1 1 General Rule: General Rule: behavior be concrete 1 1 Concept: Concept: behavior analysis reinforcer (positive reinforcer) 1 1 Concept: General Rule: repertoire dead-man test 1 2 General Rule: Concept:check the presumed baseline reinforcer first
• Always pinpoint specific • A muscle, glandular, or behaviors neuro-electrical activity.• when you deal with a behavioral (psychological) problem.• A stimulus • The study of the• that increases the frequency • principles of behavior. of a response it follows.• If a dead man can do it, it • A set of skills. probably isn’t behavior.• The phase of an experiment • Before spending much time or intervention trying to reinforce behavior,• where the behavior is • make sure you have a true measured reinforcer.• in the absence of an intervention.
2 2 Concept: Concept: medical model myth behavioral contingency 2 2 Concept: General Rule:reinforcement contingency the dont say rule 2 2 Concept: General Rule: the error of reification reinforce behavior 3 3 Concept: Concept: escape contingency aversive stimulus (negative reinforcer)
• The occasion for a response, • An erroneous view of• the response, and human behavior• the outcome of the response. • that behavior is always a mere symptom of • an underlying psychological condition.• With nonverbal organisms, • The response-contingent dont say, • presentation • expects, • knows, • of a reinforcer • thinks, • figures out, • resulting in an increased • in order to (or so that he, she, or it could ...), frequency of that response. • trying to, • makes the connection, • associates, • learns that, • imagines, • or understands.• Reinforce behavior, • To call a behavior or• not people. process a thing.• A stimulus • The response-contingent• that increases the future • removal of frequency of a response • an aversive stimulus• its removal (termination) • resulting in an increased follows. frequency of that response.
3 3 Concept: False General Rule: differential reinforcement the toothpaste theoryof alternative behavior (DRA) of abnormal behavior 3 3 Concept: Principle: functional assessment parsimony 3 4 General Rule: General Rule: the sick social cycle the sick social cycle (victim’s escape model) (victim’s punishment model) 4 4 Concept: Concept: punishment contingency overcorrection
• Abnormal behavior flows out • The replacement of an of sick people inappropriate response• like toothpaste squeezed • with a specific appropriate from a tube. response• The abnormal behavior • that produces the same results from inner pressure. reinforcing outcome.• The use of no unnecessary • An assessment concepts, principles, or • of the contingencies assumptions. • responsible for • behavioral problems.• The perpetrator’s aversive • In escaping behavior punishes • the perpetrator’s aversive• the victim’s appropriate behavior, behavior. • the victim unintentionally• And the victim’s stopping the reinforces appropriate behavior • that aversive behavior.• unintentionally reinforces that aversive behavior.• A contingency • Response-contingent• on inappropriate behavior • presentation of• requiring the person • an aversive condition• to engage in an effortful (negative reinforcer) response • resulting in a decreased• that more than corrects frequency of that response.• the effects of inappropriate behavior.
• Consent to intervene in a • A measure of the subjects way behavior.• that is experimental or• risky.• The participant or guardian• is informed of the risks and benefits• and of the right to stop the• The goals, • The variable the• procedures, and experimenter systematically• results of an intervention manipulates• are socially acceptable to • to influence the dependent• the client, variable.• the behavior analyst, and• society.• The comparison of • An experimental design measurements • in which the replications• of dependent variables and involve• independent variables • baselines of differing• obtained by independent durations observers. • and interventions of differing starting times.• The response-contingent • The• removal of • response-contingent• a tangible reinforcer. • removal of • a reinforcer (positive reinforcer) • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response.
5 5 Concept: Concept:time-out contingency reversal design 5 6 Principle: Principle: the law of effect recovery from punishment 6 6 Principle: Concept:spontaneous recovery forgetting procedure 6 6 Principle: General Rule: extinction Forget Forgetting
• An experimental design • The response-contingent• in which we reverse • removal of• between intervention and • access to a reinforcer. baseline conditions• to assess the effects of those conditions.• Stopping the punishment or • The effects of our actions penalty contingency • determine whether we will• for a previously punished repeat them. response• may cause the response frequency to increase• to its frequency before the punishment or penalty• Preventing the opportunity • A temporary recovery of the (or occasion) for a response. extinguished behavior • during the first part of each of the extinction sessions • that follow the first extinction session.• There’s no such thing. • Stopping the reinforcement or escape contingency • for a previously reinforced response • causes the response frequency to decrease.
