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  • 1. Media Studies Summer Task Laura Edwards
  • 2. Movie Trailer #1 Inception
  • 3. Movie Trailer #1: Inception
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66TuSJo4dZM
    • Director & Writer: Christopher Nolan
    • Starring: Leonardo DiCaprio, Jospeh Gordon-Levitt and Ellen Page
    • Music Composer: Zack Hemsey
    • Genre: Action, Adventure, Sci-Fi, Thriller
    • Motion Picture Ratings: PG-13
    • Ratings: 8.9/10
    • Tagline: “Your mind is the scene of the crime.”
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66TuSJo4dZM
    • Director & Writer: Christopher Nolan
    • Starring: Leonardo DiCaprio, Jospeh Gordon-Levitt and Ellen Page
    • Music Composer: Zack Hemsey
    • Genre: Action, Adventure, Sci-Fi, Thriller
    • Motion Picture Ratings: PG-13
    • Ratings: 8.9/10
    • Tagline: “Your mind is the scene of the crime.”
  • 4. Camera #1 #2 Establishing shot: An extreme long shot that sets up the location. Master shot: Sets up the relationship, i.e. causes an item to seem significant Over the shoulder Two shot Head and shoulder shot
  • 5. Camera #3 #4 Mid shot Long shot Extreme long shot Canted angle: camera deliberately tilted to give a feeling of disorientation. Point of view shot: where the camera is implied to be looking through the character’s eyes.
  • 6. Camera #5 #6 High angle: causes the character to seem weak. Low angle: causes the character to seem powerful.
  • 7. Camera Movement
    • Types of editing:
    • Pan/tilt
    • Tracking/dolly shot
    • Crane shot
    • Zoom lens
  • 8. Editing Shot/reverse shot: used to follow conversations Insert Visual effects
  • 9. Editing
    • Type of editing:
    • Cuts
    • Eyeline match
    • Cutaway
    • Cross-cutting
    • Fade in/out
    • Wipe
    • Short takes
    • Slow motion
  • 10. Sound
    • Types of sound:
    • Diegetic dialogue
    • Non-diegetic incidental music
    • Synchronous music track
    • Sound effects: i.e. enhanced sound of guns firing
    • Sound bridge: both music and dialogue carry over different cuts and short takes
  • 11. Mise-en-Scene Setting: City scenes dominate most of the scenes that are strung together in the trailer, implicating at the movie has a serious, business-like element to it. The city setting, causes the drama to seem either much more bigger than it really is, or bigger than the characters themselves Costume: Nearly all of the characters are depicted as wearing suits, which not only fits in with the setting, but also intensifies the seriousness that the trailer is trying to implicate. Suits implicate a confident and business-like atmosphere meaning that the audience is more likely to take the trailer seriously. Props: Props fit into the conventions of the typical action genre, i.e. there are guns, cars featured in chase scenes, electronic equipment, helicopters, etc…
  • 12. Genre Identification Action Low key lighting created emphasises shadows, setting up an ominous feeling. The character’s body language is very rigid, which also conveys a sense of intensity. The use of a gun and the fact that the characters are wearing suits, could also implicate that the movie is also a thriller. The iconography has a major influence in linking the trailer to the genre, for instance the audience can tell that the trailer is part of a thriller or action drama because of the use of guns, cars, electronics, and vehicles such as helicopters and planes. Sci-Fi In most scenes where there are clear elements of the sci-fi drama the scenes are dominated by high key lighting, and contain a lot of visual effects added during the pre-production stages in order to make the seems appear flashy and unusual. Manipulating the shots add effects that could not be obtained during the original filming. The bright lighting and vivid colours helps to create a surreal effect.
  • 13. Mood & Atmosphere The inserts of text are very dramatic, for instance, the audience can see that the movie was made by Christopher Nolan, the same director for “The Dark Knight”, so they expect the film to be action packed, if somewhat dark and ominous. Most of the action scenes are taken using low key lighting, which is used to emphasis shadows that in turn creates this dark and ominous atmosphere. Also because the body language shown in the clips, the audience can identify that the genre is action since it is intense and rigid. Props, such as guns and electronic equipment help to intensify the atmosphere. The most crucial part of creating mood and atmosphere throughout the trailer is the actual soundtrack itself. The music is very strong and powerful. The clips are synchronous with the music, making the trailer seem fast, and because the music consists of strong, plosive beats, this means that the scenes are very sudden and more dramatic than they actually are.
