Psy 6100 course procedures summer 2011

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Psy 6100 course procedures summer 2011

  1. 1. The Psychology 610 Course Booklet or How I Found Truth, Beauty, Justice, and Happiness at WMU Summer 2011Revised by Kelly Stone -1- 5/11/2011
  2. 2. Table of ContentsCourse Packet ...................................................................................................................................................................4The Big Picture ..................................................................................................................................................................4Professor ...........................................................................................................................................................................5Phones and Emails ........................................................................................................................................................... 5Work-study students .......................................................................................................................................................... 5Your Buddy ........................................................................................................................................................................5Seminar Schedule: ............................................................................................................................................................ 6Using the Overhead Projector ...........................................................................................................................................6 Malott, R. W. Principles of Behavior (Edition 6.0) ......................................................................................................7The Assignment Guide ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Continuous Quality Improvement ..................................................................................................................................7 What does conscientious mean? ............................................................................................................................... 8Final Paper (All sections) ................................................................................................................................................10Optional Activity Points ....................................................................................................................................................10 What are Optional Activity Points (OAPs)? ..................................................................................................................10 What are OAPs good for? ............................................................................................................................................10 New OAP transfer policy - ...........................................................................................................................................11 How can you earn OAPs? ...........................................................................................................................................11 The Finer OAP Details .................................................................................................................................................11Lecture/Quiz Strategy/Philosophy ...................................................................................................................................11 The Traditional Approach ............................................................................................................................................11 The Behavioral Approach ............................................................................................................................................12 The Traditional Approach ............................................................................................................................................12 The Behavioral Systems-Analysis Approach ...............................................................................................................12General Study Strategies ................................................................................................................................................12Dropping the Course ....................................................................................................................................................... 14Super A (Advanced Principles of Behavior) ......................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. Whats Super A? ............................................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. What does it take to earn Super A? ...............................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.Return Your Homework and Lab Reports ....................................................................................................................... 14Cheating Means Sudden Death!! ....................................................................................................................................14 Cheating ......................................................................................................................................................................14 Plagiarizing ..................................................................................................................................................................14Further Details About Academic Integrity ........................................................................................................................ 15Missed Classes ............................................................................................................................................................... 15Snow Days ......................................................................................................................................................................15Special Get-Tough Policy On Absences ......................................................................................................................... 15Lateness ..........................................................................................................................................................................16Students ..........................................................................................................................................................................16Late Homework ............................................................................................................................................................... 16Letters of Recommendation ............................................................................................................................................16Mickey Mouse Rules ....................................................................................................................................................... 17Adding Insult To Injury .....................................................................................................................................................17How to be way cool ......................................................................................................................................................... 17 The Legend of Sheldon Stone ..................................................................................................................................17 The Legend of the Cool Coed ...................................................................................................................................17 On the Other Hand .....................................................................................................................................................18 The One Pointer ......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Bottom Line ................................................................................................................................................................ 18How To Avoid Being a Social Disaster ............................................................................................................................ 19 Interpersonal Style and Skills ......................................................................................................................................19 Technical Skills ............................................................................................................................................................ 20Revised by Kelly Stone -2- 5/11/2011