• A condition not containing • To change or allow to the presumed crucial value change two or more of the independent variable. independent variables at the same time, • so you cannot determine what variables are responsible for the change in the dependent variable.• The time between • The sequence (path of• the signal or opportunity for movement), a response • form,• and the beginning of the • or location response. • of components of a response • relative to the rest of the body • An analysis of complex• The time from behavior• the beginning • and sequences of behavior• to the end • into their component• of a response. responses.• The physical properties of a • Sometimes you need to response. • make reinforcers and feedback contingent on • the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).
7 7 Concept: Concept: response class single-subject research design 7 7 Procedure: Concept: the differential- group research design reinforcement procedure 7 7 Concept: Concept:the differential punishment control group procedure 7 8 Concept: Concept: experimental group fixed-outcome shaping
• The entire experiment is • A set of responses that conducted with a single either subject, • a) are similar on at least one• though it may be replicated response dimension, or with several other subjects. • b) share the effects of reinforcement and punishment, or • c) serve the same function (produce the same• The experiment is conducted • Reinforcing one set of with at least two groups of responses and subjects. • withholding reinforcement• And the data are usually for another set of presented in terms of the responses. mean (average)• of the performance of all subjects• A group of subjects • Punishing one set of• not exposed to the presumed responses crucial value of the • and withholding punishment independent variable. of another set of responses. • Shaping that involves • A group of subjects • no change in the value of • exposed to the presumed • the reinforcer crucial value • or aversive condition, • of the independent variable. • as the performance criterion more and more closely resembles the terminal behavior.
• The differential • Behavior not in the reinforcement of only that repertoire behavior • or not occurring at the • that more and more closely desired frequency; resembles the terminal • the goal of the intervention behavior. • The differential punishment • The frequency of of all behavior responding • except that which more and • before reinforcement more closely resembles the terminal behavior. • Shaping that involves • Behavior that resembles • a change in the value of • the terminal behavior • the reinforcer • along some meaningful • or aversive condition, dimension • as performance more and • and occurs with at least a more closely resembles the minimal frequency. • terminal behavior.• A stimulus that is aversive, • Behavior that more closely• though not as a result of approximates the terminal pairing with other aversive behavior. stimuli.
• A stimulus that is a • A procedure or condition reinforcer, • that affects learning and • though not as a result of performance pairing with another • with respect to a particular reinforcer. reinforcer or aversive condition. • If one activity occurs more • Consuming a substantial often than another, amount of a reinforcer • the opportunity to do the • temporarily decreases more frequent activity relevant learning and • will reinforce the less performance. frequent activity.• A reinforcer for which • Withholding a reinforcer• repeated exposure • increases relevant learning• is an motivating operation. and performance. • Aversive stimuli and • Stimuli resulting from acts of extinction are motivating aggression. operations • for aggression reinforcers.
• A learned reinforcer that is a • Elements of a stimulus reinforcer • have their value or function• because it has been paired • only when they are with a variety of other combined; reinforcers. • otherwise, the individual elements may be relatively neutral.• A system of generalized • A stimulus that is a learned reinforcers reinforcer• in which the organism that • because it has been paired receives those generalized with another reinforcer. reinforcers can save them• and exchange them for a variety of backup reinforcers later.• A stimulus • The pairing of a neutral• that is aversive stimulus with• because it has been paired • a reinforcer or aversive with another aversive stimulus. stimulus.• The behavioral term for • The pairing procedure language • converts a neutral stimulus into • a learned reinforcer • or learned aversive stimulus.
• The occurrence of a • A stimulus in the presence response more frequently in of which the presence of one stimulus • a particular response will be• than in the presence of reinforced or punished. another,• usually as a result of a discrimination training procedure.• The planned use of • A stimulus in the presence• behavioral contingencies, of which• differential reinforcement, • a particular response will not and be reinforced or punished.• discrimination training• in the student’s everyday environment.• A supplemental stimulus • Is there also an S∆?• that raises the probability of • (If not, then you also don’t a correct response. have an SD).• That part of the environment • Reinforcing or punishing a• the organism operates response (manipulates). • in the presence of one stimulus • and extinguishing it • or allowing it to recover • in the presence of another stimulus.
