in its proportions, consists of five spreadingyellow petals, and the stamens, all distinct to the base,are disposed in a triple order, the three near the situ-ation of the carina are furnished with large horn-likeblack anthers, behind which occur four smaller an-thers, and contiguous to the situation of the vexillumthree abortive stamens, or mere rudiments ; and inthe Honey-locust (Gleditscia triacanthos) and Coffeebean (Gymnocladus canadensis), the papilionaceouscharacter of the flower altogether disappears, the co-rolla being quite regular, but the fruit, more constant-ly characteristic of the order, is still a legume contain-ing b ;ans. In the leguminous tribe are included many usefulplants,such as Beans, Peas, Lentils, Lupins, Vetches,Lucern, Saint-foin, Indigo, Liquorice, Kidney-beans.The curious character of the last genus, is to have thekeel, and the stamens it includes, spirally twisted. In this tribe, the United States presents severaltrees, particularly the common and Honey-locusts,Coffee-bean, and the Virgilia of Tennessee.
  27. 27. LABIATE AND PERSONATE FLOWEKS. 15 CHAPTER IV. OF LABIATE AND PERSONATE FLOWERS. The flowers we have hitherto examined are poly-petalous. We now come to examine a tribe, whosecorolla is monopetalous, or of one piece, and also ir-regubr in its outline, and, indeed, altogether so mark-ed that we shall distinguish its members easily bytheir general aspect. It is that to whose flowers Lin-naeus has given the name of ringent, or gaping, ap-pearing like so many projecting mouths divided intoan appropriate upper and under lip. This tribe isseparated into at least two orders ; one with labiate orringent flowers, properly so called, the entrance intothe corolla being always open ; and the other of per-sonate or masked flowers, from the Latin persona, amask, in which the orifice of the corolla is closed bya prominent palate. The character common to allthe tribe is then a monopetalous corolla, divided intotwo lips, bearing often, under the upper, four stamensin two pairs of unequal length, one of the pairs beinglonger than the other. As a specimen of the perfect labiate flower wemay take up that of the Balm, Catmint, or Ground-Ivy (Glechoma hederacea), the latter remarkable forthe disposition of its anthers into the form of a doublecross. In the Catmint, you will find a monopetalous,labiate corolla, with the upper lip arched over thestamina ; the lower lip is dependent, and consists prin-cipally of one rounded, concave, and notched lobe,characteristic of the genus or family. On removingthe corolla, which, as in all monopetalous flowers, car-ries with it the stamina, you will find in the bottom ofthe calyx, being tubular, lined, and terminated with
  28. 28. "16 LABIATE AND PERSONATE FLOWERS.five bristly points, four ovules, at length becoming foupnaked seeds. From the centre of these ovules arisesa single style, terminated with a bifid summit or stig-ma. The corolla, when removed, is open at the bot-tom, and tubular for the admission of the which style,grows up within it. Four naked seeds in the bottom of the calyx, and agaping open corolla is characteristic of the labiate or-der. They have also very generally square stems,and flowers disposed in whorls or apparent circlesround the upper part of the stem. Some of them, asthe Rosemary and Sage, have only two stamens. InSage there are only two filaments supporting two oth-ers in an horizontal, moveable posture, and producingan anther only at one of the extremities. In Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris) all the filaments are forked,but only one of the prongs bears an anther ; most ofthese plants are highly aromatic, such as Marjoram,Thyme, Basil, Mint, Hyssop, Lavender, &c. or elsestrong-smelling and foetid, as the Deadnettle, Catmint,Black Horehound, &sc. Some, such as the Selfheal,have but little odor of any kind. In the second order of labiate flowers the seeds arenumerous, and produced in a capsule, commonly oftwo and two valves, as in the Foxglove, Toad- cellsflax (Antirrhinum linaria), and Snapdragon (An-tirrhinum majus) ; the corolla is personate, having thetwo lips closed and joined. From the lower lip of theToadflax depends a spur. In this plant, the Fox-glove, Bignonia, Pentstemon, and many others, thereexist the rudiments of a fifth stamen, in accordancethen with the five divisions of the calyx and corolla.In that curious variety of the Toadflax, named Pelo-ria by Linnaeus, the corolla appears in the form of acone, terminated above by a prominent border of fivedivisions, and below producing five spurs in place of
  29. 29. ! UMBELLATE PLANTS. I ione, and five equal and perfect stamens ; so that, in tlii.-example, we have the ringent flower restored to its na-tural symmetry and regularity, and though this is con-sequently the perfect state of the personate corolla, itsoccurrence is so uncommon that it is hailed as a mon-strosity, though the ordinary state alone is, in fact, suchHere "then, we have again, as in the irregular papilio-naceous corolla, a decided tendency to the regularforms of other flowers, and an additional link of affin-ity with them in general ; this irregularity being onlya sort of mask or disguise, produced by that copioussource of change, abortion, and imperfection of parts. CHAPTER V. OF UMBELLATE PLANTS. This truly natural assemblage of plants derives itsname from umbella, an umbrella, in allusion to its par-ticular and characteristic mode of inflorescence, or thedisposition of its flowers. The umbel may be either simple or compound :when compounded, which is most usual, certain gen~eral flower stalks (as in the Parsnip and Parsley)growing at the ends of the branches, divide themselvescircularly, like the spokes of a wheel, or the skeletonof an umbrella, from a common central point, andform above a round and flat-topped cluster of branch-es ; each branch or partial umbel (the first being thegeneral one) will now be perceived, likewise, to divideitself in a similar circular manner, the true peduncles,or stalks of the flowers, then forming the umbellet orlesser umbel. This primary distinction is only indic-ative of others which follow, and which are equallyessential ; and here the situation of the germ with re- 2*
