The Modern Middle East•Mandate System After WWII•The Establishment of the Jewish State of Israel•Arab and Israeli Conflict
Mandate SystemThe Mandate System afterWWI• The Ottoman Empire brokeapart and its former territoryin the Middle East was givento the British and French.• Mandates were governed bywestern powers until theterritory could set up theirown governments.• Britain Controlled– Transjordan or today the countryof Jordan– Palestine or today the country ofIsrael– Iraq• France Controlled– Syria– Lebanon
After World War IIThe Mandate System afterWWII• The Middle East Mandateswere granted theirindependence after WorldWar II• The creation of a JewishState of Israel out ofPalestine.• The new Jewish State ofIsrael caused a number ofMiddle East conflicts thatwere created by religiousdifferences.
The Creation of Israelas a Jewish State• Zionist Movements 1890 - 1948• After World War II, Palestine was stillcontrolled by Great Britain.• In 1947, the United Nations partitionPalestine.• In 1948, the British withdrew fromPalestine and the Jews proclaimed thearea the independent state of Israel.• Arab countries surrounding Israellaunched the first of several attacks onIsrael but were defeated with Westernhelp.• In 1948 the conflict resulted in thelarge numbers of Palestinian refugees• Arab and Israeli both felt veryembittered by each other and conflictswill continue for years to come.
Arab and IsraeliConflict• In 1967 - the Six-DayWar.• Israel gains territory asa result of the conflictwhich will lead tofuture issues– The West Bank andEast Jerusalem –Jordan– Sinai Peninsula and theGaza Strip – Egypt– Golan Heights – Syria
• In 1973, the YomKippur War• Egypt, Syria, andJordan attack Israelon one of theholiest days in theJewish calendar• Even though Israelis surprised by theattack and sufferedearly setbacks, theywere able to winArab and IsraeliConflict
Israeli Leader• Golda Meir - Israel– Prime Minister of Israelfrom 1969 – 1974.– Led Israel to victory in theYom Kippur War– Sought support of theUnited States
Arab LeaderGamal Abdul Nasser –Egypt• President of Egypt• Nationalized the Suez Canal –took over from British andFrench control• Established a relationshipwith the Soviet Union forfinancial aid and militarysupplies• Built the Aswan High Dam toregulate annual Nile flooding• Nationalist Policy of Pan-Arabism
Is there peace between theArabs and Israelis today?
Let’s Review• After WWI the Ottoman Empire was broken up into______________ that were administrated by the Frenchand British.• What two countries were administrated by the French afterWWI?• This conflict broke out in 1973 where Arab nations of Egypt,Syria, and Jordan jointly attacked Israel on one of Jewishreligions holiest days.• Who was the Prime Minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974?• Who was the leader of Egypt responsible for theNationalization of the Suez Canal and Built the Aswan HighDam?