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Sol knowledge maps
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  1. The student will describe how early European exploration andcolonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans,Africans, and American Indians (First Americans).VUS.2religious freedomeconomicopportunitydirect democracyMayflower CompactTownmeetingsNEW ENGLAND COLONIESPuritansEnglish,Dutch, andGermanreligious freedomeconomicopportunityMIDDLE COLONIESJAMESTOWNESTABLISHED IN1607 as a businessventureHOUSE OFBURGESSES1st electedassembly inthe NewWorldeconomicopportuniteisENGLISHNOBILITYPOOR ENGLISHFARMES &ARTISANSINDENTURED SERVANTSVIRGINIA &SOUTHERNIn time, colonization led toideas of representativegovernment and religioustoleration that over severalcenturies would inspire similartransformations in other partsof the world.European colonizationresulted in a redistribution ofpopulation as millions ofpeople from Europe and Africavoluntarily and involuntarilymoved to the New World.Exploration and colonizationinitiated worldwidecommercial expansion asagricultural products wereexchanged between theAmericas and Europe.
  2. The student will describe how early European exploration andcolonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans,Africans, and American Indians (First Americans).ENGLISH COLONIES INAMERICAThe Indians (First Americans)lost their traditional territoriesand fell victim to diseasescarried from EuropeSPANISH COLONIES INCARIBBEAN, CENTRALAMERICA, AND SOUTHAMERICAThe Indians (First Americans)lost their traditional territoriesand fell victim to diseasescarried from EuropeEXPLORATIONS &SETTLEMENT CAUSEDCONFLICT & VIOLENTSAn agricultural economybased on large landholdingsin the Southern coloniesand in the Caribbean led tothe introduction of slaveryin the New World.The first Africans werebrought against their willto Jamestown in 1619 towork on tobaccoplantations.SLAVERYVUS.2French exploration of Canada did not lead to large-scale immigration from France, and relations with nativepeoples were often more cooperative.
  3. The student will describe how the values and institutions of Europeaneconomic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped Europeanand African life in the Americas.ALLCOLONIESNew EnglandMiddle ColoniesSoutherncoloniesVUS.3Economy based on shipbuilding,fishing, lumbering, small-scalesubsistence farming, and eventually,manufacturing. The coloniesprospered, reflecting the Puritans’strong belief in the values of hard workand thrift.Virginia and the other Southern colonies developed economies in the eastern coastal lowlandsbased on large plantations that grew “cash crops” such as tobacco, rice, and indigo for exportto Europe. Farther inland, however, in the mountains and valleys of theAppalachian foothills,the economy was based on small-scale subsistence farming, hunting, and trading.Developed economiesbased on shipbuilding,small-scale farming,and trading. Citiessuch as New York,Philadelphia, andBaltimore began togrow as seaports andcommercial centers.Economic institutions in thecolonies developed in waysthat were either typicallyEuropean or were distinctivelyAmerican, as climate, soilconditions, and other naturalresources shaped regionaleconomic development.A strong belief in private owner-ship of property andfree enterprise characterized colonial life.New York, New Jersey,Pennsylvania, Maryland,and Delaware
  4. The student will describe how the values and institutions of Europeaneconomic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped Europeanand African life in the Americas.Southern coloniesVUS.3ALL COLONIESSOCIAL CHARACTERISTICSNew England - PuritansSociety was based onreligious standing. Intolerant of dissenters whochallenged the Puritans’belief.Rhode Island was founded bydissenters fleeing persecutionby Puritans in Massachusetts.Social structure based on familystatus and the ownership of land.Large landowners in the easternlowlands dominated colonialgovernment and societyMaintained an allegiance to theChurch of England and closer socialties to England than in the othercolonies.In the mountains and valleys society wascharacterized by small subsistence farmers, huntersand traders of Scotch-Irish and English descent.SouthernMore flexible socialstructures.Quakers in Pennsylvaniaand Catholics in MarylandMiddleMiddle class of skilledartisans, entrepreneurs(business owners), andsmall farmers.Multiple religious groups who generallybelieved in religious tolerance.The “Great Awakening” was areligious movement of the mid-1700s. 1) Rapid growth ofevangelical religions such as theMethodists and Baptists 2)Challenged the establishedreligious and governmentalorder. 3) Laid one of the socialfoundations for the AmericanRevolution.
