Engaging Māori learners

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This is the presentation for a paper presented by Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd (Otago Polytechnic) at the National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference 2011, in Nelson, New Zealand. …

This is the presentation for a paper presented by Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd (Otago Polytechnic) at the National Tertiary Learning & Teaching Conference 2011, in Nelson, New Zealand.

The presentation provides a pedagogical framework for Māori learner engagement based on tikanga Māori (Māori custom) and models such as strengths and empowerment theories.

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  • Kate’s Kōrero: Mihi Mihi (a welcome) and mihimihi (personal introductions) are important protocols in Māori society. In the Māori world view, all events and activities are signified by an appropriate beginning point and end point. The beginning when meeting new people is usually marked by a process of mihi and mihimihi. This is when people are welcomed and introductions are made. We do not have time today for everyone to mihimihi. Instead we want you all to take 5 minutes to move around the room and introduce yourselves to as many people as possible – mihimihi to people you don’t know. We will let you know when there is one minute to go. Please use that minute to wrap up your introductions and re-seat yourselves.
  • Jenny’s Kōrero: Why nurturing the mauri is central When engaging with and seeking to engage a new group of students, an educator can relieve a number of fears and anxieties for many students in a good orientation and induction process. Clear course outlines, manageable timetables, assessment marking criteria, introducing students to support services, scheduling a library tour and so on go a long way to alleviate fears and anxieties but for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper.
  • Physical Mental Spiritual Social Room set up Temperature Sufficient space Air circulation Plugs for computers Lighting Comfortable chairs Water Flat structure (Not lecture theatre) Tables for group work Dedicated space (a home base for students) Attending to learning styles VARK Visual Aural/Audio Reader/ Writer Kinesthetic Stimulating content VARK approach to assessments Appropriate support and scaffolding One on one tutorial support Computer labs Fish & Chip nights Peers support   Clarity about expectations, structure, roles and boundaries responsibilities Providing an Agenda Powhiri/ mihi whakatou/mihi haere mihimihi Karakia and blessings Opening and closing rituals Acknowledging ancestors/ Whakapapa Acknowledging ancestors presence Outdoor activities Carving, weaving or painting Mihimihi Introductions Signature search Name games Icebreakers Group activities Singing waiata Dedicated space Eating together Group assessments Learning communities  