  3. 3. Vita for Richard W. Malott ...............................................................................................................................................21Let the Good Times Roll! .................................................................................................................................................21Objectives for the Final Fiesta Paper .............................................................................................................................. 24 A Few of the Types of Essays You Might Write, Along with Some Hints as to How You Might Write Them ...............24 Some Vague Guidelines ..............................................................................................................................................25 Social Validity .............................................................................................................................................................. 27Final Fiesta Paper Cover Sheet ......................................................................................................................................29Checklist and Self-evaluation Form .................................................................................................................................30Instructors Evaluation of Oral Presentation ...................................................................................................................31Sample Student Papers ..................................................................................................................................................32Revised by Kelly Stone -3- 5/11/2011
  4. 4. Course Packet The Big Picture All materials are included in the Course Packet (from the Copy Desk): Letter-Sized File Pocket containing all In the Fall P610 will generally cover one chapter from of the following course materials ----red folders for Principles of Behavior each day (2/week). For P610, P360, green for P610 and yellow for P100 Honors: Summer Behavioral Boot Camp only, you’ll generally  How I Learned to Relate to My Lab Rat (Used in the cover one to two chapters from POB each day. We lab portion of the course) know this seems like a fast pace, but we also know you  Psy 6100 Course Booklet can handle it.  Assignments During the Fall course, each Tuesday and Thursday  Procedures you’ll meet with your seminar section. The Behavioral  Study Objectives for Review Quizzes Boot Camp meets Monday through Friday for a  Final Fiesta Details seminar. The seminar meets so you can discuss the text material, go over the answers to your homework  Final Fiesta Examples assignments, and take the quiz. That’s right, you’ll  File Folder #1 (there are 4 total) have a quiz in every seminar. Don’t worry. As long as  How to Analyze Behavioral Contingencies you’ve read the chapter, conscientiously completed the (Daily paper-based homework assignments) homework, and participated in the seminar discussion,  CD containing the computer-based Work you’ll do fine. Shows:  Chapter 01: How to Use the Contingency Well, that’s not quite true. You’ll also have to use the Diagramming Checklist flashcards. For P610 Boot Camp, the quizzes require you to write out the definitions to all of the terms, so  Chapter 03: The Sick Social Cycle without the flashcards, you’d have some trouble. With  Chapter 04: The Sick Social Cycle the flashcards, you’ll do great. For 610 in the Fall,  Chapter 13: Stimulus Generalization you’ll only be required to write-out the most important Gradient definitions (see pages 22-23), and you’ll have to match  Chapter 13: Stimulus Equivalence the rest of the terms to their definitions.  Chapter 17: Discrete-trial, free-operant and hybrid procedures In general, we’ll follow these simple guidelines, but there are enough exceptions that we’ve provided a  Checklist for Diagramming Contingencies (the complete daily schedule. Please refer to the Pink Sheet) Assignment Guide section before each seminar to be  File Folder # 2 sure you’re on top of the goings on in the class. We’ll  Flashcard Fluency Follies require you to be paying attention, but there won’t be  File Folder #3 very many surprises. We generally warn you in  6 Special lecture evaluation forms advance when something unusual is going to happen.  1 Course evaluation form  3 Petition for Use of OAPs forms Don’t forget to have fun!  How to Achieve Your Goals form  Letter of Recommendation request form  File Folder #4  Supplemental POB sections.  Ch 26 A&B, Ch 30  Ch 6 edits  1 red ball-point pen -- for correcting your homework in class (you cant use any other pen in class, but you should do your homework outside of class with a black pen).  1 transparency marking pen  Who Knows What ElseRevised by Kelly Stone -4- 5/11/2011
  5. 5. PSY 360/100H Rat Lab GSIs Procedures Jessica Korneder E-mail: j_korneder@yahoo.com Summer 2011 Kendra Combs (P100H) Email: kendra.combs@wmich.eduProfessor Work-Study StudentsDr. Richard W. Malott Are you an official WMU work-study student?Office: Wood Hall, 2026 Looking for interesting work related to behaviorOffice Hours: by appointment analysis? The Behavior Analysis Training System (BATS) needs you to help with the behind-the-Phones and Emails scenes work developing and improving PSY100 Honors, PSY360, PSY396, PSY460, PSY510, and PSY597. Please contact Dr. Malott’s doctoralDr. Malott apprentice immediately.E-mail:DickMalott@DickMalott.Com Your Buddy(This is the best way to reach him and get a reply.) What happens if you miss class and dont get someThe best time and way to contact Dr. Malott is in vital oral or written material that was handed outthe morning, by phone. If he’s not there, leave a in class? No problem, you just call your reliablemessage on his voice mail; but don’t depend on buddy whose name and phone number youvehim (never trust anyone over 30); keep calling listed here and get the info. With your buddy,until you get him; that’s the wisest policy. being so reliable as to have picked up an extra copy of the handouts for you, especially becausePhone: 269-372-1268 you had notified your buddy (and your GSI) of(Call any time, Monday through Friday, from 8:00 your pending absence, you won’t miss a thing. Soa.m. to 6:00 p.m. Please dont call after 6:00 p.m.) get a student’s name and phone number.For an appointment with Dr Malott, please contactKelli Perry at kelli.l.perry@wmich.edu. Name: ____________________________P360/100H/610/Boot Camp SystemsManager Phone: ___________________________Kelly Stone E-mail: kelly.t.stone@wmich.edu BATS Lab Phone: 269-387-4491 E-mail: ___________________________Graduate Student Instructors (GSIs)Office Hours for Fall/Spring (2536 Wood Hall): Tuesday and Thursday 2:00-4:00pmOffice Hours for Summer (2536 Wood Hall): Monday-Friday 2:30-6:30pm (before & after class)Revised by Kelly Stone -5- 5/11/2011
