Global warming is a key ecological threat to ourcivilization .Poland is obligated by EuropeanUnion directive to reduce the emission of carbondioxide through use of renewable energysources. By 2020, energy from alternative sources mustaccount 15% of final energy consumption inPoland. Now our country established a target of9%.
SEGMENTS OF RENEWABBLE ENERGY MARKET: BiomassIt is the most important source ofalternative energy in Poland.It is cheap and currently based onsurplases of straw and hay, woodenleftovers ,energy plants and farm waste.It is used for production of thermal andelectrical energy. There are 16 biomasspower stations in Poland and the shareof biomass energy production in totalenergy consumption is 1%.
BiogasBiogas is produced fromfermentation process and itcan be used both forelectrical and thermalenergy production and alsoas fuel and can betransmitted to gasnetwork. Poland canproduce 6 bilion m3 ofbiogas and it can reach10% of domesticconsumption. There are130 biogas plants in Polandand now they produce0.1% energy of totalenergy production.
BiofuelsIt is transport fuels produced from organic materials-fromoils. In 2012 the share of biofuels in the transport fuelmarket can reach 7%.
Water energyPoland is a lowland country where it rains relatively little and onthe national scale the economic potential of water energy is usedonly in 41%.We have over 700 water power stations- some bigpower plants and in many places are conditions to build smallpower stations. They give us now 2% of total consumption ofenergy.
Wind energyPoland has some of the best wind resources in Central and EasternEurope. We have the best condition on the coast of the Baltic Seaand in the north-east corner. In 2010 there were over 300 windpower stations but there are many under construction and theiramount is growing very rapidly. The share of wind energy isaccounted for 0.5% of total domestic consumption of electricalenergy .According to plans, wind turbines should generate 2,5% ofdomestic energy consumption by 2020.The advantages of such energy are low exploitation costs , no fuelsand do not require much space.
Solar energyIt allows to convert sunlight into electrical energy. Poland doesn’t receiveequal amount of sun . 80% of total amount is in spring and summer.The solar installations are mainly installed in difficult access areas orlocations far away from power lines. They include navigation systems in theBaltic Sea , installation for drying and ventilating agriculture produce,lighting in individual homes and power supply for warning lights. On theindustrial scale, solar energy is practically not used.Forecast predict, that prices of solar energy may catch up the prices ofconventional power stations as early as in 2020.This kind of energy isassumed to provide 30% of energy in 30 years.This form of energy doesn’t produce any harmful emissions of gases, wasteor noise and it can be stored. Solar installations are the most environmentfriendly technology .
Geothermal energyGeothermal waters are under the surface of almost 80% ofPoland territory but the installations are very expensive andused only in 12%.
"No,Human No Cry „ Comenius Project 2011/2013Information gathered and edited by PubliczneGimnazjum in Kuznica Czarnkowska, Poland Created by Klaudia Kamowska