Transcript

  • 1. Engaging Māori Learners: A Pedagogical Framework Kate Timms-Dean and Jenny Rudd, Otago Polytechnic, 2011
  • 2. Mihi & Mihimihi
    • Greet each other: Tēnā koe (hello to one)
    • Who are your ancestors, where do they come from?
    • Who are your parents, where do they come from?
    • Who are you? Where do you come from? Where do you live?
    • Include siblings, partner and children if you want to…
    •  
  • 3. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning
    • Koru is the young fern frond or leaf
    • Consists of stalk and blades
    • When young tightly furled
    • Unfurls as it matures
    Blades
  • 4. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning
    • Koru used in carving and tattoos
    • Associated with identity, growth and new life
    • ‘ Taonga Tuku Iho’
    • “ the passing of life, information and resources from one generation to the next”
    (Tauroa, 2009; Wilson 2001-2003)
  • 5. The Koru Model of Teaching & Learning Mauri Manaaki Whakapapa Whanaungatanga Tūmanako & Pūmanawa Tautoko Aroha Empowerment
  • 6. Mauri
    • Why do we see the mauri as so central in a teaching and learning model?
    • How do we go about nurturing it?
  • 7. Why nurturing the mauri is central
      • Will I cope?
      • Will I be good enough?
      • Will it meet my needs?
    • Fears and anxieties weaken the mauri and reduce a student’s capacity to engage and learn
    • Students come with fears and anxieties
  • 8. Reducing Fears and Anxiety
      • Clear course outlines, explicit marking criteria
      • Introducing students to support services
      • Manageable timetables
      • An ‘Amazing Race’ campus tour
      • A ‘treasure hunt’ in the Library
    A good orientation and induction process can reduce fears and anxieties: But for some students the fears and anxieties go very much deeper….
  • 9. Reducing Fears and Anxiety
    • Ice breakers
    • Name games
    • Sharing kai
    • Group activities
    • Learning waiata
    • Brainstorming and sharing fears
    Can all help but for some students the fears and anxieties go much deeper still…..
  • 10. Why nurturing the mauri is central Smith (2010, p.14) has this to say… … .“In a classroom situation, having been a teacher for many years, I have always thought about working with young children—how easy it is to hurt the mauri, as a teacher, as someone in power. A look, a word, an action can all do damage and it can happen in a single moment. Easy to damage, hard to recover”…
  • 11. How do we nurture our students mauri? By attending to….
  • 12. Manaaki Included in our framework to indicate importance of taking care of student’s physical, mental, spiritual and social needs.
    • Refers to:
    • Hospitality: providing a nurturing environment
    • Ensuring that people feel welcome
  • 13. Manaaki Taking Care of Learners’ Physical, Mental, Spiritual & Social Needs Physical Mental Spiritual Social
    • Room set up
    • Temperature
    • Sufficient space
    • Air circulation
    • Plugs for computers
    • Lighting
    • Comfortable chairs
    • Water
    • Flat structure (not lecture theatre)
    • Tables for group work
    • Dedicated space (a home base for students)
    • Attending to learning styles
      • Visual
      • Aural/Audio
      • Reader/Writer
      • Kinesthetic
    • Stimulating content
    • VARK approach to assessments
    • Appropriate support and scaffolding
    • One on one tutorial support
    • Computer labs
    • Fish & Chip nights
    • Peers support
    • Clarity about expectations, structure, roles and boundaries responsibilities
    • Providing an Agenda
    • Powhiri/ mihi whakatau/mihi haere
    • mihimihi
    • Karakia and blessings
    • Opening and closing rituals
    • Acknowledging ancestors/ Whakapapa
    • Acknowledging ancestors presence
    • Outdoor activities
    • Carving, weaving or painting
    • Mihimihi
    • Introductions
    • Signature search
    • Name games
    • Icebreakers
    • Group activities
    • Singing waiata
    • Dedicated space
    • Eating together
    • Group assessments
    • Learning communities
  • 14. Whakapapa
    • Refers to:
    • Genealogy: incorporates ancestors as well as immediate whānau.  
    Included in our framework to indicate importance of creating space for ancestors and whānau in the classroom….
  • 15. Whakapapa Creating Space for Ancestors & Whānau in the Classroom
    • Appreciating that students belong to whanau and that this has implications for who they are and what they bring
    • Encouraging potential students to bring whanau members to initial pre-course meetings
    • Including a ‘meet the family’ session during orientation
    • Including whanau in official welcoming ceremonies
    • A whanau orientated signature search
    • Allowing children to come to class as required and making it comfortable for parents to feel okay about children being present
    • Fostering a family tolerant environment among class members
    • Asking class members to invite whanau with relevant expertise to come to class and share their stories and experiences
    • Inviting whanau to assessment presentations and end of term/semester/year celebrations – establishing a class culture around this
    • Being flexible about due dates in recognition of family/community responsibilities
    • Creating opportunities to talk about whanau/whakapapa and share photo’s histories, and family stories
    • Using mihi whakatau and mihi haere ceremonies within your class
    • Sharing of yourself appropriately to indicate that it is okay to talk about family
    • Using the term whakapapa and talking about ancestry and the way that it impacts on values, beliefs, customs and so on
  • 16. Whanaungatanga
    • Refers to:
    • The building and maintenance of whānau connections and relationships through shared experience.
    • Extends to non-kinship relations where there is mutual need, support and reciprocity.
    Included in our framework to indicate the importance establishing relationship, belonging and a sense of community
  • 17. Whanaungatanga Establishing Relationships, Belonging & a Sense of Community
    • Modelling warm, trusting and reciprocal relationships between staff involved on a programme including support, teaching, tutoring and management
    • Ice breakers and name games are essential. Plan orientation activities so that students go for breaks in groups or in pairs with tasks to discuss. This helps to form relationships and ensures that students aren’t left out or alone in these initial days.
    • Making time to see students one on one
    • Having an open door policy or an open door policy one day per week
    • Provide opportunities for students to share their stories and experiences during class time or as part of assessments.
    • Lots of group activities during class time provides an excellent opportunity to move among the groups and build relationships with group members
    • Discussion based activities in the classroom allow students to get to know each other
    • Incorporate activities involving self-awareness and awareness of others into orientation sessions: temperament, personality and learning styles tests work well with class discussion regarding individual and group characteristics and needs i
    • Sharing of characteristics and needs in the creation of a class kawa