12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies: discriminated contingencies: same before condition test different before condition test 12 12 Criteria for diagramming Criteria for diagrammingdiscriminated contingencies discriminated contingencies: response test operandum test 12 13 Criteria for diagramming Concept:discriminated contingencies: stimulus generalization extinction/recovery test 13 13 Concept: Concept: stimulus class concept training
• Does the SD differ from the • Is the before condition the before condition? same for both the SD and the S∆?• Does the SD differ from the • Is the response the same for operandum? both the SD and the S∆?• The behavioral • Is the S∆ contingency always contingencies extinction or recovery?• in the presence of one stimulus• affect the frequency of the response• in the presence of another stimulus.• Reinforcing or punishing a • A set of stimuli, response • all of which have some• in the presence of one common physical property. stimulus class• and extinguishing it• or allowing it to recover• in the presence of another stimulus class.
• The criteria for • Selecting a comparison measurement are not stimulus completely specified in • corresponding to a sample physical terms stimulus.• or the event being measured is a private, inner experience.• Responding occurs more • The criteria for often in the presence of measurement are one stimulus class completely specified in• and less often in the physical terms presence of another • and the event being stimulus class measured is public and• because of concept therefore observable by training. more than one person.• The physical properties of • A gradient of responding a stimulus. showing • a decrease in responding • as the test stimulus • becomes less similar to the training stimulus.• The use of a fading • At first, the S∆ and the SD procedure differ along at least two• to establish a stimulus dimensions. discrimination, • Then the difference between• with no errors during the the S∆ and the SD is reduced training. along all but one dimension, • until the SD and S∆ differ along only the relevant dimension.
• The form of the behavior of• The trainer physically moves the imitator the trainees body • is controlled by• in an approximation of the • similar behavior of the desired response. model.• A supplemental verbal • Imitation of the response stimulus • of a model• that raises the probability of • without previous a correct response. reinforcement of • imitation of that specific response.• Generalized imitative • Stimuli arising from the responses occur match between• because they automatically • the behavior of the imitator produce imitative reinforcers. • and the behavior of the model.• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of • prevention of• loss of a reinforcer • an aversive condition• resulting in an increased • resulting in an increased frequency of that response. frequency of that response.
• A reinforcer is presented • A stimulus that precedes• after a fixed interval of time • an aversive condition• if the response of interest and thus becomes a has not occurred during that learned aversive stimulus. interval• Response-contingent • Response-contingent• prevention of removal of • prevention of• an aversive condition • a reinforcer• resulting in a decreased • resulting in a decreased frequency of that response frequency of that response.• After a response is A reinforcer follows the reinforced, response• no responding occurs for a only once in a while. period of time,• then responding occurs at a high, steady rate• until the next reinforcer is delivered.• A reinforcer follows • A reinforcer follows each• after a variable number of response. responses.
17 17 Concept: Concept:schedule of reinforcement variable-ratio responding 17 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-ratio (FR) fixed-interval (FI)schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement 18 18 Concept: Principle: fixed-interval scallop variable-interval responding 18 18 Concept: Concept: fixed-time schedule resistnce to extinction of reinforcer delivery
• Variable-ratio schedules • The way reinforcement produce occurs• a high rate of responding, • because of the number of• with almost no responses, postreinforcement pausing. • time between responses, and • stimulus conditions.• A reinforcer is contingent on • A reinforcer follows• the first response, • a fixed number of• after a fixed interval of time, responses.• since the last opportunity for reinforcement. • A fixed-interval schedule• Variable-interval schedules often produces a scallop: produce • a gradual increase in the• a moderate rate of rate of responding, responding, • with responding occurring at• with almost no a high rate, postreinforcement pausing. • just before reinforcement is available.• The number of responses or • A reinforcer is delivered,• the amount of time • after the passage of a fixed• before a response period of time, extinguishes. • independently of the response.
• Intermittent reinforcement • Behaving as if the response• makes the response causes• more resistant to extinction • some specific outcome,• than does continuous • when it really does not. reinforcement.• More than one contingency • A reinforcer is contingent on of reinforcement or • the first response, punishment • after a variable interval of• is available at the same time. time, • since the last opportunity for reinforcement.• Problem behaviors are • Reinforcement is contingent symptoms of an underlying on a behavior that is mental illness. • incompatible with another• So if you get rid of one behavior problem behavior (“symptom”),• another will take its place,• until you get rid of the• The addition or change of • When two different several independent responses are each variables reinforced with a different• at the same time schedule of reinforcement,• to achieve a desired result, • the relative frequency of the• without testing the effect of two responses each variable individually. • equals the relative value of reinforcement on the two schedules of reinforcement.