  30. 30. IS CJMBELLATE PLANTS.gard to the flower demands some explanation. In thegreater number of plants, as the Pink, Foxglove, Tu-lip, and Primrose, the germ is inclosed within the flow-er. These have been called inferior flowers, as beingsituated below the germ, though it appears preferableto regard the situation of the germ alone, which in thiscase is said to be superior. In a much smaller number of plants, the germ oc-curs below the flower, as in the Gooseberry, Apple,Melon, Fuschia, Tree-primrose, and Rose, and is thensaid to be inferior, and the flower superior. In the Rose and others, this relation of the germwith the flower is ambiguous, as the berry or hep ofthis plant, apparently inferior, is only the enlarged hol-low base of the calyx, rendered succulent, and bearingthe seeds attached to its inner side. The umbelliferous plants have a superior flower,and a corolla of five petals, called regular, thoughthere is frequently an inequality of size between theexternal and internal petals of the flower. The petals are generally cordate or heart-shaped,yet inversely so, or obcordate, having the pointdownward. From the centre of the lobed extremity apoint is commonly reflected inwards, which producesthat notched, emarginate, or heart-shaped appearance->o characteristic. Between each petal there is a stamen with its an-ther generally standing out beyond the corolla. Of aproper calyx there is seldom a vestige, except in theLovage, Angelica, and Water Dropwort {(Enanthefistulosa.) From the centre of the flower arise two styles,each furnished with its stigma, sufficiently appa-rent, and these often continue so as to crown thefruit. The general figure of this fruit is an oblong or oval,
  31. 31. LMBELLATE PLANTS. 10and either flat, as in the Parsnip, or more or less con-vex or protuberant, as in the Coriander and Parsley ;when mature, it divides in the centre into two nakedseeds, which for a while, sometimes, remain suspendedto a hair like pedicle or receptacle. A superior corolla of five petals, scarcely any visi-ble calyx, five stamens, and two styles upon a nakedfruit, at length spontaneously divisible into two dryseeds, connected with a radiated inflorescence, formthe very natural character of the umbelliferous tribe. The Elder, from its peculiar mode ol inflorescence,might perhaps be sometimes mistaken for an umbelli-ferous plant, as well as some ol the species of Cornel,particularly the red-twigged, but and the flowersfruit are quite different, and the apparent umbel isnot so in reality, for though the general flower-stalkscome out from a common centre, the peduncles orpartial flower-stalks come out without any regular or-der ; the whole, however, at a distance presenting around and flat cluster, has the appearance of an um-bel, but is in reality what Botanists term a cyme. The umbelliferous order is somewhat numerous,and so natural as to render it difficult to distinguishthe genera. Some authors have given an undue im-portance to the presence or absence of certain smallleaves placed beneath the general and partial umbel,the larger termed involucrum, and the lesser, or par-tial, called involucellum. It may be true, that theyare pretty generally present or absent in certain gene-ra, but as they are only equivalent to those minute orpeculiar leaves which we find under certain flowers,and then called bractes, we ought to search for moreimportant characters, connected, if possible, in everygenus, with those essential organs, termed the parts of Butfructification. in these plants we find nothing,commonly, peculiar in any part of the flower ; but in
  32. 32. 20 UMBELLATE PLANTS.the seed, when mature, a marked distinction is ob-servable in each genus. In some, as the Parsnip, theseeds are perfectly flat; in Coriander quite spherical;in the Caraway almost cylindric ; in the Carrot arm-ed with hooked bristles; in the Hemlock marked withundulating ridges ; in Thapsia furnished with littlemargins like wings ; in Cachrys coated with a largespongy shell, like cork, &tc. So that an attention tothis particular alone will be sufficient, very generally,to point out the genus. As specimens of this family, which I may recom-mend to your examination, may be mentioned theCarrot, Parsley, Hemlock, Lovage, Angelica, Fools-parsley, Cow-parsnip, Water-parsnip, &ic. whichhave white flowers, and Fennel, Dill, and Parsnip,which have them yellow. Among this the Carrot, Parsnip, Parsley, tribe,Cellery, Chervil, Skerret, and Arrekacha are em-ployed as articles of diet, but most of them, in theirnatural state, are either poisonous or unwholesome ;indeed, most of the tribe are considered dangerouswhen grown in a wet soil, and several, as the Hem-loci Dropwort, Fools-parsley and Cicuta or Cowbane, , ,rank amongst the most certain poisons indigenous toEirope and North America. The Fools-parsley{JEthasa Cynapivm), as its name implies, has notunfrequently been gathered and eaten with Parsley,which it much resembles in its finely compoundedand dissected leaves ; its taste, however, is nauseous,and its smell heavy and disagreeable, but the botanisthas long pointed out its physical trait of distinction,in the peculiar character of its involucelluin, of threelong, narrow leaflets depending from the outer baseof the partial umbel. The form of its seed is alsoentirely from Parsley, being convex, and differentbroader, marked on the back with three prominent
  33. 33. COMPOUND FLOWERS. 21ridges, whereas Parsley has a seed marked with fiveequal inconspicuous lines. CHAPTER VI. OF COMPOUND FLOWKHS. The true character of these common flowers arebut little suspected by ordinary observers. Thus theflower of the White-weed or Ox-eye Daisy (Chry-santhemum Leucanthemum), but too common in ourdry pastures, in place of being a single flower, asevery body supposes who has not studied its charac-ter, is, in fact, an aggregate of some hundreds ofminute flowers, most of them provided with a corolla,stamens, styles, and seed, as perfect in their kind asthe flower of the Tuiip or the Lily. To be con-vinced of this, you have only to take it up andexamine it with a little care by the help of the mostsimple microscope. You will perceive that this flow-er consists of two principal parts, namely, a yellowcentre, and a white border. The yellow floscules inthe centre, called the disc of the flower, and whichappear little bigger than so many anthers, consist of afunnel-formed corolla, with a five-toothed border.Within this corolla exists a yellow tube, formed of five anthers joined together in the form of a cylinder ; at their base, indeed, the five filaments appear distinct, and are elastic, curling up when torn from the corolla. Through the centre of this tube of anthers passes the style, terminated by a bifid, reflected stigma ; below is attached the germ which becomes the seed, and in many of these plants, as in the Dandelion, the seed iscrowned by an egret or downy plume, by which it becomes wafted abroad to considerable distances.
