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The modern middle east
 

The modern middle east

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  • Arab-Israeli Conflict is a result of Muslim Arabs resenting the creation of the Jewish State of Israel. This country was formed with land previously held by Britain but populated by Arabs in a territory formerly know as Palestine. Jews believe that Israel is their proper homeland and the only way they can be safe from oppression. Muslim Arabs view Israel as land taken from Arabs. Israel has received support from the US and become a dominant military power in the region. The chain of events that took place following WWII will lead to the religious conflicts between Israelis and Arabs in the region that can be seen to this day.
  • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/mideast/history/images/map02.gifNarrative: In the Middle East because of the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the French administered the territories of Syria and Lebanon, while Britain controlled Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq. The people that lived in these places did not agree with the mandate system. They wanted to rule themselves, and nationalist movements began to spread in these areas. Eventually, France and Britain did not want to fight a prolonged war with the groups who were calling for independence. So, Britain gave Iraq some independence in 1922 and Transjordan independence in 1923. France finally gave independence to Syria and Lebanon in 1936. Palestine was one area not granted its independence. This area contained the ancient holy city of Jerusalem, which was a site for conflict between Muslim Arabs and Jews who immigrated to the area from Europe. The Jews had hoped to establish or re-establish a homeland in Palestine. The movement to do this was referred to as Zionism. Britain eventually tried to ease tensions by limiting the Jewish immigration into Palestine. However, the conflict over the Palestinian area between Muslims and Jews will continue, and we will focus again on Palestine after World War II. The division of the Ottoman empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflict in the Middle East from 1946 to present day.
  • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/mideast/history/images/map03.gifIn the 1890s a Zionist movement became which was the migration of Jews back to Palestine. As we know Palestine became a British mandate after WWI. The British made promise to the Arab Palestinians their independence in return for helping fight against the Ottoman Empire during WWI. They also promised a homeland for the Jews and made it clear in the Balfour Declaration in 1917, which Great Britain vowed that they would help establisha “national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine. However, they had to respect the civil and religious rights of non-Jewish Palestinians.During Hitler and Stalin’s timeJewish migration into Palestine rose to escape persecution in Europe. As a result of the Jewish migration to Palestine clashes between Jews and Arabs increased. Even After WWII, and because of the atrocities committed by the Nazis during the Holocaust most Western countries to support the creation of a Jewish Homeland. Finally in the 1947 Britain handed the Palestine over to the United Nations. The United Nations partitioned Palestine into an Arab and Jewish state and kept Jerusalem under UN control. The Jewish leaders accepted the plan while the Arab leader did not. Within 24 hours of the creation of the state of Israel the countries of Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraqi armies attacked Israel but were eventually defeated. In 1948 the United Nations setup refugee camps in neighboring countries to house the large numbers of the refugee Palestinian leaving their former homeland.
  • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/mideast/history/images/map05.gifAfter the United Nation partition of Palestine the Palestinian Arabs consider the UN plan as illegitimate and rejected the territory offered to them by the plan. Conflicts between Arabs and Israelis continued and they will fight three more wars in 1956, 1967, and 1973. All three of these wars will result in an Arab defeat and Israel gaining more and more land from Egypt, Syria, and Jordon. In 1967, a conflict erupted as a response to aggressive actions the Israelis Arab neighbors. The Israeli armed forces took control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan. The took over the Sunni Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, and the territory of the Golan Heights from Syria in just six days of fighting. In 1973, a joint attack by Egypt, Syria , and Jordan was launched on October 6th , the on Yom Kippur. However, the Israeli military were caught by surprise they were able to defeat the Arab nations.
  • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/mideast/history/images/map06.gif
  • Prime Minister of Israel, 1969 – 1974, Golda was one of the of the earliest women to serve as prime minister.She was also known for her role in the Yom Kippur War. Golda Meir was born in Kiev Russia in and 1898 and moved to the United States with her family in 1903. Her family settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin were she became a teacher and an active Zionist. In 1921, Golda moved she and her husband moved to Palestine. Golda helped to create the Jewish state of Israel by being one of the negotiator between Palestine Jews and the British mandate government. Once Israel was created in 1948 Golda Meir held many important positions in the Israeli government such as Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Minister of Labor 1949-1956 and Foreign Minister 1956-1966. She became Prime Minister of Israel in 1969. In 1973, the Yom Kippur War broke with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria. It was specifically planned on this holiday since most of the country would be praying and fasting, as is traditional on Yom Kippur, the Jewish day of Atonement. Golda and her government were criticized because they had not anticipated the Arab attack. Approximately 18,000 solders were killed from both sides with little territory lost to the Arab nations. She moved to Palestine with her husband, Morris Myerson.
  • Nasser was appalled by what he considered to be the interference in the internal affairs of one country by a colonial European power, Great Britain.On July 23rd 1952, Nasser helped to organize a revolt against the Egyptian Royal Family and King Farouk was overthrown after a few days of bloodless rebellion.On November 17th 1954 Nasser became the new leader of Egypt. Nasser had a very clear vision for modernizing Egypt. He wanted to address poverty in Egypt, ignorance in Egypt, neglect of Egypt’s infrastructure. He was able to nationalized the Suez Canal which he took over from the British and French control. He built the Aswan High Dam to help regulate the Nile River annual flooding. He built 2000 new factories and made changes in other areas of Egypt’s domestic policies. Nasser will also instill a national identity or pride in Egypt called Pan-Arabism. His policy of Pan-Arabism will influence other Arab leader to rise-up against their colonial powers. Nasser will start two wars against Israel that will not be successful because Israel will receive financial and military aide from the United States. To combat the Israel’s U.S. support, Nasser will turn to the Soviet Union for aide. The foreign policy of Nasser will have Cold War implications where you have the U.S backing the Israelis and the Soviets backing Egypt.
  • Today the after decades of conflict and bitterness between and Israelis and Arabs has made the peace process very difficult to achieve. Currently the Middle East is going through another period of transition where dictators and royal families being pressured to set-down and allow the people of the Arab country to rule themselves.