  5. The student will describe how the values and institutions of Europeaneconomic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped Europeanand African life in the Americas.The development of a slavery-based agriculturaleconomy in the Southern colonies would lead toeventual conflict between the North and South and theAmerican Civil War.Southern coloniesVUS.3INDENTUREDSERVITUDESLAVERY Labor needs eventually filled by the forcibleimportation of Africans.The growth of a plantation-based agricultural economy in the hot, humid coastal lowlands of theSouthern colonies required cheap labor on a large scale.Some of the labor needs were met by indentured servants whoagreed to work on plantations for a period of time in return fortheir passage from Europe or relief from debts.Some Africans worked as indentured servants, earned theirfreedom, and lived as free citizens during the Colonial Era,Over time larger and larger numbers ofenslaved Africans were forcibly brought tothe Southern colonies (the “MiddlePassage”)
  6. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by(a) analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sensehelped shape the Declaration of Independence.New political ideas about therelationship between peopleand their government helpedto justify the Declaration ofIndependence.VUS.4aThe period known as the “Enlightenment” in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries saw the development of new ideas about the rights ofpeople and their relationship to their rulers.The ideas of John LockeJohn Locke was an Enlightenment philosopher whose ideas, more than anyother’s, influenced the American belief in self-government.Power resides in the peopleThe people consent to enter into a“social contract” among themselvesto form a government to protecttheir rights.In return, the people promise toobey the laws and rules establishedby their government, establishing asystem of “ordered liberty.”All people are free, equal, and have “natural rights”.If government becomes a threat to the people’s natural rights, itbreaks the social contract and the people have the right to alter oroverthrow it.Locke’s ideas about the sovereignty and rights of the people were radical and challenged thecenturies-old practice of dictatorial rule“Natural rights” cannot be taken away by rulers.“Natural rights” are life, liberty and property.Government’s powers are limited to those the people haveconsented to give to it.1-3social contract
  7. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by(a) analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sensehelped shape the Declaration of Independence.VUS.4a2-3Thomas Paine was anEnglish immigrant toAmerica who produced apamphlet known as CommonSense.Common Sensethat challenged the rule ofthe American colonies bythe King of England.The revolutionarygeneration formulatedthe political philosophyand laid the institutionalfoundations for thesystem of governmentunder which we live.Common Sense was read andacclaimed by many Americancolonists during the mid-1700sand contributed to a growingsentiment for independence fromEngland.
  8. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by(a) analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sensehelped shape the Declaration of Independence.The American Revolution wasinspired by ideas concerningnatural rights and politicalauthority, and its successfulcompletion affected people andgovernments throughout theworld for many generations.The eventual draft of theDeclaration of Independence,authored by Thomas Jefferson ofVirginia, reflected the ideas ofLocke and Paine::“That to secure these rights,governments are instituted among men,deriving their just powers from theconsent of the governed…”“That whenever any form ofgovernment becomesdestructive of these ends, it isthe right of the people to alteror abolish it, and to institutenew government…”VUS.4aJefferson then went on to detailmany of the grievances against theking that Paine had earlierdescribed in Common Sense.“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are createdequal, that they are endowed bytheir Creator with certainunalienable rights, that amongthese are life, liberty, and thepursuit of happiness.”3-3The Declaration of Independence
  9. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events andissues of the Revolutionary Period byb) describing the political differences among the colonistsconcerning separation from BritainANGLO-FRENCH RIVALRYSTAMPACT andother new taxes on thecolonist.VUS.4bColonist should pay cost of theWar and for British ProtectionPROCLAMATION OF 1763prohibited settlement west of theAppalachian Mts.FRENCH AND INDIANWARresulted in the FRENCHLOST of CANDA & landwest of the APPALACHIANMTS.BRITISH REACTION1-3The ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policiesprovoked debate and resistance by the colonies
  10. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events andissues of the Revolutionary Period byb) describing the political differences among the colonistsconcerning separation from BritainVUS.4bBOSTON TEAPARTY was stagedFIRST CONTINENTALCONGRESS was first the time all13 colonies had acted together.War began,LEXINGTON andCONCORDTHE BEGINNING OF THE AMERICANREVOLUTIONThe ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policiesprovoked debate and resistance by the colonies2-3BOSTONMASSACRE tookplace when British troopsfired on anti-Britishdemonstrators.