  34. 34. 22 COMPOUND FLOWERS. "The white rays of the border, which look like bitsof tape, are also so many distinct florets, but less per-fect than the yellew tubular ones of the disc ; theyare toothed commonly at the extremity, and appear tobe tubular florets, cleft open nearly to the base, anddeprived of the tube of stamens, but furnished withthe style and bifid stigma. The whole of theseflorets or lesser flowers included within one commoncalyx, formed, in the White-weed, of numerous scaleslaid over each other like tiles on the roof of a houseor imbricated, constitute this curious assemblage, de-servedly called a compound flower. The Sun-flower,Thistle, or Artichoke, from their superior magnitude,would best explain the nature of these curious littleflowers, which are almost always similar in any otherflower that you may discover to be componnd. Asmight ^e supposed from the nature of a compoundflower, the florets are not all eijftunled at the same time,and they commonly begin to open at the edge of thedisc, and proceed inwards to the centre for a periodof several days. The tribe of compound flowers are divisible intothree distinct sections, upon which Linnaeus, Jussieu,and others have divided them into orders and tribes.The whole composed of two sorts of flowers, or are many, or several of them united inrather florets, asa common calyx go to form the general or compoundflower. These florets are all either tubular, with atoothed border ; or strap-shaped, the floret appearingsplit open, and spread out like a piece of tape, butstill retaining the toothed extremity. These were call-ed by old botanical writers semi-florets, or halvedflowers. In the first section, then, we may place the semi-flosculous flowers, being made up entirely of flat orstrap-shaped florets. Such you* will find the flowers of
  35. 35. COMPOUND FLOWERS. 23the Dandelion, Succory (or Blue weed), Lettuce,Sowthistle, and others. These plants, so naturally-allied to each other, have nearly all the same physicalproperties ; several of them are eatable as salads,though they all possess, at one period or other, a de-gree of bitterness, and a milky sap of the nature ofopium. The second section comprehends the flosculousflowers, or such as are composed solely of the tubularflorets, and are, like the preceding flowers, of an uni-form color ; such are those of Thistles, the Burdock,the Artichoke, Wormwood, and Uatris. In the third general section, the flowers are com-posed of botli kinds of florets ; the centre or disc,which is often yellow (as in the White-weed, or Ox-eye Daisy), consisting of tubular florets, while thecircumference or ray is formed of flat florets generallyof a different color from the disc. These have beencalled radiate fioxvers. The radial florets are gener-ally provided with the style and stigma, but destituteof anthers. In some flowers, as the Sunflower, therays are entirely barren or destitute of the style ;while, on the contrary, in the Marygold, the florets ofthe disc are abortive, and the flat rays only afford theperfect seed ; hence, from this comparative degree ofperfection, has Linnaeus divided the radiate flowersinto different orders of his class Syngenesia. The general point or place where the florets areseated in a compound flower is called the receptacle,and it usually presents little summit of a pits like thehoneycomb though commonly naked, sometimes this ;receptacle presents hairs or scales, which are inter-posed between the florets. The calyx generally con-sists of a number of divisions or leaflets, either spread-ing out erect, or closely laid over each other, or im-bricated. In the Dandelion these leaves are in a
  36. 36. 24 THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY.double row, the outer spreading. In the Thistle thecalyx is imbricated, and each scale or leaflet termi-nated by a spine. But every genus or family of thecompound flowers, has its particular marks or charac-ters of distinction to be studied at leisure. At present,we have only to do with the distinguishing traits ofthe compound flowers ; and here one of the mostobvious and certain distinctions of this great tribe isthe union of the anthers into a tube. This circum-stance alone, will at once direct you, in every case ofdoubt, to the true and invariable character of thecompound class, and hence termed Syngenesia byLinnaeus, in reference to this growing together of the anthers. But for this character, you might readily suppose that the flowers of the Teasel and the Sca- bious were indubitably of this tribe, and though they are indeed compound or aggregate flowers, theirstamens, only four, are not united or syngenesious. CHAPTER VII. OF THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY. In the family of the Roses are included not only some of the most beautiful ornaments of our gardens, but the principal, and almost only fruits of our or- chards. It is divisible, however, into several sections, and in the first, which has been called Pomaces, or the Apple tribe, is arranged our fruits, distinguished as follow : The stamens, twenty or more, (or indefi- nite in their number,) instead of arising from the re- ceptacle or base of the germ, are attached to the calyx, either immediately, or with the corolla, which consists commonly of five petals. The following are characters of some of the principal genera.