• The establishment of the • The simultaneous training of first link in a behavioral • all links in a behavioral chain, chain.• with the addition of successive links,• until the final link is acquired• A sequence of stimuli and • A stimulus in a behavioral responses. chain• Each response produces a • reinforces the response that stimulus that precedes it• reinforces the preceding • and is an SD or operandum response for the following response.• and is an SD or operandum• for the following response.• Reinforcement • The establishment of the• for each response following final link in a behavioral the preceding response chain,• by at least some minimum • with the addition of delay. preceding links, • until the first link is acquired.• A stimulus that has acquired • An unlearned response its eliciting properties • elicited by the presentation• through previous pairing with • of an unconditioned stimulus another stimulus.
• A learned response • A stimulus that produces the• elicited by the presentation unconditioned response• of a conditioned stimulus. • without previous pairing with another stimulus.• A neutral stimulus • Reinforcing consequences• acquires the eliciting • following the response properties • increase its future• of an unconditioned stimulus frequency; and• through pairing the • aversive consequences unconditioned stimulus • following the response• with a neutral stimulus. • decrease its future frequency.• To determine if a stimulus is • Establishing a conditioned an SD or CS, stimulus• look at its history of • by pairing a neutral stimulus conditioning: • with an already established• look for a plausible US -- UR conditioned stimulus. relation;• and alternatively, look for a plausible SD -- R -- SR contingency.• Combining relaxation with • Present the conditioned• a hierarchy of fear-producing stimulus stimuli, • without pairing it• arranged from the least to • with the unconditioned the most frightening. stimulus, • or with an already established conditioned stimulus,
• A description of a • A contingency in which behavioral contingency. • the outcome of the response • reinforces or punishes that response.• The statement of a rule • A change in the frequency• controls the response of a response• described by that rule. • because of a rule describing the contingency.• Behavior under the control • A contingency that does not of a rule. control behavior.• A contingency that controls • Direct control of behavior the response, • by a contingency,• though the outcome of that • without the involvement of response rules.• does not reinforce or punish that response.
22 22 Principle: Concept: (Optional-not on quiz) (Optional-not on quiz) Immediate reinforcement a contingency that is not direct acting 22 23(Optional-not on quiz) General Concept: Rule: feedback rule control 23 23 Concept: Review Concept: process vs. product Covert behavior 23 23 Concept Review: Principle: task analysis shifting from rule-control to contingency control
• Either an indirect-acting • The effect of the contingency or reinforcement procedure• an ineffective contingency. decreases • as the delay between the response and the outcome increases. • Reinforcers delayed more than 60 seconds• Nonverbal stimuli • Start looking for rule• or verbal statements control,• contingent on past behavior • if behavior is controlled by• that can guide future an outcome behavior. • that follows the response by more than 60 seconds.• Private behavior (not visible • Sometimes you need to to the outside observer). make reinforcers and feedback • contingent on the component responses of the process, • not just the product (outcome).• With repetition of the • An analysis of complex response, behavior• control often shifts from • and sequences of behavior control by the rule • into their component describing a direct-acting responses. contingency• to control by the direct- acting contingency itself.
23 24 Concept: Concept: multiple baseline performance contract design (behavioral contract or contingency contract) 24 24 False Principle: Principle: the mythical cause of rules that are easy to follow poor self-management 24 24 Model: Principle:the three-contingency model the real cause ofof performance-management poor self-management 24 25 Principle: Principle:rules that are hard to follow the deadline principle
• A written rule statement • An experimental design describing • in which the replications• the desired or undesired involve baselines behavior, • of differing durations and• the occasion when the • interventions of differing behavior should or should starting times. not occur, and• the added outcome for that• Describe outcomes that are • Poor self-management• both sizable occurs• and probable. • because immediate• The delay isnt crucial. outcomes control our behavior • better than delayed outcomes do.• Poor self-management • The three crucial results from contingencies are:• poor control by rules • the ineffective natural describing contingency,• outcomes that are either • the effective, indirect-acting• too small (though often of performance-management cumulative significance) contingency, and• or too improbable. • the effective, direct-acting• If an indirect-acting • Describe outcomes that are contingency either• is to increase or maintain • too small (though often of performance, cumulative significance)• it should involve a deadline. • or too improbable. • The delay isnt crucial.