  11. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events andissues of the Revolutionary Period byb) describing the political differences among the colonistsconcerning separation from BritainVUS.4bThe ideas of the Enlightenment and the perceived unfairness of British policiesprovoked debate and resistance by the colonies3-3Differences among the ColonistsThe colonists were divided into three main camps during theRevolution:Patriots Loyalists (Tories) NeutralsComplete independence fromEngland Inspired by Locke ,Paine and Patrick HenryProvided the troops for theAmerican Army, led by GeorgeWashingtonColonists who triedto stay asuninvolved in thewar as possibleLoyal to Britain,a. cultural tiesb. economic tiesBritish taxation of thecolonies was justified.“Give me liberty, or give me death!”
  12. The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of theRevolutionary Period byc) analyzing reasons for colonial victory in the Revolutionary War.The American rebels won their independence because the British government grew tiredof the struggle soon after the French agreed to help the Americans.VUS.4cFactors leading to colonial victoryBenjaminFranklinnegotiated aTreaty of Alliancewith FranceDiplomatic MilitaryGeneral GeorgeWashingtonHis leadershipa. avoideddestruction of hisarmyb. kept his armytogetherAmericans benefitedfrom the presenceof the French armyand navy at theBattle ofYorktown whichended the war withan American victory
  13. VUS.5aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation andratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles oflimited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by(a) explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation.During the Constitutional Era, the Americans made twoattempts to establish a workable government based onrepublican principles.Fearful of apowerfulcentralgovernment,Americanpoliticalleadersadopted theArticles ofConfederationin 1781.No executive branchNo judicial branchNo common currencyWeak nationalgovernmentCongress could not tax orregulate interstatecommerce.Each state had one voteArticles of Confederation
  14. VUS.5bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation andratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles oflimited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byb) identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the rolesof James Madison and George Washington.The Constitution of the United States of America established agovernment that shared power between the national government and stategovernments, protected the rights of states, and provided a system fororderly change through amendments to the Constitution itself.KEY ISSUES& their resolutionLAW: Federal law the supreme lawREPRESENTATIONSenate each state had 2 senatorHouse of Representative based on populationTHREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISECounted slaves as 3/5 for the purpose ofrepresentation in the HousePOWERS OF THE BRANCHESmany checks and balances on the 3 co-equalbranchesPOWERS OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENTlimited to those identified in the ConstitutionLEGISLATIVEBRANCHEXECUTIVE BRANCHJUDICIAL BRANCH1-2
  15. VUS.5bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation andratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles oflimited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byb) identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the rolesof James Madison and George Washington.The Constitution of the United States of America established a government that shared power between the nationalgovernment and state governments, protected the rights of states, and provided a system for orderly change throughamendments to the Constitution itself.George Washington,chairman ofthe Convention James Madison, Father ofthe Constitution.Virginian who often led the debate,took detailed notes at the convention,authored the Virginia Plan (3 branches),authored much of the Bill of Rights.lent his enormousprestige to theproceedings.2-2
  16. VUS.5cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation andratification of the Constitution of the United States of America and how the principles oflimited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it byc)describing the conflict over ratification, including the Bill of Rights and the argumentsof the Federalists and Anti-Federalists.They argued that politicalfactions would check each otherkeeping any one faction fromgaining too much powerFEDERALISTpro-ratificationANTI-FEDERALISTopposed to ratificationWanted a strong centralgovernment for thefollowing reasons toregulate interstatecommerce and to manageforeign relations.They argued that the checks andbalances in the Constitution blockedany one branch from acquiringgreater power.They opposed a national Billof Rights because moststates already had them.Believed a strong national government wouldtend to usurp the powers of the stategovernments.They believed that a national Bill of Rights wasnecessary and, during the ratifying conventions inseveral states, forced the Federalists to pledgethat a Bill of Rights would be the first order ofbusiness of the new government established bythe Constitution.Ratification of the Constitution did not end debate on governmental power or how tocreate “a more perfect union.”Economic, regional, social, ideological, religious, and political tensions spawnedcontinuing debates over the meaning of the Constitution for generations—a debate thatcontinues today.The Constitution and the Bill of Rights gave Americans a blueprint for successful self-government that has become a modelfor the rest of the world.