  37. 37. OK THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY. 25 In Pyrus, which contains the Apple, Pear, and offormerly the Quince, the calyx is monophyllous orone piece, and divided into five segments ; the corollaof five petals attached to the calyx ; about twentystamens, also, growing to the calyx, and, indeed, re-maining with it in a withered state on the summit ofthe fruit. The germ is inferior, or immersed in theenlarging fleshy calyx, and there are five styles, cor-responding with the five cells containing the seedsburied in the centre of the apple. The genus Primus or the Plum, comprehendingalso the Cherry, the Laurel, and till lately the Apri-cot, has the calyx, corolla, and stamens, nearly as inthe Pear. But the germ is superior, or within thecorolla ; and there is but one style. The fruit is alsosucculent, contains a stone or nut, and is in technicalbotanic language then called a drupe. The genus Almond (or Amygdalus), including alsothe Peach and Nectarine, is almost like the Plum,but the germ has often a down upon it and the fruit, ;which every body knows to be succulent in the Peach,and dry in the Almond, incloses a hard nut, readilydistinguished from that of the Prunus or Plum, bybeing rough, and of cavities. full The Pomegranate, Service, and Medlar also belongto this useful section of the Rosacea. The Rose itself, and the section to which it moreimmediately belongs, is easily distinguished by the in-definite and very considerable number of styles, andpeculiar nature of its fruit. In the Rose, each styleisterminated below by a dry and hairy seed attached and swelling base of theto the sides of the persistingcalyx, which, as the hip, acquires a red or yellowcolor, and fleshy consistence. Nextto the Rose, in the order of affinity or naturalrelation, comes the Rubus or Bramble, which only 3
  38. 38. 26 OF THE ROSACEOUS FAMILY.differs from the Rose in having the whole calyx spreadout flat, and the clustered seeds each coated with apulp. This is then called a compound berry, and itsseparate succulent grains, acini. To this genus be-long the Blackberry, Raspberry, Dewberry, Thim-ble-berry, and others. The Strawberry has also the flower of the Rose,but the calyx is furnished with five small additionalleaflets, and the receptacle becomes a succulentsweet mass covered with the dry seeds, and is thusentitled, as it were, by a slight accident of structure,to the rank of a most delicious fruit. This receptaclewhen mature is deciduous, or separable from thecalyx. The Cinquefoil, or Potentilla, only differs from theStrawberry in the dryness and juicelessness of itsseed receptacle ; but though some species have alsotrifoliate leaves, they have more commonly five leaf-lets, like the fingers of the hand, all arising from thesummit of the petiole, or leaf stalk, and hence calleddigitate. In the barren Strawberry, now very proper-ly referred to Potentilla, the flowers, in place of theusual yellow color, are white, and the leaves trifoliateand ribbed as in the Strawberry ; so that here wealmost lose the discriminating limits of the two genera,which insensibly pass into each other, and tend, amongmany other facts of the same kind, to prove, that, intruth, our generic distinctions are only arbitrary helpswhich we employ for discrimination, and that natureknows no rigid bounds, but plays through an infinitevariety of forms, and ever avoids monotony. Nearly all the fine fruits and flowers of the familyof the RosacejE which we so generally cultivate,originate in temperate climates. The Apple has beenobtained from the wild Crabtree of Northern Europe :the Pear from the very unpromising wilding of
  39. 39. CLASSES OF THE LINNiEAN SYSTEM. 2 ithe same country, but bears a warm climate betterthan the apple. The Quince (Cydonia) is foundwild in hedges and rocky places in the south of Eu-rope. The Plum (Prunus domestica) is likewiseindigenous to the south of Europe, but scarcely eat-able in its native state. That variety called theDamason, or the egg-shaped plum, was probablyintroduced from The Peach (Jimygdalm Syria.persica) is the produce of Persia. The Almondoccurs wild in the hedges of Morocco. The Cherry(Prunus cemsas) is the product of Cerasonte ; theApricot of Armenia ; the Pomegranate (Punka gra-natum) of Persia and Carthage. CHAPTER VIII. EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSES OF THE LINNiEAN SYSTEM. The difficulties, defects, and laborious investigationrequisite for classing plants by a natural method ofarrangement, render it necessary, at least for the be-ginner, to chose some easier route to the knowledgeof plants. For this purpose artificial methods havebeen invented, and none more successfully applied inpractice than that of the celebrated Linnaeus. His classes are founded upon the number and dis-position of the stamina, and his orders often upon thenumber of the pistils. In comparing a plant by this system, you first ex-amine whether the flowers are complete, or furnishedwith stamens and pistils, and in the next place,whether the stamens are entirely separate from thepistil, and each other, from top to bottom, or unitedin some part or other : if they are separate, of the
  40. 40. -ZO EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESsame or an indeterminate length, and less in numbeithan fifteen, then the number alone will Suffice todetermine the class ; so those which have one stamenwill belong to the first class, entitled Monandria;those with two stamens to the second, Diandric;those with three to the third, Triandria; and so onto the tenth, entitled Decandria. These names arederived from the Greek language, as most expressivein composition,and ought to be committed to memory,as they are of constant use and occurrence in thisingenious system. Flowers in their natural or wild state ought to bepreferred by the beginner, to those which are culti-vated in gardens, as the exuberance arising from therichness of soil, and an artificial treatment, are often number of the partsinfluential in altering the naturalof flowers ; and, in the examples of those which aredouble, entirely transforming or annihilating the sta-mens and pistils. A certain symmetry, however,which prevails in the general structure of flowers, will,when understood, serve in a measure to guard thestudent from error in his decisions on the class andorder of a plant ; as, for example, if you meet with aflower whose calyx presents five or ten divisions, andincludes five or ten petals, you may constantly expectto find in such flower, if possessed of a definite num-ber of stamens, five or ten of these essential organs,and if the divisions of the flower be four or six. therewill be, as a concomitant circumstance, four, eight, orsix stamens. As to the rare class Heptandria, or ofseven stamens, for which the Horse-cbesnut is givenas an example, it is so irregular, and foreign to thesymmetry of the parts of the flower with which it isconjoined, that as a class it might probably be laidaside without inconvenience.