25 25 General Rule: Concept: The it-is-probably-rule-control rule pay for performance 25 26 Principle: Concept: the analog to avoidance spiritualistic mentalism principle 26 26 Concept: Concept: the simplistic biological- the simplistic cognitivist error determinist error 26 26 Concept: Concept:the simplistic behaviorist error methodological behaviorism
• It is probably rule control, • Pay is contingent on specific if achievements• the person knows the rule,• the outcome is delayed, or• the performance changes as soon as the person hears the rule.• The doctrine that the mind • If an indirect-acting is contingency• spiritual (nonphysical). • is to increase or maintain performance, • it should be an analog to avoidance.• Rats think • Analogous behaviors are • homologous behaviors.• An approach that restricts • People don’t think. the science of psychology to• only those independent and dependent variables• that two independent people can directly observe.
• An entity or collection of • The doctrine that the mind entities causes behavior to occur.• assumed to cause behavior to occur.• It may be either material or nonmaterial,• but it is not the behavior itself.• The doctrine that the world is • The doctrine that physical divided into two parts, (material) world• material and spiritual. • is the only reality.• An entity • An approach that• assumed to cause action; addresses all psychology• the way the organism sees • in terms of the principles of the world, behavior.• including the organisms beliefs and expectations.• It is material, but not behavior.• The doctrine that the mind is • An approach that attempts• physical, not spiritual. to modify behavior • by modifying the cognitive structure.
26 26 Concept: Concept: Values goal-directed systems design 26 26 Concept: Concept: legal rule control moral (ethical) rule control 27 27 Concept: Principle:performance maintenance behavior trap 28 29 Concept: Review Principle: transfer of training the law of effect
• First you select the ultimate • Learned and unlearned goal of a system, reinforcers• then you select the various • and aversive conditions. levels of intermediate goals needed to accomplish that ultimate goal,• and finally, you select the initial goals needed to• Control by rules specifying • Control by rules specifying added analogs to added analogs to behavioral behavioral contingencies. contingencies• Such rules specify social, • and added direct-acting religious, or supernatural behavioral contingencies outcomes. • based on material outcomes.• Add a reinforcement • The continuing of contingency performance• to increase the rate of • after it was first established behavior.• Then the behavior will frequently contact• built-in reinforcement contingencies,• The effects of our actions • Performance established• determine whether we will • at one time repeat them. • in one place • now occurs in a different time and place.
• The extent to which the • Experts’ evaluation conclusions of an experiment • of the significance of• apply to a wide variety of • the target behavior and the conditions. outcome.• The time from • Measuring performance• the beginning • when the clients or subjects• to the end are aware• of a response. • of the ongoing observation.• Intensity of a response. • Measuring performance • when the clients or subjects • are not aware • of the ongoing observation.• Agreement between • Record or evidence• observations of • that the behavior has• two or more independent occurred. observers.
• The phase of an • Two or more possible experiment or intervention independent variables have• in which the behavior is changed at the same time, measured • so it is not possible to• in the absence of an determine which of those intervention. variables caused the change in the dependent variable.• An experimental design • The evaluation of the results• in which the baseline data of are collected • an applied intervention or• before the intervention. • a naturally changing condition • that involves confounded variables.• An experimental design • The extent to which a• in which the intervention research design (experimental) and baseline • eliminates confounding conditions variables.• are reversed• to determine if the dependent variable changes as• An experimental design • The arrangement of the• in which the replications various conditions of an involve experiment or intervention• baselines of differing • to reduce the confounding of durations independent variables.• and interventions of differing starting times.
• An analysis • An experimental design• of the contingencies • in which the replications responsible for involve• behavioral problems. • interventions with criteria of differing values.• The goals, • An experimental design• procedures, • in which the replications• and results of an involve intervention • presenting the different• are socially acceptable to values of the independent the variable• client, • in an alternating sequence• the behavior analyst, • under the same general• The behavior being • One experimental condition measured, • affects the results of• the dependent variable. another. • A comparison of the performance of clients • exposed to the intervention • with an equivalent or "normal" group.