  • 14. Representation All the characters that appear within the different are depicted as wearing suits or smart clothing, which implicates that the trailer is representing people of a high social class. Because of the business-like atmosphere, the audience get the impression that the characters are professionals within their line of work, rather than amateurs. Also this shows that the audience are going to be thrown straight into the action as the characters will (supposedly) already know what they are doing. Also the trailer is dominated by male characters, which gives off a very powerful and masculine air about the trailer. This also causes the trailer to appeal more towards a male genre rather than a female one –this is also emphasised by the intense action scenes that associate the trailer with the action drama.
  • 15. Emotional Response Action genres are intended to get the adrenaline glands pumping in order to invoke excitement and grab the audiences’ attention by having them on the edges of their seats. Trailers tend to tease the audience with unanswered questions which prompt the audience to buy a ticket. Big time movie stars are also means to sell tickets alone, since audience naturally expect recognisable names to provide great performances. Incidentally this is what “Inception” does. It gains appeal by promoting its star actor and its director. The trailer even adds a tagline that points out that the director also made “The Dark Knight” movie, therefore they naturally expect “Inception” to be action packed and somewhat dark because of other movies, without having to work too much on the trailer. Also, trailers tend to string a montage of multiple shots strung together in order to create a unified meaning. In “Inception” the trailer strings together a lot of action shots that aim to intensify the atmosphere. Consequently, quick cuts strung together help to imply a fast and exciting film. Another thing that makes “Inception” exciting is the taglines that are inserted into the trailer. Some trailers rely on cliché phrases, which sometimes are done incorrectly as they imply desperation. However, “Inception” is original and unique, which teases the audience, prompting them to buy a ticket.
  • 16. Movie Trailer #2 Cowboys & Aliens
  • 17. Movie Trailer #2 Cowboys & Aliens
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zH7KZD5vGBY
    • Director: Jon Favreau
    • Writers: Roberto Orci & Alex Kurtzman
    • Starring: Daniel Craig, Harrison Ford and Olivia Wilde
    • Genres: Action, Sci-Fi, Thriller, Western
    • Motion Picture Rating: PG-13
  • 18. Camera #1 #2 Establishing shot Master shot Head and shoulder shot Mid shot Long shot
  • 19. Camera #3 #4 Low angle shot High angle/Crane shot Two shot Over the shoulder shot Extreme long shot
  • 20. Camera Movement
    • Types of movement:
    • Pan/tilt
    • Crane shot
    • Hand-held camera
    • Zoom/reverse zoom
    • Focus pull
  • 21. Editing Shot/reverse shot Insert Visual effects
  • 22. Editing
    • Types of editing:
    • Cuts
    • Shot/reverse shot
    • Eyeline match
    • Cutaway
    • Cross-cutting
    • Fade in/out
    • Long/Short takes
  • 23. Sound
    • Types of sound:
    • Diegetic dialogue
    • Non-diegetic incidental music
    • Synchronous music
    • Sound effects: i.e. enhanced sound of machines
    • Sound bridge: both music and dialogue carry over different cuts and short takes
  • 24. Mise-en-Scene Setting: Typical western setting, large open plain, dusty and desert like. Also set in a relatively small, old fashioned towns. Typical iconography for western movies are horses and large coaches or wagons. Wide open spaces normally imply that there will be action on a rather large scale, or sometimes the mass of land provided can make the action seem bigger and more exciting than it actually is. Costume: Typical western costume, large hats, shirts, boots and gun holsters, instantly recognisable with the old western genre without having the trailer tell the audience what type of genre it is. Incidentally the characters appear unkempt, however, we associate the scruffiness with an outlaw, so generally the audience expect the genre to be action packed instead of laid back. Props: The iconography associated with the props that are shown within the trailer greatly implicate the type of genre that the movie will be. For instance with western genres the movie generally addresses an old time period, so the audience expect to see horse drawn carriages, small towns made out of wooden buildings and shacks instead of tall industrial buildings. Therefore all the props that we see are old fashioned and crude in order to conform to the time period.
  • 25. Genre Identification: Western Vs Sci-Fi Sci-Fi: A lot of visual effects are used during scenes that imply the Sci-Fi genre, for example, there are evidence of a lot of post-production, such as mechanical effects added after during filming. Bright high key lighting and artificial lighting can help to imply the Sci-Fi genre as they create a surreal effect. Western: Western films are scene as action packed, therefore the low key lighting is used to imply intensity. The iconography is a major influence in showing the genre, for instance the costumes are that of what the audience would recognise as western outfits, such as the large hats, boots and gun holsters. Also the setting is used to imply what genre the trailer is. Since Westerns are normally based in wide open plains, or small rural towns the audience expect the film to be a western genre.