  41. 41. OF THE LINNiEAN SYSTEM. 29 No flower being known constantly possessed ofeleven stamens, the eleventh class of Linnaeus con-tained those plants which were said to have twelve,and therefore entitled Dodecandria ; but as there arescarcely any plants in existence with exactly twelvestamens, all plants were comprehended in this classpossessed of any number of stamens from eleven tonineteen inclusive. This slender distinction of num-ber, however, where irregular and inconstant, andmore than ten, does not deserve to form the basis ofany particular class ; and all the plants of Dodecandria,according to the insertion of the stamens, may beconveniently distributed in one or other of the twofollowing classes ; for, without this generalizing, spe-cies of one natural genus might be dispersed into twodifferent classes, as in Hudsonia, where some speciesare Dodecandrous, and another Icosandrous ! All plants having more separate stamens than ten,if we abolish Dodecandria, will belong to one of thetwo following classes, in which, the mere number ofstamens is no longer of importance, being inconstant,and the insertion or situation of the stamens alonedistinguishes the class thus, in Icosandria they are :seated upon the calyx or corolla (as in the Apple andthe Rose) ; but in the class Polyandria, on the baseor receptacle of the flower (as in the Columbine andPoppy). This difference of situation, in this system,is only attended to in the flowers of these two classes,which have many stamens. The name Icosandria(from the Greek uxoov, twenty, and wvt^q, a mm, byallusion a stamen), would indicate apparently a class offlowers with twenty stamens ; in many of our orchardfruits this is about the usual number ; but in the Roseand Cactus there are many more, and their insertionalone, either immediately on the calyx, or on the 3*
  42. 42. 30 EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESclaws or bases of the petals, decides what plants oughtto be referred to this class.* The class Polyandria (from nolvg, many, and arijp)differsonly from the preceding in the insertion of thestamens, which may be, if we abolish Dodecandria,fromeleven to one thousand ; these are always situated onthe base or receptable of the flower, and fall off withthe petals. But in the Rose and many orchard fruitsof the preceding class the stamens adhere to the per-manent calyx. In the next class Didynamia (or of two powers,in allusion to the unequal length of the stamens, whichare only four in number), the proportional length isthe essential character, two being longer than theother pair. In such flowers, also, there is almost uni-versally an irregularity in the form of the corolla,which always monopetalous ; and, in fact, you will isimmediately perceive in the Didynamous class of Lin-naeus, the labiate and personate groups with whichyou are already acquainted ; so that here, as in sev-eral other instances, the artificial and natural methodof arrangement agree together. Your Cruciform flowers form, also, Linnaeuss nextclass of stamens with different proportions in length,which he terms Tetradynamia. These have fourstamens longer than the other two, which gives riseto the name of the class. The flowers are remark-able, in having, contrary to the usual symmetry inthe structure, six stamens, and only a calyx andcorolla of four parts ; yet two of the six stamens * Calycandria, in allusion to the insertion of the stamens inthis class,would have been a preferable name to that of Icosandria,so commonly deceptive and such a term, which I had long thought ;of. has been employed by my friend Dr. Darlington, in his Cata-logue of Plants growing round Chester, Pennsylvania,
  43. 43. OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 31recede from the rest, and four others are symmetri-cal with the other parts of the flower. In the four following classes, the essential circum-stance assumed is the union of the filaments or of theanthers. Thus in Monadelphia (or the class of one brother-hood, as the word implies), the filaments are united,more or less distinctly, from their base upwards ; butin some genera this character is far from being as ob-vious as could be desired. In the family of the Mal-lows, which includes the Hollihocfc, this union of thefilaments into a column occupying the interior of theflower, is, however, very obvious, and gave rise informer systems to the just application of the term Co-lumniferce to this tribe. Nearly all of them are provid-ed with a double calyx of an unequal number of di-visions ; the corolla, of five inversely heart or wedge-shaped petals, is united together into one piece at thebase, where it also coalesces with the column of sta-mens; and through centre of this column, at thelength, is seen the projecting thread-like styles, beingfrom five, to an indefinite, or considerable number ineach flower ; whatever be the number, there is at thebase a similar number of distinct capsules, or so ma-ny united cells forming a single capsule by their ad-herence. In the cotton plant the seeds are envelop-ed in a considerable quantity of that kind of vegetablewool which constitutes so important an article of ourclothing. In the next class, the seventeenth of Linnaeus, calledDiadelphia (or two brotherhoods), the united fila-ments are disposed in two bodies. The flowers have butone pistil ; the fruit is a legume or pod ; and the irre-gular corolla, termed papilionaceous, must at oncebring to your recollection a natural group of plantswith which you are already acquainted. The Dia-
  44. 44. 32 EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSESdelphous character of this tribe is sometimes quiteambiguous ; commonly nine the united filaments areout of ten, the whole number ; but there are, as in thebroom (Spartium), some papilionaceous flowers withall the ten filaments united ; and only the curious gen-era Sesbania, and sensitive Smithia in which the tenfilaments are united in two equal numbers. In the eighteenth class of Linnoeus (by many justlyabolished and added to Polyandria), there are threeor more bundles of stamens, more or less united at thebase, and it is hence termed Poladelphia (or manybrotherhoods). In St. Johns wort [Hypericum) thereare species with the filaments in bundles, and otherswith the stamens simply Polyandrous. In the beauti-ful examples of Melaleuca, this character can be noth-ing more than generic ; as it is, in fact, the principaldistinction which separates it from the IcosandrousM.etrosideros. The next class, called Syngenesia (in allusion tothe peculiar union of the anthers), is perfectly natural,and one with which you are acquainted as the com-pound flowers. In the examination of the Thistle, theArtichoke, and the Sunflower, you will be at no lossto perceive the double character of this class. Theapparent flowers, or rather heads, being always form-ed by the aggregation of several, sometimes some hun-dreds of lesser flowers, hence called jlosculi or florets,which in themselves are peculiarly distinguished byhaving the anthers (always four or five) united into aminute cylinder, but distinguishable as the parts of somany distinct stamens by the disunion of the filamentsthat rest upon the small corolla. In the class Gynandria, the 20th of Linnaeus, thereis a singular union of the stamen and pistillum, suffi-ciently remarkable among the natural tribe of Orchi-deous plants, in which the pollen, or fertilizing pow-