  17. VUS.5dThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the Constitution ofthe United States of America and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the socialcontract are embodied in it byd) examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedomin the framing of the Bill of Rights.The major principles of the Bill ofRights & of the Constitution werebased on earlier Virginia statues.Thomas Jefferson.Outlawed the establishedchurch that is, the practice ofgovernment support for onefavored churchJames Madisonconsulted the VirginiaDeclaration of Rights & theVirginia Statue for ReligiousFreedom when drafting theamendments that becamethe United States Bill ofRightsGeorge Mason.Reiterated the notion thatbasic human rights shouldnot be violated bygovernmentsVirginia Declarationof RightsVirginia Statute forReligious FreedomBill of Rights
  18. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians(First Americans).The new American republic prior to the Civil War experienceddramatic territorial expansion, immigration, economic growth,and industrialization.American, stirred by their hunger for land and the ideology ofManifest Destiny, flocked to new frontiers.Economicand strategicinterest,supported bypopularbeliefs, led toterritorialexpansion tothe PacificOcean.Conflicts between American settlersand Indian (First Americans) nationsin the Southwest and the oldNorthwest resulted in the relocation ofmany Indians to reservations.VUS.6a1-9
  19. VUS.6aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians(First Americans).Political developments in the Early National PeriodThe Federalists, ledby John Adams andAlexander Hamilton,believed in a strongnationalgovernment andindustrial economyand were supportedby bankers andbusiness interestsin the Northeast.The DemocraticRepublicans, led byThomas Jefferson,believed in a weaknational governmentand an agriculturaleconomy. They weresupported byfarmers, artisans,and frontier settlersin the South.2-9The election of 1800, won byThomas Jefferson, was the firstAmerican presidential election inwhich power was peacefullytransferred from one party toanother.After George Washington’spresidency ended in the late1790s, the first political partiesemerged
  20. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).VUS.6aKey decisions by the SupremeCourt under Chief JusticeMarshall, of Virginia,established the power of thefederal courts to declare lawsunconstitutional ( judicialreview Marbury v. Madison) andprohibited the states fromtaxing agencies of the federalgovernment (the power to tax isthe power to destroy McCullochv. Maryland).Judicial ReviewMarbury v.MadisonMcCulloch v.MarylandChief Justice John Marshall3-9
  21. VUS.6aExpansion resulting from the LouisianaPurchase and War of 1812The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).Jefferson as President in 1803 purchased the hugeLouisiana Territory from France, which doubled the size ofthe United States overnight. He authorized the Lewis andClark expedition to explore the new territories that lay westof the Mississippi River. Sacajawea, an Indian (FirstAmerican) woman, served as their guide and translator.4-9
  22. VUS.6aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).The Monroe Doctrine (1823)The Doctrine stated:The American continents should not beconsidered for future colonization byany European powersNations in the WesternHemisphere wereinherently different fromthose of Europe,republics by naturerather than monarchies.The United Stateswould regard as athreat to its own peaceand safety any attemptby European powers toimpose their system onany independent statein the WesternHemispahereThe United Stateswould not interfere inEuropean affairs.6-9
  23. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).VUS.6aThe westward movement and economic developmentThe growth ofthe railroadsand canalshelped thegrowth of anindustrialeconomy andsupported thewestwardmovement ofsettlers.Eli Whitneysinvention ofthe cotton ginled to thespread ofslavery-basedcottonkingdom inthe DeepSouth.American settlers poured westward into the Midwest,Southwest, and Texas, seeking economic opportunityin the form of land to own and farm.7-9
  24. VUS.6aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).The American victory in the MexicanWar during the 1840s led to theacquisition of an enormous territorythat included the present-day states ofCalifornia, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, andparts of Colorado and New Mexico.REMEMBERTHE ALAMO8-9The American migration intoTexas led to an armed revoltagainst Mexican rule and afamous battle at the Alamo, inwhich a band of Texan fought tothe last man against a vastlysuperior force. The texanseventual victory over Mexicanforces subsequently broughtTexas into the Union.