  • 26. Mood & Atmosphere Inserts of taglines can help to influence the mood and atmosphere, for instance, the movie is made by the same director who made the “Iron Man” movies, therefore the audience are expecting to see a movie that is intense, exciting and have some sci-fi elements to it. Most of the action scenes that appear in the trailer are shot during night, and some are lighted by artificial lighting, which helps to implement a dark and ominous, also the artificial lighting helps to create a surreal effect which ties in with the Sci-Fi genre. The artificial lighting can make the scenes seem horrific which adds intensity and implies that there are elements of a thriller in the movie. Action scenes with high explosives help to raise the excitement. There is no music present in the trailer that can help to influence the mood, however, the silence does help to create a certain intensity as the audience a given this hype in which they expect something sudden and exciting to happen. Therefore intensity is also accomplished through the lack of music.
  • 27. Representation Western movies are known to have a single male character playing the main role, normally set as an outcast or bandit running away from the law. Incidentally this is how this trailer starts out, therefore the audience know straight away what type of movie it is going to be before they’ve watched the whole trailer. Typically, this seems to be a male dominated film, with men playing out the lead characters, whilst the women are seen to support minor roles or either play the “ Damsel-in-Distress” role, where they rely on the male characters to rescue them. Therefore, from looking at the trailer the audience can see that the movie already conforms to dominant ideologies and negative stereotypes, such as women being stereotypically weaker than men, are used to represent the characters. Consequently, because these dominant ideologies are conformed, camera angles are also used to support these. For instance, high angle camera shots are used on the women so that they appear socially inferior and low angle camera shots are used on the men to show that they are superior, despite the situations that they are in.
  • 28. Emotional Response Since “Cowboys and Aliens” is seen as an action film, it is intended to make the audience feel excited. Incidentally, this helps to grab the audiences’ attention. Big time movie stars can help to create an emotional response, for instance, an audience is more likely to go see a movie that stars their favourite actor, because they know that the acting performance is going to be good. “Cowboys and Aliens” features stars such as Daniel Craig and Harrison Ford, which have starred in movies such as “Casino Royall” and “Indiana Jones” which have become top rated movies that everyone instantly recognises. Therefore, the assumption is that with these two actors starring in the same film together, naturally the movie is going to have a great response from the audience. Also because the trailer consists of fast and slow takes, it means that the trailer applies to a wider audience range as it implies different genres. For instance, the slow takes offer more of a back story or narrative to the trailer, whilst the fast cuts show action. Since the director of “Cowboys and Aliens” is the same director who made the “Iron Man” films, the audience will naturally expect the film to be a great movie. The trailer appeals to a wide variety of audiences as it goes beyond people’s expectations and strings together the most unlike combination of genres: western and sci-fi.
  • 29. Movie Trailer #3 Mr. Popper’s Penguins
  • 30. Movie Trailer #3: Mr. Popper’s Penguins
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ySnNvJplaP0
    • Director: Mark Waters
    • Writers: Sean Anders & John Morris
    • Starring: Jim Carrey, Carla Gugino and Angela Lansbury
    • Genres: Comedy, Family
  • 31. Camera Establishing/Aerial shot Insert/Tagline Head and shoulder shot Mid shot Long shot
  • 32. Camera High angle shot Low angle shot Over the shoulder shot Two shot Point of view shot
  • 33. Camera Movement
    • Types of camera movement:
    • Pan/tilt
    • Zoom/reverse zoom
  • 34. Editing Shot/reverse shot Eyeline match Visual effects
  • 35. Editing
    • Types of editing:
    • Cuts
    • Shot/reverse shot
    • Eyeline match
    • Cross-cutting
    • Fade in
    • Long/short takes
    • Visual effects
  • 36. Sound
    • Types of sound:
    • Diegetic dialogue
    • Non-diegetic incidental music
    • Synchronous music
    • Sound effects: i.e. enhanced sound of the penguins
    • Sound bridge: both music and dialogue carry over different cuts and short takes
  • 37. Mise-en-Scene Setting: The setting takes place in a large American city, perhaps New York. It appears to be an American city due to the large skyscrapers clustered together and the yellow taxi’s that the audience associate with America. Since the setting takes place in the city the audience would think that there would be a serious element to it, however, because the trailer is comedic, we associate the city with being realistic rather than serious. Also, because this is a family film, it appeals to children and adults by challenging ideologies associated with adult life being serious and business-like, by showing that there can be comedy as well. Costume: The trailer starts out showing the characters wearing business suits and smart clothing, however, the more the trailer progresses the more casual the clothing becomes. The may represent how the movie takes on a more comedic atmosphere the more it goes on, showing that the characters revert from a serious state into a comedic one. This also shows how the characters loosen out and become more relatable to the audience as the film goes on. Props: In the trailer there is not much evidence of props, however, the few that are evident give the audience an idea of where the film is set. The iconography show gives us an idea that the film is set in a large American city, from the evidence of suits, briefcases, taxis, offices, etc…