  6. 6. Seminar Schedule: Rat LabPSY 610: T/Th 4:00-4:45. *Rat lab is optional for PSY 610 students, but is required for BATS students who did not take a rat labBoot Camp: M-F 3:00-6:00. in undergrad. You lose no points if your rat isnt working, as Behavior Analysis long as you hang in there with him and give it Spoken Here. your best shot (that means you cannot declare your ? Punish. rat satiated, put him in his home cage, and then study for your upcoming quiz; you’ll always lose Extinguish. Shape. Reinforce. participation points when you study for a quiz or do anything other than rat lab work, during the rat lab hour). However, participation is worth 10 points per day and you will lose all ten points ifAfter the first class, you will be assigned to a you don’t show up. You will also lose 2.5 points ifseminar room. Well post the new seminar- you are late, are not prepared for class, or don’troom assignments on the wall outside your clean up your area when you are done with rat lab.original seminar room. On the other hand, you can get optional activity points if you do extra lab experiments.Psy 360 (Fall, 2007) comments: "The dailyseminar really kept me on track.” “It was a When youve finished an experiment, turn in yourchallenging course with good topics to discuss.” lab report for that experiment at the start of the“There was a lot of information learned.” next lab class. You will lose 2.5 points for each“Seminar was really fun and definitely helped me school day (M-F) late.understand the material.” • Rat lab points break down: o 2.5 points off for late arrival o 2.5 points off for a late lab reportPsy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: "Small class o 2.5 points off for not having the questionssize was best feature.” “Having to study so much I at the end of the experiment answeredactually learned!” “Going over material in seminar o 2.5 point off for not cleaning up the labhelped me understand the concepts and principles stationbetter.” “Smaller classes are a big plus.” “I liked Rat Lab Policy.the interactive seminars.” Quick note: You may find that you love Rudolph. (many students do). But PLEASE don’t get tooUsing the Overhead Projector attached. Be forewarned. Rudolph belongs to theDuring the seminar each day, you will be university, not to you. You will have to say good-presenting your original examples (from the bye to him at the end of the semester. It is strictlyhomework) to the class on the overhead projector. against university policy to allow any of the rats toUsually, everyone presents good examples, but go home with students.here are some tips to present your good examples The rat lab was:well. 30 Number of Students 25  Read from the projector and not the screen so 20 that you can face the class at all times and not the 15 wall. 10  At the same time, do your best to not block the 5 view of the screen. 0 very valuable 2 3 4 not valuable  Dont talk to the GSI, talk to the class. Hard to believe isnt it!Revised by Kelly Stone -6- 5/11/2011
  7. 7. packet with replacement sections and chapters.Text We ask that you read the replacement material rather than those sections in the textbook. If you’dMalott, R. W. Principles of Behavior (Edition6.0) like to make comments on the revisions, you can earn OAPs (see page 21), and your thoughtful contributions will help to develop a better Com pared to other texts for courses at this level, the value of the present text is... textbook for future students. And thank you, in advance. 30 25 General Point System Number of students 20 F all 2 0 0 7  20 points each seminar class, for conscientious 15 S pring  2 0 0 8 participation in seminar discussion. I will expect you 10 to recite in each class, especially in answering 5 conceptual questions, thoughtfully. This means you will need to show considerable evidence of having 0 1 2 3 4 5 thought about the homework assignment. This also means that you should not be studying flashcards or writing on transparencies in class! This also means that you will have your original examples putPsy 360 (Fall 2007) comments: “Easy to read.” on transparency before you get to class. Your TA“Great application to life.” “The voice it was will do the Frazier Transparency Test: If you werentwritten in was great.” “Examples were good.” “It able to show your transparency to the class, your TAwas educational and entertaining at the same will take a brief look at it for participation points.time!” “Loved the humor!” “Written in a way that The requirement of participation in dailyis easy to understand.” “It was in depth and pulled discussions was:everyday life into text to make it easier tounderstand.” “Stories help make things clearer.” “ 20 Number of Students 15Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: “Deep details.” Psy. 100“Lots of examples.” “Humorous examples.” “Easy 10 Psy. 665read.” “It was funny and not exactly your usual 5run of the mill textbook.” “The short storieshelped me better understand how the concepts and 0 1 (good) 2 3 4 5 (bad)principles are applied to everyday situations.” “I Data from 1990love the stores! It was put in terms I couldunderstand. It was easy to follow and I hardly evergot lost.” “Best Psych book I have ever read.” “It  10 points each rat lab for conscientiouslywas funny.” “I thought it was an interesting and working with your rat. You can earn a maximum ofentertaining book. I enjoyed reading the chapters.” 50 points for each of 6 lab experiments, no matter how many lab sessions you need to complete the experiment, but you must turn in a satisfactory labThe Assignment Guide report in the lab class after you complete each of the 6 experiments, in order to get full credit (otherwiseContinuous Quality Improvement minus 5 points for each day late). So if you workAs you can probably decipher, we are currently conscientiously on an experiment and turn in yourrevising the textbook for this course. We value report the day after youve finished that experiment,your opinion as to our effectiveness and success in you will get your full 50 points, whether it took you 3 days or 13 days to do that experiment.making the material covered as understandable aspossible. You will find a folder in your courseRevised by Kelly Stone -7- 5/11/2011
  8. 8. What does conscientious mean? The high frequency of the regular quizzes  In the seminar: You must listen carefully to the (one per chapter) w as presentations of the other students and be prepared to comment, so as to earn all 20 participation points. 20 Number of students So studying for a quiz, finishing your homework, 15 reading and writing letters, sleeping, and the like F all 2007 means, when you see your scores for that week, 10 S pring 2008 youll find less than 20 points for the seminar class. 5 On the other hand, feel free to improve your 0 homework, as we clarify tough concepts throughout 1 2 3 4 5 the seminar session.  In Rat Lab: Studying for your quiz rather than working with your rat would be a good way to lose the opportunity to get all your participation points. Psy 360 (Fall 2007) comments “It made you However, if you work conscientiously in the rat lab, responsible.” “The daily quizzes and homework you can earn full credit, even if your rat doesnt really kept me on track.” “You’re never allowed to finish all 7 experiments. So one more criterion for slack.” “Daily quizzes forced me to read the conscientious work is that you get the rat to make chapter!” “The amount of work requires you to clear, reliable lever presses (i.e., push that lever all study and understand what you’re learning. I feel the way down, not just effete brushes of the lever its fairly easy to get an A or BA.” with the whiskers).  