  25. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century bya) identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on theAmerican Indians (First Americans).Several tribes were forced to relocated from AtlanticCoast states to Oklahoma (the Trail of Tears)Manifest Destiny American Indians were forcibly removedfrom their ancestral homelandsThe forcibleremovalcontinuedthroughout the19th century aspost civil warsettlers movedwest9-9
  26. VUS.6bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byb) describing the key features of the Jacksonian Era, with emphasis on federal banking policies.Andrew JacksonNew democratic spiritIncreased participationin electionsUniversal manhoodsuffrageLower propertyrequirements for votingTERMSAristocracy:A government in whichpower is given to thosebelieved to be qualified.Aristocrat:A member of anaristocracy.Presidential veto:Power granted to thePresident to preventpassage of legislation.Spoils System:A practice of using publicoffices to benefitmembers of the victoriousparty.Expansion ofdemocracyPresidential nominatingconventionsSpoils system rewardedpolitical supporters withgovernment jobsElected 1828 & 18321-2
  27. VUS.6bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byb) describing the key features of the Jacksonian Era, with emphasis on federal banking policies.Andrew JacksonElected 1828 & 1832Panic of 1837:The economic situation that resulted from reckless speculation that led to bank failuresand dissatisfaction with the use of state banks as depositories for public funds.Bank of the United StatesJackson made thePresidential veto part ofthe legislative processViewed the bankas anundemocratic toolof Eastern elite.Vetoed therechartering ofthe bank in1832Henry Clay andthe NationalRepublicanssupported thebankCentral issue ofthe Presidentialelection of 1832Jackson withdrewgovernmentmoney anddeposited it instate banksJackson won theelectionHis actioncaused a majoreconomicdepression2-2
  28. The nation struggled to resolve sectional issues,producing a series of crises and compromises.Agricultural economy consisting ofslavery-based plantation system.The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.Northern statesIndustrial economybased onmanufacturing.Favored highprotective tariffs.Southern statesSubsistence farmers inthe Appalachian foothillsand valleys.Opposed highprotective tariffs.0 18200 18400 1860Each dotrepresents 2,000slavesVUS.6c 1-6
  29. VUS.6cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.Crises tookplace overtheadmission ofNEW STATESinto theUnion duringthe decadesbefore theCivil War.The issue wasalwayswhether thenumber ofFREE STATESAND SLAVESTATES wouldbe balanced,thusaffectingpower in theCongress.AS THE UNITED STATES EXPANDED WESTWARD, THE CONFLICT OVER SLAVERYGREW MORE BITTER AND THREATENED TO TEAR THE COUNTRY APART.2-6
  30. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.The growing division over slavery and states rightsVUS.6cSlave revolts inVirginia, led byNat Turner andGabriel Prosser,led to harshlaws in theSouth againstfugitive slaves.antislavery newspaperWilliam Lloyd GarrisonInflamed Northern abolitionist sentimentAbolitionist movement3-6
  31. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.The growing division over slavery and states rightsVUS.6cWestward ExpansionMissouri CompromiseCompromise of 1850Kansas-Nebraska Actof 1854Would new statesallow slavery orprohibit it?4-6
  32. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.The growing division over slavery and states rightsVUS.6cStates rights:the individualstates couldnullify lawspassed byCongressStates hadentered theunion freelyand couldleave freelyPopular sovereignty,the people of thestate made thechoice to allowslavery or notSouthern ViewSpread of slaveryAbrahamLincoln & theRepublicanParty opposedthe expansion ofslavery into thenew statesStephenDouglas,NorthernDemocratfavoredLincoln, DouglasDebates (1858)Dred Scott Case,Supreme Courtoverturned efforts to limitthe spread of slaveryEnforcement ofthe FugitiveSlave ActOutraged NorthernersA house dividedagainst itself cannotstand. AbrahamLincoln
