Naming ionic-covalent


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naming ionic and covalent compounds

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Naming ionic-covalent

  1. 1. Naming CompoundsWhats in a name? That which we call a roseBy any other name would smell as sweet." - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet (II, ii)
  2. 2. Background: valences and formulas• We can determine the formula of a compound by completing Lewis diagrams or via “valence”• Valence is “the number of electrons an atom must gain, lose, or share to complete its octet”• For representative elements valence starts at 1 (1), climbs to 4 (4) and falls back to 1 (7)• By knowing the valence of elements you can determine the formula of compounds• E.g. what compound would form from C + S? Step 1 - write valences: C 4S 2 Step 2 - cross down valences: C2S4 Step 3 - simplify formula: CS2
  3. 3. Ionic compounds (metal with 1 valence) Rules for naming• Names end in -ide. Example: sodium chloride• Metal (+ ion) comes 1st (not chlorine sodide)• Use the group valence for nonmetals• Do not capitalize the compound unless starting a sentenceGive formulae & name: Ca + I, O + Mg, Na + S = Ca2I1 = CaI2 = calcium iodide = Mg2O2 = MgO = magnesium oxide = Na1S2 = Na2S = sodium sulfide
  4. 4. Write the correct formula for thesea) Al + Br AlBr3b) K+S K2 Sc) Zn + O ZnOd) Mg + N Mg3N2e) C + Cl CCl4f) Cu + O CuO or Cu2O
  5. 5. Learning CheckComplete the names of the following binarycompounds:Na3N sodium ________________KBr potassium ________________Al2O3 aluminum ________________MgS _________________________
  6. 6. Multiple valence: Latin naming• When the metal in an ionic compound is multi- valent there are 2 methods: Latin or IUPAC• Latin is older (not useful for some compounds)• As before, the name ends in -ide & + is first• The metal is named with it’s Latin or English root and ends in -ic or –ous to denote valence• E.g. Cu1 is cuprous, E.g. Cu2 is cupric• Lower = ous, Higher = ic (lower & higher charge)• Give formulas and Latin names for: Cu2 + Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = cupric chloride Co2 + Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobaltous chlorideFor latin naming: know rules, remember Hg is an exception, do not memorize Latin names
  7. 7. Element English Latin Name Higher Lower(valence) name valence valence Metals that have and use latin namesCu (1,2) Copper Cuprum Cupric CuprousFe (2,3) Iron Ferrum Ferric FerrousPb (2,4) Lead Plumbum Plumbic PlumbousSn (2,4) Tin Stannum Stannic Stannous Metals that do not have latin namesCo (2,3) Cobalt - Cobaltic CobaltousCr (2,3) Chromium - Chromic ChromousMn (2,3) Manganese - Manganic Manganous Metals that have latin names but use english rootHg (1,2) Mercury Hydrargyrum Mercuric Mercurous
  8. 8. Multiple valence: IUPAC naming• Name ends in -ide, positive/metal comes first• The valence (charge) of the metal is indicated in brackets using roman numerals• E.g. Cu1 is copper(I), Cu2 is copper(II)• Numbers refer to charge not to #s of atoms
  9. 9. Write the correct name and formula• Cu2+Cl• Zn2 + Cl• Co2+Cl• Hg+S (do both) a) Cu2+Cl = Cu2Cl1 = CuCl2 = copper(II)chloride b) Zn2+Cl = Zn2Cl1 = ZnCl2 = zinc chloride c) Co2+Cl = Co2Cl1 = CoCl2 = cobalt(II) chloride d) Hg+S = Hg1S2 = Hg2S = mercury(I) sulfide d) Hg+S = Hg2S2 = HgS = mercury(II) sulfide
  10. 10. Learning CheckComplete the names of the following binarycompounds with variable metal ions:FeBr2 iron (_____) bromideCuCl copper (_____) chlorideSnO2 ___(_____ ) ______________Fe2O3 ________________________Hg2S ________________________
  11. 11. Compounds containing polyatomic ions • So far we have given valences to single atoms Li1O2 → Li2O• Groups of atoms can also have valences Li + O• “Polyatomic ions” are groups of atoms that interact as a single unit.• E.g. OH1, (SO4)2.• Ba3(PO4)2 = barium phosphate• Naming compounds with polyatomic ions is similar to naming other ionic compounds• You should note that compounds with polyatomic ions have names ending in -ate or -ite not -ide• Note that most are negative, except ammonium
  12. 12. Naming with Transition Metals Name Balanced Ion Formula PairsLead (IV)HydroxideIron (III)CarbonateCopper (II)acetate
  13. 13. Naming with Transition Metals Name Balanced Ion Formula PairsLead (IV) Pb+4 + 4(OH-)HydroxideIron (III) 2Fe+3 + 3CO3-2CarbonateCopper (II) Cu+2 + 2C2H302-1acetate
  14. 14. Naming with Transition Metals Name Balanced Ion Formula PairsLead (IV) Pb+4 + 4(OH-) Pb(OH)4HydroxideIron (III) 2Fe+3 + 3CO3-2 Fe2(CO3)3CarbonateCopper (II) Cu+2 + 2C2H302-1 Cu(C2H302)2acetate
  15. 15. Write the name• Ca(OH)2• Cu(SO4)• NH4(NO3)• Co2(CO3)3a) Calcium hydroxideb) Copper (II) sulfatec) Ammonium nitrated) Cobalt (III) carbonate
  16. 16. Naming covalent compounds1 mon • -ide ending, each element has o • prefix refers to # of atoms - not valence “prefix”2 di N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide3 tri • Exception: drop mono for first element4 tetra CO2 = carbon dioxide5 pent • The first vowel is often dropped to6 a hexa avoid the combination of “ao” or “oo”.7 hept CO = carbon monoxide P4O10= tetraphosphorus decoxide (monooxide)8 a octa SO2= sulfur dioxide (doxide)9 nona • Name: CCl4, P2O3, IF71 deca
  17. 17. Write and name the followingcovalent compounds (IUPAC) CCl4 carbon tetrachloride P2O3 diphosporus trioxide IF7 For more lessons, visit