As youll learn this semester, wed diagram Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: “Best feature of these contingencies like this: class was being accountable for daily quizzes.” Before Behavior After “Having to study so much I actually learned.” “The quiz set up was good.” “I like the way the Will lose Active Wont lose course is layed out.” “The daily quizzes andchance for 20 participation chance for 20 homework assignments really ties all of the participation in class. participation concepts together well.” “The frequency of points. points. quizzes and quizzes on material the same day as the discussion kept me working hard.” But now back to happier issues:  20 points for written answers to conceptual Grades for 610 Now you know how you can earn 1,000’s of points questions from How to Analyze Behavioral (learned reinforcers?) in this course. So the next Contingencies. question is, how do those points convert into a final  20 points for answers to the quiz on each grade (backup reinforcer?). The answer is, complex. chapter and each review quiz. (If there are 10 Here’s why its so complex: We have three goals for questions on a quiz, thats 2 points per question. If this course: we want you to there are 20 questions, that would be 1 point per question.)  learn as much as you can,  earn as good a grade as you can, and  have as much fun as you can. But to hit all three goals we need a complex set of contingencies. Look at the following grade scale, and youll see just how complex. Revised by Kelly Stone -8- 5/11/2011
  9. 9. you’ll have learned enough about behavior P610 Grade Lowest % of Points in ANY of the analysis that you can hold your head high. All you Matrix Remaining Areas have to do is get at least 92% on the quizzes and Min. % of 92 87 82 77 72 67 62 <62 92% in each of the remaining areas (the easy Quiz areas). Few students have trouble doing the hard Points work it takes to earn at least a BA. 96 A BA B CB C DC D E 92 BA B CB C DC D E In the past, very few students have goofed off so 87 B CB C DC D E much that they might get as low as 77% on the quizzes; but they could pull their grade up to a B 82 CB C DC D E or even a BA with the fat cushion from all the easy 77 C DC D E areas. With the complex grade contingencies 72 DC D E described in this table, that is no longer possible. 67 D E The highest a student can get with 77% on the <67 E quizzes is a C. Furthermore, such a student cant goof off even further and let the percentages fall below 92% in the easy areas; or the course gradeWhats going on here? Well, before you completely will fall even below a C. The goal of this mostflip out, let me reassure you that the majority of the recent set of contingencies is to encourage thestudents get an A, and most of the rest get a BA. 77% quizzer to stop goofing off, work just a littleAlmost everyone works hard, learns a lot, gets a good harder and join the ranks of at least the 87%grade, and has fun. We keep adjusting the gradingcontingencies to turn “almost everyone gets a good quizzers. But most of you will not be concernedgrade” into “everyone gets a good grade by learning a with the issues described in this paragraph;lot.” because most of you will fall in the shaded area in the preceding table. We hope all of you will beWonderful, but how do you get that magic A? To do there.that you have to crack the 92% mark in seminarparticipation and conceptual homework, and the 96% I know this seems like a strange way to evaluate amark in quizzes. students mastery and assign a letter grade. Why not just add up all the points and assign a letter grade based on the total number of points, noStrange Grading Philosophy matter which components of the class they comeIn the past, almost all students have worked hard from? Again, thats the way we used to do it. Butand gotten nearly 100% of their points for lab, then some students would get an A based on theirseminar participation, and homework. And with a work in everything but quizzes and they wouldntfat cushion, from those easy areas, some students have really learned the most important part of thetended to slide a bit in the quiz area--before we set course, the concepts tested on the quizzes.up this complex contingency, that is. But you needto be really sharp in all areas, if youre going to be My friend, Dr. Stephen Graf, puts it this way:a professional behavior analyst. That’s why you Suppose youre training surgeons. And to performneed to get at least 96% on the quizzes and a successful surgery, the student/surgeon must92% in each of the other areas to earn the A. scrub down, put on the gloves, make a proper incision, properly remove the correct organ, avoidNow you may say, I dont plan to be a professional flipping cigarette ashes into the open wound,behavior analyst, I dont need an A, and I dont remove all surgical tools from inside the patient,have the time it would take to master the concepts sew up the incision, etc. Now suppose thewell enough to get 96% on the quizzes. That’s student/surgeon did everything correctly exceptfine. You’re almost guaranteed to earn a BA, taking out the correct organ. So the student mightwhich is well above the campus average; and say, I did 19 out of the 20 steps correctly; thatsRevised by Kelly Stone -9- 5/11/2011
  10. 10. 95%. I want my A. The fact that I took out theheart instead of the hemorrhoids and the patient Optional Activity Pointsdied shouldnt overshadow my 95% average. *Note: OAPs are not available for BATS studentsWe take behavior analysis very seriously and dont What are Optional Activity Pointswant to graduate any student who doesnt know his (OAPs)?or her ass from his or her heart. So for us to certify You can use 80 points for optional alternateyou as an A student, youve got to hit at least 96% activities of academic value, usually scheduledin quizzes and 92% in participation and outside the regular classes. To encourage you tohomework. participate, you will receive points for participating in those activities and providing appropriate proof of accomplishment. Final Course Grades for Psy. 360 All these activities are optional, however; so if A you don’t participate, either because of schedule conflicts or lack of interest, that’s OK. You can still earn 100% of the required points and earn E D your A. The optional activities are just to give you CB a little extra flexibility, if you can work them into B BA your schedule and if you want to. Summer, 1993 What are OAPs good for? Those points can count toward your course grade, but you cannot use them to make up for missedFinal Paper points (for example, you cannot use optionalWe try to make this course as pleasant as possible activity points to eliminate your lowest quiz(as reinforcing and non aversive as possible). One scores; there is no way to eliminate your lowestway we try to do this is by providing alternatives quiz score); instead you can use these points toto the most aversive feature of most courses -- the exempt yourself from agreed upon assignments. Infinal exam. You will have already shown other words, you cannot use them to compensateconsiderable mastery and cumulative mastery of for a mediocre performance, but you can use themthe concepts and principles of behavior analysis for some flexibility.by exam week; so for a final exam, you will writea final paper, based on that mastery of the course Along the same line, you cant come to class,you will have previously shown. To get credit for scope out the quiz, and then decide to use yourthe paper, you will need to present it at the Final optional activity points (OAPs) for that quiz; theFiesta. (In a later section there are examples of OAPs are to help you with necessary absences,outstanding student papers, as well as guidelines etc., not to help you avoid the hard assignments.and suggestions.) Although, it would be OK for you to come to class on a day when you just didn’t have enough time to prepare for the quiz and then leave before the quiz is handed out. Keep in mind, though, you can only do this once. In this spirit, you can use OAPs for only one days worth of quizzes, even if you were absent for more than one day.Revised by Kelly Stone - 10 - 5/11/2011