The modern middle east The modern middle east Presentation Transcript

  • The Modern Middle East•Mandate System After WWII•The Establishment of the Jewish State of Israel•Arab and Israeli Conflict
  • Mandate SystemThe Mandate System afterWWI• The Ottoman Empire brokeapart and its former territoryin the Middle East was givento the British and French.• Mandates were governed bywestern powers until theterritory could set up theirown governments.• Britain Controlled– Transjordan or today the countryof Jordan– Palestine or today the country ofIsrael– Iraq• France Controlled– Syria– Lebanon
  • After World War IIThe Mandate System afterWWII• The Middle East Mandateswere granted theirindependence after WorldWar II• The creation of a JewishState of Israel out ofPalestine.• The new Jewish State ofIsrael caused a number ofMiddle East conflicts thatwere created by religiousdifferences.
  • The Creation of Israelas a Jewish State• Zionist Movements 1890 - 1948• After World War II, Palestine was stillcontrolled by Great Britain.• In 1947, the United Nations partitionPalestine.• In 1948, the British withdrew fromPalestine and the Jews proclaimed thearea the independent state of Israel.• Arab countries surrounding Israellaunched the first of several attacks onIsrael but were defeated with Westernhelp.• In 1948 the conflict resulted in thelarge numbers of Palestinian refugees• Arab and Israeli both felt veryembittered by each other and conflictswill continue for years to come.
  • Arab and IsraeliConflict• In 1967 - the Six-DayWar.• Israel gains territory asa result of the conflictwhich will lead tofuture issues– The West Bank andEast Jerusalem –Jordan– Sinai Peninsula and theGaza Strip – Egypt– Golan Heights – Syria
  • • In 1973, the YomKippur War• Egypt, Syria, andJordan attack Israelon one of theholiest days in theJewish calendar• Even though Israelis surprised by theattack and sufferedearly setbacks, theywere able to winArab and IsraeliConflict
  • Israeli Leader• Golda Meir - Israel– Prime Minister of Israelfrom 1969 – 1974.– Led Israel to victory in theYom Kippur War– Sought support of theUnited States
  • Arab LeaderGamal Abdul Nasser –Egypt• President of Egypt• Nationalized the Suez Canal –took over from British andFrench control• Established a relationshipwith the Soviet Union forfinancial aid and militarysupplies• Built the Aswan High Dam toregulate annual Nile flooding• Nationalist Policy of Pan-Arabism
  • Is there peace between theArabs and Israelis today?
  • Let’s Review• After WWI the Ottoman Empire was broken up into______________ that were administrated by the Frenchand British.• What two countries were administrated by the French afterWWI?• This conflict broke out in 1973 where Arab nations of Egypt,Syria, and Jordan jointly attacked Israel on one of Jewishreligions holiest days.• Who was the Prime Minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974?• Who was the leader of Egypt responsible for theNationalization of the Suez Canal and Built the Aswan HighDam?