  • 38. Genre Identification Trailers are used to provide insight to the types of films that they are showing, therefore just by analysing the type of reaction generated by the audience we can tell what type of film it is going to be. “Mr. Popper’s Penguins” leaves the audience smiling therefore we know that it is going to be a comedy. It is set in a large city, which helps the audience to relate to the characters as they are placed in a realistic location. For instance, if the film was based in a fantasy location, the situation wouldn’t be very realistic and the audience couldn’t relate to the film at all, therefore it wouldn’t appeal to them, meaning that they wouldn’t want to go and see it. Also because it is set in a big city it contradicts the seriousness that the city connotes, meaning that all ready the audience are given a sense of comedy as a business man is thrown into an unlike, not to mention an amusing situation. Nearly all of the scenes are filmed using bright or ambient lighting, which gives off a warm feeling that can help to spread a welcoming atmosphere for the audience. However, when the narrative starts to become serious, the audience are given shots that are shown in dark light. This shows the atmosphere created through lighting and how quickly it can change.
  • 39. Mood & Atmosphere Actors can help to deliver a sense of what the film will be like. Jim Carrey is renown for comedic roles in movies, and also he is recognised as an accomplished actor, so people will naturally expect any movie that he is in to be a comedy. People will be thrown off if they see an actor who stars in comedy films suddenly appearing in an action film. The audience instantly feel connected to the film because they know straight away that Jim Carrey will play a comedic role and he will perform to their expectations. Most of the shots shown in the trailer are brightened with high key and ambient lighting, which spread a warm and friendly atmosphere. Also the music helps to create a warm atmosphere, as the incidental music is synchronous with the montage helping it to flow. The incidental music silly atmosphere that leaves the audience smiling. Also to add even more of a comedic effect, there are pauses within the incidental music that allows the actors to deliver the punch lines to their jokes, and allows the audience a pause for laughter. Incidentally this is another familiar trait of a comedy film, as these pauses are always evident to create a comedic effect.
  • 40. Representation Jim Carrey appears to be playing his normal character of being a divorced father trying to advance his social standing in a large industrial city. This is evidenced by the fact that during the initial stages of the trailer, the audience are given aerial shots of the city, establishing where they are, and Jim Carrey is seen to be wearing business suits, which implies that he could be working for a major industry. Since the trailer sets up the scenes in this fashion it creates a rather realistic and relatable character that the audience can warm to. Consequently, to see this type of character thrown into an awkward or highly unlikely situation, the audience can’t help but follow this character through the story. Because Jim Carrey is acting as a serious business man trying to gain an advance in his social standing, when he is thrown into an amusing, if not awkward situation, the audience can’t help but feel amused. Also, because, he represents the upper class (as he is shown to be wearing smart suits) the trailer challenges dominant ideologies as it shows an upper class member of society being brought down to a lower level and having to work to get himself out of the situation. Also it shows that seriousness is not the only emotion that is tied to an industrial setting as the main characters are thrown into a comedic situation.
  • 41. Emotional Response “ Mr. Popper’s Penguins” appears to be a comedy film that is family friendly, as it seems to be one of those movies that leaves the audience smiling. The narrative is quite short, leaving no room for explanation, which in turn works to the trailer’s advantage as the audience are given a bizarre situation that leaves them with a thousand unanswered questions. Incidentally, this is what trailers aim to achieve: to leave their audience with unanswered questions that will hopefully lead them to by a ticket. Also, throughout the narrative the audience are given small pauses in which the actors deliver their punch lines and gives them a moment to laugh. This is a familiar trait of comedy films and helps to identify the genre. The lighting used for most of the scenes is bright, which adds to make the humour warm. Incidentally, a lot can be achieved through lighting, as comedies are given bright lighting to imply warmth, whilst action films are given a darker lighting which implies intensity. There are a lot of long takes in the trailer rather than short, which makes the trailer flow more smoothly. Short takes are more familiar to action films as it makes the montage look fast and snappy, therefore short takes would look out of place in a trailer for a comedy film. Longer takes help to give the audience a taste for the jokes that will be included in the movie.