  11. 11. Though you don’t have to, we recommend that  Special reading and conceptual homework foryou use your OAPs to replace a missed quiz those who cant participate in these activities,immediately; this way you ( and your TA) will because of schedule conflicts.have a more accurate picture of what a greatstudent you are; if your total quiz points are down The Finer OAP Detailsthe 20 points you havent replaced, your average You can use a total of 80 OAPs during the semester.quiz score will make you look like a bum, when The number of OAPs required for replacement isyou really arent -- not good. determined by the number of points that each quiz, homework, or participation is worth. A missed chapterNew OAP transfer policy - quiz is worth ~20 points, therefore requires 20 OAPs to be replaced. The same goes for class participation andSo what happens if, at the end of the semester, you homework. Rat participation requires 10 OAPs forhave some unused OAPs? You will be able to replacement. You can make up more than 1 quiz, iftransfer any unused OAPs from Dr. Malott’s Psy they occur on the same day. Note: Homework can be360 to Dr. Malott’s Psy 460. How? Your TA will turned in early for full points or late at a loss of 5give you a signed sheet with the number of OAP’s points per business day. You can use OAPs foryou had left at the end of this course. Simply activities on different days, with the exception ofpresent this sheet to your new Psy 460 TA next quizzes. You can only use OAPs for one day’ssemester, and you can use the OAPs in Psy 460. worth of each category. Although the days can be different for each eategory.(Of course there will be some additionalverification tasks completed by your new and oldTAs.) Lecture/Quiz Strategy/PhilosophyKeep in mind though, that these OAPs are onlyused in Dr. Malott’s classes. Don’t even try to get The Traditional Approachother professors to honor the OAP system. Whenever we use traditional, you can bet we mean, old-fashioned, out-of-date, and ineffective.How can you earn OAPs? So heres the traditional approach to education.Alternate activities will include: O.K. students, read Chapter 11 so you can understand my lecture on it. Then in the next class  Answer Advanced Study Objectives and I will give that lecture and clear up any Advanced Enrichment Section questions on the POB misunderstandings. The class after that well have web site. a quiz over Chapter 11. So what happens? Twenty  Extra rat labs percent of the students read Chapter 11. Eighty  Going to BAAM (Winter term only) percent dont. Full of naive expectations, the  Going to ABA (Spring term only) professor gives the lecture and becomes  Participating in research projects disillusioned with todays generation of students  Finding errors in any of the course materials who dont have the intellectual integrity to read the (normally one OAP per error, including typos; if you chapter in advance. The professor fails to find errors in homework material, flashcards or the understand it was always that way, even in the text book, bring them to your seminar leader at the good old days. Furthermore, the students arent end of the seminar that day, no later) able to get nearly as much out of the lecture and  Come up with really good, interesting discussion of Chapter 11 as they would have, had questions that weren’t answered in the course they read it in advance. And not understanding all materials. Give them to your TA for OAPs. If you the lecture, they also dont do as well on the seek out the answer on your own (by discussing it subsequent quiz, even though they do read with a graduate student or faculty member, or Chapter 11 between the lecture and the quiz additional reading), we’ll give you even more OAPs. (usually a few hours before the quiz, just like the professor prepares the lecture only a few hoursRevised by Kelly Stone - 11 - 5/11/2011
  12. 12. before the class -- were all cut from that same  Next we make a preliminary decision as toprocrastinating cloth). whether the poor performance resulted from an ambiguous quiz question. If, yes, we revise theThe Behavioral Approach question for next semester.Our Psy courses are just about the only courses on  Or we make the preliminary decision that the poor performance resulted from unclear textcampus where the students have read Chapter 11 material. If yes, we revise or supplement the text forbefore the lecture/discussion. How do we next semester. In addition, we attempt to clarify theaccomplish that miracle of performance problem in the next lecture / discussion section.management? We give the quiz in the same class  Then we recycle through this circle of problemas the lecture. The result? The students study analysis, systems redesign, implementation, andseriously for the quiz. They do well on the quiz. evaluation until weve gotten it as good as we can.And they are ready for a discussion of any of the This is a systems approach because we dontespecially complex issues in Chapter 11. blame the victim; instead, we blame the system and try to fix it so it will do a better job the nextThe Traditional Approach time. And in keeping with not blaming the victim;But what about those tough quiz questions the we try to ensure the student is not penalized by ourmajority of the students are bombing? The less than perfect system.traditional approach is the equivalent of victimblaming -- to say the victim of the problem is thecause of the problem is, for example, to say, if the General Study Strategiesstudents do poorly on a quiz question, its their Based on my own experience, and what studentsown fault. The traditional professors say this, even tell me, heres what I recommend:though the student/victims are paying those  Most students report spending at least a halfprofessors to teach them and even though the hour per chapter with the flash cards -- depending onstudents often are not getting their moneys worth. the number and complexity of definitions they need to memorize, it can range from just a few minutes toThe Behavioral Systems-Analysis as much as a couple hours. Again, I think it willApproach probably go faster, if you have a general understanding of the chapter before you start  First we make sure the students memorizing. (Of course, you could mix the two conscientiously read Chapter 11 and then review it. study modes, just for variety. Let me know what you We do this by having frequent quizzes over small do and how it works.) In any event, heres what amounts of material and by counting the quiz in a amazes me: heavy and straightforward way toward the final grade.  We first introduced the flashcards in the summer of 1992, and its the single most powerful thing weve  Then we carefully analyze the students done to help the students improve their study grades. performance on each quiz question, concentrating on Most of the students are now knocking the top off the the items many students miss. When were sure the definition part of the quizzes. That wasnt so BF -- students have given it their best shot, we toss out the before flashcards. offending question for that semester. We dont blame  Our data are less solid on this one, but it seems to us the victim. And we dont use our quizzes as IQ tests; the students are much better able to use the concepts if the students have paid their tuition money and and principles in applied and theoretical discussions gotten admitted into our program, and if they are and do much better on their homework now that we doing the work, then its our responsibility to make have the flashcards. sure we professors provide an adequate set of  Finally, what amazes me most is that the students instructional materials and performance- really appreciate the flashcards. Most dont mind the management contingencies to guarantee the success memorization and they can see it really gives them an of all our students. Thats what the students pay us edge. for. How to use the flashcards -Revised by Kelly Stone - 12 - 5/11/2011