  45. 45. OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 06tier, little resembling ordinary stamens, is concret- buted intomasses, commonly two, which lie concealed,as in the Orchis, within two lateral hoods of the style,or within a moveable or hinged lid at its summit, as inthe Calopogon and Jlrethusa of our swamps. Veryfew plants now find place in this ambiguous class, andthose which do, particularly the Orchides, are amongthe rarest and most curious productions of the vegeta-ble kingdom. The flowers of the plants of the preceding classes,each possessed of both stamens and pistils, have beentermed perfect, to distinguish them from those of thetwo following classes, in which the flowers are dissim-ilar, some producing stamens, but no pistils, and areconsequently unproductive of the seed ; while othersafford pistils and fruit, but are without perfect stamens.These two kinds of flowers are differently circum-stanced. In the Cucumber, or Gourd, for example,you will find both sorts of flowers upon the same plant,occupying different situations on the stem ; for suchplants Linnaeus has provided the class which he callsMoNfficiA (or of one house), two kinds of flowers beingfound on the same plant. But in the next class Dicecia (or of two houses),as in the Hemp and Spinage, only one sort of flowersare found on a plant, some ol them being altogetherpistiliferous or staminiferous. Two different plantsare here, therefore, necessary to the perfection of thespecies ; and that such an association of these dissimi-larly flowered individuals is requisite in the plan ot na-ture has been proven by the Date palm, as a pistilife-rous plant bears no fruit in the absence of the stamin-iferous individual, and even the pollen itself, whenconveyed to a distance, still possesses this fertilizingpower, and has been found to act exclusively upon thebranch to which it was applied.
  46. 46. ,34 EXPLANATION OF THE CLASSES In the twenty-third class of Linnaeus, Polygamia,now generally abolished as inconvenient in practice, andincorporated with the preceding class Dicecia, thereare complete and incomplete flowers distributed ontwo or three different individuals of the same spe-cies. The last, or twenty-fourth class of this system, call-ed Cryptogamia, from the obscurity of the parts offructification, merits almost the distinction of a sepa-rate kingdom ; to it belong the Ferns, Mosses, Li-chens, Seaweeds, and Fungusses. In all these,though seed or spora be produced, of extreme minute-ness, no distinct corolla, stamens, nor pistils are dis-coverable, and the fruit itself is so inconspicuous as tobe a mere object for the exercise of the microscope.In this tribe, generation appears almost spontaneous,as in the Mould and Mucor, which show themselvesreadily wherever there is moisture, and in the absenceof light so necessary to all other vegetables. Yeteven in these, the most simple of organized bodies,appropriate receptacles are provided for the spores orseminal germs, proving the existence of the universallaw of nature, that without a parent mediate or imme-diate,* neither animal nor vegetable, in whatever partof the scale of existence they are found, can possiblyhave a being. * In these, as in all other plants, there are two modes of origin ;one from the seed consequent on generation, and giving place tovariety the other soboliferous, individuals protruded as buds or off- ;sets, and, when separated from the parent producing other perfectplants, but possessed of all the qualities of the individual parent.
  47. 47. ; ORDERS OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 35 CHAPTER IX.EXPLANATION OF THE ORDERS OF THE SYSTEM OF LINNiEUS. The orders, or secondary divisions of this system,in the thirteen classes are founded wholly upon firstthe number ot the pistils; and, like the classes, receivetheir names from the Greek, as Monogynia or Digy-ina the order of one or two styles; the term gynia,indicating the feminine or fruit-bearing part of theflower. In the class Didynamia, including two very distinctnatural orders, the pistillum, which is single in themboth, affords no longer a numerical distinction, and inconsequence, the character of the fruit forms the ordi-nal distinctions. In the first order, called Gymno-spermia (or naked seed), there is no capsule but a ;gaping flower, succeeded by four naked seeds withinthe calyx. In the second order, Angiospermia, thevingent or personate flower is succeeded generally bya two-celled pericarp, containing many seeds. In the next class Tetradynamia, there is also buta single pistil ; so that the two sections, or natural or-ders, into which it is divided, are again distinguishedby the nature of the fruit. In the first order, Sincu-losa, the pod is short, or nearly as broad as long, anddivided commonly by a narrow or transverse partitioninto two cells, as in the Cress and Shepherds-pursein Lunaria or Moonwort, however, wmere the silicle isvery large and quite flat, the valves and partition areall of the same width. There is almost an insensiblepassage from one order to the other, Siliqjiosa, ofthis class, which differs from the preceding order byhaving a long and narrow pod, as in the Cabbage, and