    • Group work activities that include developing and revisiting a group kawa.
    • Group activities that encourage students meeting outside of class time
    • Planned social events as part of the academic year
    • Discussion forums/ Facebook
  • 18. Tumanako & Pūmanawa
    • Tūmanako refers to desires or aspirations while Pūmanawa refers to natural talents.
    Included in our framework to indicate the importance of a Strengths approach when seeking to engage Māori students.
  • 19. Tūmanako & Pūmanawa Attending to Aspirations & Fostering Natural Talents & Strengths
    • Focusing on talents, aspirations, resources and opportunities
    • Have students carry out a strengths analysis to identify their own strengths and support needs
    • Encouraging students to develop and share aspiration based goal plans
    • Teaching reflective practice and including a reflective journal as an assessment task
    • Encouraging students to identify their own strengths and point out the strengths they see in others
    • Utilising a peer marking model
    • Adapting your approach to accommodate the student rather than expecting the student to accommodate you
    • Proactively seeking to counteract students negative self-image and consistently reinforcing students achievements, abilities, talents, courage and resilience
    • High expectations – expect that your students are capable, expect that they are here to succeed
    • Providing opportunities for each student to be successful
    • Mixing up assessments – catering to different learning styles
    • Giving options: Write an essay… or a song or paint a picture
    • Recognising, allowing for and integrating the expertise and talents that each student brings
    • Integrating academic and literacy skills
    • Scaffolding assessments i.e. an annotated bibliography, followed by a structured essay and then an essay
    • Focused tutorial support, peer support
    • Never assume that you have explained yourself sufficiently
    • Detailed written feedback on every assessment – explain where the student has gone wrong – tell them what they need to do to improve
    • Support them before due dates so they can submit on time and pass
    • Praise and celebrate achievements
  • 20. Tautoko Included in our model because supporting Māori students in a way that works for them is crucial in effective engagement. Refers to support . Bishop and Berryman (2006) drew attention to the deficit support model – whereby Māori students have been perceived as academically limited and provided with remedial support.  
  • 21. Tautoko Providing Appropriate & Timely Support
    • Meeting face to face prior to course commencement
    • Meeting with Whanau
    • Talking with caregivers when a student starts getting behind
    • Explaining assessment tasks orally
    • Oral assessments
    • Open door office policy – students to feel welcome and at home
    • Lots of group work and collaborative tasks
    • Lots of opportunity for discussion
    • Increasing my knowledge of tikanga
    • Increasing my use and confidence with Te Reo
    • Teaching and singing waiata as part of class processes
    • Integrating Te Tiriti and Te Ao Maori through-out my curriculum
    • Welcoming whanau into the classroom environment
    • Fish and Chip Study nights – being prepared to stay until the work is done
    • Being Flexible
    • Partnership teaching model
  • 22. Aroha Included in our framework because these are essential qualities in an educator who is committed to engaging Māori students.   Refers to compassion, empathy and love.
  • 23. Aroha Expressing Compassion, Empathy & Love for our Learners
    • Completing your own education regarding Te Tiriti o Waitangi and doing so with an open heart
    • Having some insight and understanding into what it means/ has meant for a people to have so much taken away from them
    • Bringing that learning and the compassion that arises from it, to your classroom
    • Understanding why Māori students might not always come to class
    • Considering what you can do to heal that damaged mauri
    • Understanding why Māori students might struggle trying to a function in a Western teaching and learning environment.
    • Trying to understand the differences – what does a kaupapa Maori classroom look like/ feel like – how can you offer some of that in your own classroom
    • Knowing that when you support Maori students – one on one and with oral explanations of an assessment you do so because you have failed to cater to their learning style in your classroom – not because they are less able than their counterparts
    • Deeply, genuinely caring for your student’s well-being
  • 24. Whakamana Included in our framework because it reminds us to bring social justice, human rights and a power analysis to our work as educators Is underpinned by Empowerment Theory and the notion that some individuals and groups have more than fair share of power in society.
  • 25. Whakamana Enabling Social Justice, Human Rights & Power Analysis
    • Pro-actively working with students to reduce internalised stigma – removing the burden of individual blame. For Maori students this often involves teaching them about the Tiriti o Waitangi and Tiriti breaches. Freire (1996) calls this contextualising or consciousness raising.
    • Consciousness raising to increase the students awareness and understanding of social structures that have prevented them from educational achievement.
    • Creating opportunities for the student to experience solidarity: sharing with others who have had similar experiences
    • Providing the supports and resources that will enable students to successfully achieve
    • Stimulating students interest in knowledge and learning
    • Maintaining awareness of power issues in the classroom. Knowing that no matter how friendly you think you are, you hold a position of power over the students. Consciously acknowledging the power imbalance and seeking to counteract it where possible
    • Maintaining humility. Always remembering your limitations particular in relation to other cultures.
  • 26. Paulo Freire (1996)
    • Love, humility and faith establish trust
    • Trust enables dialogue
    • Dialogue enables communication
    • Communication allows education
    • Education enables hope
    • Hope requires critical reflection
    • Critical reflection results in growth
    Kate can you embed this – if you want it – otherwise just an un http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwwEchnBs4U&feature=related – fern growing 2 mins
  • 27. Waiata: Te Aroha
    • Te Aroha
    • Te Whakapono
    • Te Rangimarie
    • Tātou tātou e
  • 28. References
    • Friere, P. (1996). Pedagogy of the oppressed . London: Penguin Books.
    • Rapp, C., & Goscha, R. (2006). The strengths model: case management with people with psychiatric disabilities (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    • Tautoa, D. (2009). He koru ana ra tāku. The koru: the safe symbol in New Zealand design? Honours thesis. Whanganui, New Zealand: Whanganui School of Design. Accessed from http://issuu.com/muddog/docs/thesis-2009
    • Wilson, J.M. (2007-2011). Ta Moko. Accessed from http://awanderingminstreli.tripod.com/tamoko.htm
    • Waikato University (2007-2011). Fern Structure. Accessed from http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Ferns/Sci-Media/Animations-and-Interactives/Fern-structure