  13. 13. After questioning many students, both beside the unclear areas and then make sure you ask undergraduate and graduate, we have come up with your questions. During the first part of each seminar, a flashcard studying strategy that will increase your we always ask if you have questions. (Incidentally, fluency in the least amount of time necessary to do getting answers to those questions is not as crucial to so. Here it is. doing well on any given quiz as it might at first 1. Begin studying your flashcards after you have read seem. But the answers help with the homework and through the chapter your total mastery of the course concepts.) But thats 2. Begin with the pile of flashcards all cut out. the easy part. 3. Go through the pile one time. Read the front and back of each card.  Before the quiz, answer all study objectives. 4. Set the pile on your left. Danger: To get an A in this course, you must be able 5. Pick up the first card. to answer ALL the questions at the end of the 6. Look at the term subsections within each chapter. 7. Try to say the definition without reading it on the back. And this is why many students end with a BA 8. If you say it perfectly, put the card on your right. If not, instead of an A. They dont memorize all the tables, put it in a new pile on the left. diagrams, contingency diagrams, experimental and 9. Then do the same with the next card and so on. intervention procedures, etc. that are indicated in 10. When you finish the first pile, pick up the second pile on those study questions. Part of the problem is that we the left and go through it the same way. dont always ask about items on the quizzes, because 11. Eventually all of the cards will be on your right. we dont have time or room. So you may get a little 12. When this happens, pick them up, shuffle them and go too casual in memorizing those answers. But through them again the same way. Don’t worry if some of the gradually you lose more and more points, until you cards end up on your left side again, just repeat the whole process until all the cards end up on the right two times lose your A. Please dont do that. Please make this through the pile. final small amount of additional effort to secure the A youve so clearly earned with the large amount of  Before the seminar & quiz, reread the chapter. initial effort youve invested in each assignment. But this time carefully, reread anything thats not Those quiz questions require no creativity. You clear until youve figured it out or your brain is fried. should be able to answer all of them, straight from If you get in too much trouble, call your buddy you the book. (We require heavy creativity in another will be assigned in the second or third class. As a part of the course, but not the quizzes. We think its student, I found I could breeze through the second usually unreasonable to ask students to be creative time, much faster than the first, though I was being and original under the pressure of quizzes and more careful the second time around. (Again, I think exams.) less than an hour.) But that was the easy part, now  Finally we end the study sequence with the following this next recommendation is how the A acid test, the goal of the course-- this is where you students separate themselves from the others: really learn  At the end of each section, within a chapter,  Before the quiz, review the flash cards. youll usually find a list of study questions; you can After reading the chapter twice and studying ignore them on your first time through. However, it intensely, you should have an excellent make sure you can answer them all during this grasp of the chapter. But you still need to put second reading, because there will be no questions a little polish on those flashcards. on the quiz that arent among the study questions. The flashcards w ere  Heres what I think is a main differences between outstanding students and other students: 40 Number of students 35 When you ask students if they have any questions on 30 the chapter or if theres anything they dont 25 F all 2007 understand, outstanding students have a whole 20 S pring 2008 shopping list of questions. The average student has 15 10 few, and the poor student has absolutely no 5 questions. Therefore one step toward becoming an 0 outstanding student is to critically monitor your 1 2 3 4 5 understanding so you can put big question marksRevised by Kelly Stone - 13 - 5/11/2011
  14. 14.  Before the seminar, do the homework. evaluate the effectiveness of the book and the Most of your homework is in the How to course. It will also give us ideas about materials to Analyze Behavioral Contingencies folder and add. In addition, this way your answers won’t fall a few are on the CD handed out in the first into the hands of future students, in spite of your seminar. Youll look at and generate a variety best security efforts. OK? of behavioral contingencies and related concepts. This is where all that rote work pays Cheating Means Sudden Death!! off in heavy-duty creativity. This is where If we catch you cheating or plagiarizing in this you may do more original thinking than course, you will receive an E for the course, no youve done in the rest of your college career. matter how small or trivial was the cheating or Students say they spend 1 to 2 hours on each plagiarizing. of these homework assignments. Again, be sure you put a big question mark beside any examples youre not sure of. Then you can ask Cheating about them in class. (Incidentally, we think This includes, but is not limited to, copying from its fine if you review your homework with your neighbor, your notes, or whatever, during a your classmates, as long as its after youve test or quiz. This also involves talking during a completed your homework. And we think its test or quiz. Cheating also means copying fine for you to correct your homework, when someone else’s homework and turning it in as a classmate points out an error and you your own. Please take note of the homework understand that error, even if your classmate variety of cheating. No, we don’t mind if you had to help you understand it. But it can be complete your homework and call a friend to see fatal, if you use the same examples or almost if your original example is right. But your friend’s the same examples as your classmate.) original example better not look like yours the next day in class. Keep in mind, that the TAs meet How m any hours out of class did you spend before every class - they talk about their student’s preparing for sem inar? homework and quizzes. So, just because your friend is in a different section, doesn’t mean that Number of students 16 14 12 cheating wouldn’t be discovered.) 10 F all 2007 8 6 S pring 2008 Additionally, if you are knowingly involved in 4 2 providing the occasion for someone else to do any 0 of these forms of cheating, then you too are 0 to 1 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 5  5 to 6  cheating and will also get the ax! Here’s another form of cheating that we don’t want to catch you doing: Dont try the sleazy red-pen cap on blackDropping the Course pen trick when youre supposed to be editing yourIf you have financial aid and dropping this or homework in class with a red pen. We’ll notice,other courses will put you below 12 credit hours and it’s cheating.during the fall or winter, then you should take timeto talk with a financial aid advisor in the Faunce Plagiarizingstudent center. Each student is evaluated on a This means turning in written work that includescase-by-case basis. material taken from someone else, without using quote marks or otherwise giving proper credit toReturn Your Homework the true author. In other words, your presentationTo retain full credit for your homework, please of someone else’s material in a way that theturn in all of them by the last class of the term. material might be mistaken as your own.This way we can look at it in more detail, as weRevised by Kelly Stone - 14 - 5/11/2011