  48. 48. ; 36 ORDERS OF THE LINN^AN SYSTEM.Wallflower also, similarly divided into two cells by a ;partition, in which last character the pod or silique es-sentially differs from the legume, or fruit of the Peaand Bean, which has only one cell, with two valves,but no partition, and only a single row of seeds. In the classes Monadelphia and Diadelphia,the number of stamens constitute the ordinal divis-ions, as Monadelphia Pentandria, &c. of which thePassion-flower is an example. In the class Syngensia, or compound flowers, asomewhat complex method is employed to character-ize the orders. The comparative perfection of theflorets is taken into account, for in this class there ex-ists all degrees of aberration, from the perfect flosculesof the Thistle, containing both stamens and styles,to the rays, or neutral florets, in the border of the Sun-flower, which are reduced to mere petals, with the ru-diments of seed. It is with this view that the first order of Syngene-sia takes the appellation of Polygamia ./Equalis, po-lygamia indicates the compound nature of the flowerin all the orders but Monogamia (or one marriage)but as order this last is universally abolished, the termPolygamia ought also to cease. The order JEqualis,or of equal flowers, indicates that in such compoundflowers, as the Thistle and Burdock, every floscule isequally provided with styles and stamens. This orderisalso subdivided into floscidosa and ligulata. The flos-culous flowers, as those of the Thistle and Artichoke,consist of an aggregate of small tubular flowers, witha regular five-cleft border, but are still distinct from allother simple flowers in the singular character of theclass, the united, anthers. In the second division ofthe order ^E^ualis, called ligulata, as you may seeat once in the Dandelion, all the flowers are still per-fect, but the corolla, from centre to circumference,
  49. 49. ; OF THE LINNJEAN SYSTEM. 37presents nothing but flat or strap-shaped florets, notch-ed at the extremity ; they may, in fact, be properlyconsidered as so many ordinary florets, with the di-visions so closely united, as merely to be ascertainedby the number of teeth at the extremity of the strap,but with the whole tubular corolla split open to thebase, so as, at first glance, to resemble a single petal,or component of an ordinary flower. This tribe, theligulatce, are also curiously distinguished from thepreceding, or flosculosce, by the physical character ofgiving out a milky juice on being wounded, whichjuice partakes, more or less, of the nature of opium,a drug which we derive from a very different familyof plants. In the second order, termed Superflua, as youwill perceive in the Daisy, Aster, and African Mary-gold, the florets of the centre or disc of the flowerare all perfect, while the flat florets, which form theray, are merely pistilliferous, and without stamensbut in this order, to distinguish it from Necessaria, allthe florets perfect seed. Most of the radiate, orbordered compound flowers with which you will meet,belong to this common order. In the third order, called Frustranea, of whichyou will find an example Sunflower and the in theRudbeckia, the disc, as preceding order, in theaffords perfect flowers, but the rays, excepting animperfect rudiment of seed, are reduced to merepetals, and have no style. The fourth order, Necessaria, (of which there arebut few examples in nature, and none which you canmore examine than the common single Mary- readilygold,) presents a disc of florets apparently perfect,but not so in reality, as they are not succeeded byseed, the rays only affording this prerequisite of fu-ture existence. The five native genera, Silphium, 4
  50. 50. 38 EXPLANATION OF THE ORDERSPolymnia, Parthenium, Chrysogonum, and Baltimora,are nearly all that appertain to this curious order inthe United States. In the fifth order, Segregata, which is essentially-only a modification of the first, there is, besides thegeneral calyx or involucrum of the whole family, par-tial or included calyces, each containing one or moreflorets, which in Echinops and Elephantopus areperfect, as in iEojJALis, and tubular, as in the sectionfiosculosce. This order approaches in some degreethe aggregate flowers, such as the Teasel and Scabi-ous, but is at once distinguished as Syngenesious, bythe characteristic union of the anthers. The sixth order, now very properly abolished, wastermed Monogamia, because contained plants with itsimple, instead of compound or polygamous flowers; butthe plants referred to it were completely at variancewith all the rest of the class ; such were the Violetand Balsam, in which, indeed, no proper union of theanthers takes place. In the three following classes, Gynandria, Mo-n(ecia, andDkecia, the orders are founded upon thenumber and disposition of the stamens, and bear thesame names as the foregoing classes, as GynandriaMonandria; and so on. The class Polygamia, now generally laid aside,was divided into three orders ; viz. Moncecia, whenperfect and imperfect flowers existed on the sameplant (as may be seen in some Maples) ; Dicecia (asin the Ash),when perfect flowers are found on oneplant, and imperfect ones on a second individual ofthe same species ; and Triogcia, when perfect flow-ers exist on one plant, staminiferous ones on a second,and pistilliferous flowers on a third individual of thesame species ; of which singular and very uncommondisposition, the common Fig is given as an example ;
  51. 51. OF THE LINN-SAN SYSTEM. 39but, at this time, the three orders of this perplexingclass are more readily found, and better arranged inthe two preceding classes. The last class of Linnaeus, or more properly granddivision of the vegetable kingdom, is called Crypto-gam] a, from its invisible flowers and obscure fruit.Neither stamens nor pistils, as in the other classes,are here found. The natural divisions alone, then,serve as ordinal distinctions, and four of these ordersare commonly adopted ; viz. 1st. The Filices, orFerns, by much the largest plants of the class,some of them in tropical climates attaining the statureof trees. 2d. Musci, the Mosses, having the fruitof a very curious and complicated structure. 3d.Alce, or Seaweeds, whose seeds or Spora are im-mersed or hidden within some part more or less con-spicuous of the substance of the plant. 4th. Fungi,or Funguses ; such are the Mushroom and Puff-ball,the impalpable dust of which last plant, specificallylight as air, consists of innumerable quantities ofgerms, capable, like seeds, of regenerating individuals,and that to almost any extent, if external circum-stances were equally favorable. Indeed the lightnessand minuteness of the seeds or spora of this class ofplants may readily account for their occasional ap-pearance in places and situations where they areso little expected, many among them have thatbeen brought forward common examples of the asexistence of spontaneous vegetation. The indestruc-tibility of many plants of this class is, also, nearly asremarkable as the minuteness and prolificacy of theirspora. Many of the same Lichens and Seaweedsare found in all situations, and in all climates, tropical,as well as frigid ; and we have no reason, consequent-ly, to believe that their means of increase and propa-gation are less elusive or extensive.