  15. 15. the regular, scheduled assignments listed in theFurther Details About Academic Delightful Details Calendar.IntegrityYou are responsible for making yourself aware of Special Get-Tough Policy Onand understanding the policies and procedures in Absencesthe Undergraduate and Graduate Catalog that Most students have no problem with the precedingpertain to Academic Integrity. These policies absence policies. Instead, it helps them get theirinclude cheating, fabrication, falsification and act together, so they’ll do well in the class andforgery, multiple submission, plagiarism, earn an A. But there are always a half a handful ofcomplicity and computer misuse. If there is reason students who need even tighter contingencies thanto believe you have been involved in academic that, to get their act together. These are studentsdishonesty, you will be referred to the Office of whose behavior is not under the adequate controlStudent Conduct. You will be given the of rules describing small but cumulativelyopportunity to review the charge(s). If you believe significant outcomes (we’ll discuss this in class).you are not responsible, you will have the In essence, they say to themselves, “Just one moreopportunity for a hearing. You should consult with absence won’t matter. And theyre right, until theyme if you are uncertain about an issue of academic finally accumulate so many that they drift from anhonesty prior to the submission of an assignment A to a BA to a B and on and on. They need rulesor test. that specify contingencies where one more absence will matter. They will have less troubleMissed Classes following such rules and thus will get a muchIf you miss a class, you don’t get points for better grade in the course. So here’s our specialparticipation and you lose the opportunity to take get-tough policy:that quiz. It doesn’t work out for us to try todistinguish between excused and unexcused Every time you exceed three absences, you lowerabsences. So once the opportunity has passed, your final grade one half a letter grade!it’s gone. This means you should keep your pointaverage comfortably above the 96% level for Here’s the way it works. (In this example, wequizzes and the 92% level in all other categories; assume you would get an A, if you had noso you can blow off a class or two, if need be, absences. But, of course, if you had severalwithout losing your A (assuming that’s what absences, you probably would already have lostyou’re shooting for). If you do miss a class, you too many points to get an A; so our penalty of acan turn your homework in the next day, but you half a letter grade or so, would be beyond thelose 5 points each weekday you’re late. You’re lowering due to the point loss.responsible for having a reliable buddy who willtake notes and pass them on to you, so you can Absences Gradefind out the details of the next assignments. 0 to 3 A 4 to 6 BA 7 to 9 BSnow Days etc. etc.If the university is closed, we’ll stay on schedule.For the next class date when the University opens, This policy helps most students avoid the hopelessyou will have the missed quizzes and turn in the hassle of coming around at the end of thehomework during that next seminar. You’ll also semester, desperately, but vainly, pleading forkeep pace with the Delightful Details calendar of some way to raise their final grade. Now they’llassigments without postponing the scheduled have that A in the bag, when the end of theassignments. So for the seminar following a snow semester rolls around. But even with this policy, aday, you will have the snow-day assignments and small number of students managed to get less thanRevised by Kelly Stone - 15 - 5/11/2011
  16. 16. a BA. Always, this was because of absences or (By the way, if you’re doing other homework,failing to turn in homework. writing letters, etc. in class, you won’t get full participation points either.)Sometimes students have a time conflict, so thatthey want to come to class, take the quiz Late Homework(depending on when it’s given), turn in their You lose 5 points per business day (business dayshomework, and leave. That’s O.K.. They don’t are normally those days, Monday through Friday,receive many or possibly any participation points, when classes are scheduled and the universitybut this does not count as an absence that would offices are open). Ouch! You can slide yourcontribute to the penalty contingency. homework under the BATS office door (WoodOn the other hand, if you register late and can Hall 2536). Late means any time after theprove it, the missed classes wont count toward beginning of the class when it’s due. Don’t try toyour get-tough absences, but you must make up finish your homework during class; we’ll countthe missed quizzes and homework immediately that as cheating. If you know you’re going to haveand substitute some of your OAPs for the missed to miss class, you can turn in your homework inparticipation. advance.Absence does not always make the heart grow Clarification: You will see this reminderfonder. The absence policy is designed to give throughout this booklet: To retain full credit forstudents a little slack for when they get into your homework and lab reports, please turn in all of them at the final fiesta. That doesnt meantrouble, mainly when theyre ill. (Reminder: Thisget-tough policy has been successful in preventing youve got until the Final Fiesta to complete your homework and lab reports. If you waited untilmost students from accidentally drifting into a lowgrade because of the small, cumulative effects of then, youd probably not get any credit! What that means is that you need to turn in all your"just one more absence.") homework and lab reports, completed or not, atThis get-tough policy applies no matter how the Final Fiesta, to retain the credit youvemany OAPs you have. You cant buy your way received for work you have completed.out of an absence with OAPS, as far as the get-tough policy is concerned, although you could Letters of Recommendationget your attendance points with it. Many students ask me to write letters of recommendation to help them get into graduateLateness school or to get jobs. Im happy to do that. I base my letter on your record in my courses, with a big emphasis on your quiz scores and your rank inStudents class on those quiz scores. I also report on yourIf you are late for class or leave class early, you performance on end-of-the-semester evaluations,will lose points for participation. For every 15 homework, turning homework in on time,minutes you’re late, you lose 5 additional attendance, active participation in seminars, Final-participation points. Fiesta project and presentation, writing andMinutes late Maximum participation points speaking skills, social skills, and, if you were a1’ to 15’ 15/20 Psy 360 Honors Student, I mention that. When16’ to 30’ 10/20 possible, I consult your course teaching31’ to 45’ 5/20 apprentice, as well. Other things, too, of course.46’ or more 0/20 Incidentally, it never hurts for you to remind me of any special accomplishments youve achieved, when asking for a letter.Revised by Kelly Stone - 16 - 5/11/2011
  17. 17. My goal is to help all of you acquire the repertoire challenging, respectful, sympathetic way that Ithat will allow me to write a strong letter for you caved in immediately, rather than getting myand that will help you excel in graduate school or hackles up and drawing a line in the sand. Noton the job. only that, over the next few years, he rose through our hierarchy to be one of my undergrad teaching assistants ($), to be one of my MA students, to beMickey Mouse Rules one of my grad teaching assistants (more $), to beSorry for all the preceding nonsense. But we’ve a professional organizational behavior-found that if we get all these ugly little details management consultant (much more $), and to bestraight, up front, then you’ll have an almost manager of the world’s largest retail store (mucho,hassle-free term. mucho mas $), in Hawaii, of all paradisiacal places.Adding Insult To InjurySo that you’ll learn the most, get the best grade, Of course, that Sheldon started out as a 60-hour-and have the most fun, and the least hassles in this per-week undergrad didn’t hurt. (Yeah, I know,course, it’s important that you understand and slackers say, 60 hours a week! Ugh, a book head!remember these Mickey Mouse rules. This means Who wants to be a book head!? What the slackersyou should study them between now and the next don’t know is that it’s the 60-hour-per-week bookclass and be prepared for a brief written quiz over heads who win the game. And there are a lot morethem. of those students leading highly successful undergrad careers than the slackers can evenHow to be way cool imagine.)The Legend of Sheldon StoneOne of the coolest cats (woops, excuse me), the The Legend of the Cool Coedcoolest dudes I ever knew was Sheldon Stone. Third week of the semester. I’m briskly walking down Dunbar hallway. A young woman comes upYears ago, I used to be real important; I used to to me and asks, “Alright, if I walk with you toteach our 1000-student introductory psychology discuss something?” “Sure.” (Note how respectful:course. And Sheldon was an undergrad teaching She asks permission to walk/talk, and she’s not soapprentice; the only thing lower in our course presumptuous as to try to stop me from going tohierarchy was to be a tuition-paying student (the what ever very important-person meeting I’mones who pay our salary). Well, Sheldon was headed for [actually I was headed to the John].)unhappy about some teaching-apprentice policy Ihad; so he took a group of the undergrads with She says, “I find your Psy. 360 course really hard,him to the WMU ombudsman (an even more and I don’t think behaviorism is for me. Are allimportant person than I was, the person who the courses in this department behavioral? And aresettles squabbles between students and teachers). there other colleges where the psych. departments aren’t behavioral?”Now the ombudsman’s an option the wise studentsaves for only the most extreme emergency, Well, she’s broken my heart. Not only is shebecause no professor likes being called before the rejecting my course but also she’s rejectingombudsman; and the wise student knows better behaviorism, my treasure, my most cherishedthan to risk angering the professor; and there’s no world view, my faith. Like I really believe in myway the professor isn’t going to be very angry slogan, “Save the world with behavior analysis,”with such a public challenge to authority. even though I know it’s a bullshit fantasy.But here’s how cool Sheldon was. He stated his But here’s the point: In rejecting me and all I standcase to me and the ombudsman in such a non- for, she’s so cool, so non-emotional, so non-emotional, non-hysterical, non-threatening, non- hysterical, so non-threatening, so non-challenging,Revised by Kelly Stone - 17 - 5/11/2011
  18. 18. so polite, so respectful that I’m so impressed with bad sides of this compulsive neurosis is thather I want to share this incident with you, that I’m they’re constantly so up tight about point losses,so impressed with her that I hope she gets the faith that they have a hard time asking for a re-grade inby the end of the semester and joins us in our the manner of Sheldon Stone and the Cool Coed,struggle to save the world with behavior analysis, in a non-emotional, non-hysterical, non-because it’s only with the help of cool people like threatening, non-challenging, respectful,her that we’ll have a chance of even getting the sympathetic way, in a way that will make us wantworld to know we exist. to interact with them more often, rather than less often. In emotionally going for that single, lostOn the Other Hand quiz point, they lose 10 life points, even if they doA few years ago, we had a guy in Psy. 360 who get the quiz point.was into so much eye-rolling, heavy-sighing,snotty-out-of-the-corner-of-his-mouth-remarks by Bottom Lineway of displaying his displeasure with our course The point is not to be a yes-person, lie-down-and-that the TA pulled him aside for a private self- let-them-roll-over-me kiss ass. The point is todevelopment interview, where she explained that choose your battles carefully and then treat themhis behavior was very disruptive for the class and not as battles but rather as opportunities formade it hard for her to do a good job teaching. He pleasant social discourse. The point is to carefullysaid he understood and would try to do better, but prepare what you’re going to say and how you’rehe felt like the TAs were a bunch of rats with going to say it, and mull it over for a day beforeMalott leading them along by a string. engaging in the battle.Now the poor TA’s feelings were really hurt. And the point for those of us in authority (TA’s,She’d never been so insulted. But here’s the point: teachers, etc.) is to be so socially cool, on our side,She was sure the guy had no idea how aversive that we don’t get up tight and escalateand inappropriate his comment was. He had no confrontations, but rather we de-escalate them,idea that his social insensitivity and his inability to helping everyone to chill, and then getting back tostay away from those petty aggression reinforcers the aggressor a day or so after that person has hadwould so trash his life and career as to cost him at a chance to cool down, conducting a self-least $20K a year in salary, ‘cause no one wants to development interview, perhaps with furtherbe around someone who’s that aversive (inter- follow through, in an effort to salvage a soul whoobserver reliability: in earlier courses his fellow might otherwise lose many of life’s opportunitiesstudents found his remarks so aversive that they because of being socially clueless.were constantly asking him to shut up). Concerning "compulsive neuroses," I do observeIsn’t that sad, regardless of the guy’s technical that highly productive and successful people areskills, his social skills are so poor that he really is irrationally fearful that they are going to fail indoomed; no one will want him spreading karmic every endeavour they undertake, such as a coursepollution in their environment. they might be taking or an exam they might be taking. And to somewhat reduce their fear or anxiety, they work their tails off, for example,The One Pointer starting to prepare for the exam as soon as theMore common is the high-achieving student who instructor announces it. As a result they get the topis such a high achiever because she gets score in the class, though, ironically that does littlecompletely bent out of shape every time she loses to reduce their fear the next time a text isa point on a quiz. The good side of this announced. Whereas, the cool, "mentally healthy"compulsive neurosis is that the fear of losing a people, dont start studying until right before thesingle point in the game of life is what motivates exam, because they have a wonderfully positivehigh achievers to achieve so highly. One of the self-image; but as a result they wait a little too lateRevised by Kelly Stone - 18 - 5/11/2011

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