  52. 52. 40 EXPLANATION &.C. OF THE LINNjEAN SYSTEM. Linnxus, at one period, formed of the palms,which he had not then well examined, a twenty-fifthclass. Among the vegetable gnomes which his fancyhad created, they were the " Princes of India," bear-ing their fructification on a spadix (or peculiar re-ceptable) within a spathe ; remarkable for their pro-digious height and flowing summit, having an unvaried,undivided, perennial trunk, crowned by a sempervi-rent tuft of leaves, and rich in abundance of large,(and sometimes) fine fruit.
  53. 53. A TABULAR VIEW OF THE CLASSES OF THE SYSTEM OF LINNAEUS.I. Phjenogamous Plants, or with conspicuous Flowers Classes dependent on the number of stamens only. I. Monandria. One stamen. II. Diandria. Two stamens. III. Triandria. Three stamens. IV. Tetrandria Four equal stamens. V. Pentandria. Five stamens. VI. Hexandria. Six equal stamens. VII. Heptandria. Seven stamens. VIII. Octandria. Eight stamens. IX. Enneandria. Nine stamens. X. Decandria. Ten stamens.Stamens many, indefinite in number, and in which the situation is essential. XI. Icosandria. 15 or more stamens on the calyx. XII. Polyandria. 15 or more stamens on the receptacle Stamens definite, but of unequal length. XIII.Didynamia. 4 stamens 2 longer. Corolla irregular. ; XIV. Tetradynamia. 6 stamens 4 longer. Corolla cru- ; ciform. Stamens with the filaments united. XV. Monadelphia. Filaments united in one bundle. XVI. Diadelphia. Filaments in two bodies. Corollst papilionaceous Stamens with the anthers united. XVII. Syngenesia. Flowers compound. Stamens attached to the pistillum. XVIII. Gynandria. Stamens generally one or two. Flowers of two kinds, on the same or on different plants. XIX. Monoecia. Two kinds of flowers on the same plant. XX. Dkecia. Two kinds of flowers on 2 different plants.II. Cryptogamous Plants, or with inconspicuous or he- TEROMORPHOUS FLOWERS. XXI. Cryptogamia. No proper flowers and spora for ; seed. N. B. The classes omitted have been discussed in a precedingchapter, and the above table is consequently the modified view ofrhe author. The orders are explained in the ninth chapter. 4*
  54. 54. THE CLASS MONANDRIA. CHAPTER X. ON THE CLASS MONANDRIA. We come now to the determination of individualplants,which from classes and orders, descend togenera or kinds, and individuals or species species ;are likewise subject to variations more or less con-stant, as we see in our fruit trees ; for instance, in theApple, of which, all the kinds we cultivate are merevarieties ofone original species, called by botanistsPyrus Malus, the latter word indicating the name ofthe species, the former, or Pyrus, the genus or kind,and which also includes other species, as the Pyruscommunis, or Pear, the Pyrus coronaria, or sweet-scented Crab of America, &c. This common genericcharacter is applied to all such groups of plants, as,agreeing generally among themselves, present a simi-larity, not only in the class and order, or stamens andstyles, but in the more intimate connexion of resem-blance in the flower, and its succeeding fruit ; so thatwhile classes and orders are often merely artificialassemblages of plants, a genus always rests satisfiedwith bringing together such subordinate groups onlyas are clearly natural ; or, while they agree in thestructure of flower and only differ, specifically, fruit,in the minor consideration of the forms of leaves,petals, appendages, or slight modifications of parts.It cannot be denied, that, however anxious the syste-matic botanist may be to draw nice distinctions amongkindred genera and species, yet, when he proves sofortunate as to become acquainted with a perfectgroup of natural or resembling genera, and approxi-mating species, he cannot often help but observesuch an interlinking, and gradual passage of one modi-
  55. 55. 44 THE CLASS MONANDRIA.ficationof form into another, as to lead to the belief,that such divisions as genera and species, thoughgenerally convenient and lucid in arrangement, areoften not really in the original plan of nature, whichever delights in slender shadows of distinction, andwhile uniting, yet contrives to vary, with an infinitediversity, the tribes of her numerous kingdom. As instruction in Botany, like all other branches ofNatural History, is only attainable by the actual ob-servation of its individual subjects, and the structureof their parts, we shall now proceed, as before, toillustrate the classes by endeavoring to bring beforeyou a few specimens of each ; after which, thewhole vegetable kingdom, and its numerous individuals(now known to include more than forty-four thousandspecies), will be accessible to you at will, though neverwithout labor and patience, particularly where thespecies of a genus are numerous. This difficulty,however, is often much lessened by the differentgroups or sections into which such genera are dividedfrom some obvious trait of distinction, common to suchpartialassemblage of species. The class Monandria contains very few plants, andthose principally indigenous to tropical climates, mostof them forming part of Linnaeuss natural orderScitamine^, so called, in reference to the spicy andaromatic odor and flavor with which they are soremarkably endowed ; such, for example, are theGinger, Cardamom, Costus, Turmerick, Galangale,and Arrow-root. The Canna, however, which, with the Thalia andArrow-root, are the only plants of this interesting andmagnificent family, found native within the limits ofthe United States, is destitute of the prevailing racy-flavor and odor of this tribe. They all agree in gen-eral aspect, and resemble so many luxuriant reeds

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