  33. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century byc) describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionistand women’s suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.The women s suffrage movementVUS.6c Voting Rights for womenElizabeth Cady Stantoninvolved in the womenssuffrage movementbefore the Civil War, butcontinued with themovement after the warSusan B. Anthonyinvolved in the womenssuffrage movementbefore the Civil War, butcontinued with themovement after the war6-6
  34. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point inAmerican history by a) identifying the major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War Era, with emphasis onAbraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.VUS.7a1860electionofLincolnSouthern secessionstarts with SouthCarolinaConfederates fire upon FortSumterThe Civil War put constitutional government toits most important test as the debate over thepower of the federal government versus states’rights reached a climax. The survival of theUnited States as one nation was at risk, and thenations ability to bring to reality the ideals ofliberty, equality, and justice depended on theoutcome of the war.Survival of the United States as onenation was in. doubtNorthern victorysaved the UnionEmancipationof slaves1-3The secession of southern states triggered a long & costly war that concluded withNorthern victory, a restoration of the Union, & emancipation of the slaves.CIVIL WAR
  35. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point inAmerican history by a) identifying the major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War Era, with emphasis onAbraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.VUS.7aNorthern victory at Gettysburg:Turning Point of the Civil WarAfter the Battle of Antietam Lincolnissued the Emancipation ProclamationAppomattox: site of Leessurrender to Grant2-3The secession of southern states triggered a long & costly war that concluded withNorthern victory, a restoration of the Union, & emancipation of the slaves.
  36. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point inAmerican history by a) identifying the major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War Era, with emphasis onAbraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.VUS.7aUlysses S. Grant:Union militarycommander, whowho victories overthe South afterseveral Unioncommander hadfailedRobert E. Lee: Confederategeneral of the Army of NorthernVirginia (Lee opposed secession,but did not believe the Unionshould be held together byforce), who urged Southerners toaccept defeat and unite asAmericans again, when someSoutherners wanted to fight onafter AppomattoxAbraham Lincoln:President of theUnited States duringthe Civil War, whoinsisted that theUnion be heldtogether, by force ifnecessaryFrederick Douglass:Former slave whobecame prominent blackabolitionist and whourged Lincoln to recruitformer slaves to fight inthe Union army3-3The secession of southern states triggered a long & costly war that concluded withNorthern victory, a restoration of the Union, & emancipation of the slaves.
  37. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a majorturning point in American history by b) analyzing the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principlesoutlined in Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.VUS.7bMade the destruction ofslavery a Northern war aim.Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address said the the United States was one nation, not afederation of independent states. That was what the Civil War was about forLincoln: to preserve the Union as a nation of the people, by the people, andfor the people.Lincoln believed the Civil War was fought to fulfill the promise of the Declarationof Independence and was a “Second American Revolution.” He described adifferent vision for the United States from the one that had prevailed from thebeginning of the Republic to the Civil War.Lincoln described theCivil War as a struggle topreserve a nation thatwas dedicated to theproposition that “all menare created equal” andthat was ruled by agovernment “of thepeople, by the people, andfor the people.”Lincoln believed Americawas “one nation,” not acollection of sovereignstates. Southernersbelieved that states hadfreely joined the unionand could freely leave.Gettysburg Address Emancipation ProclamationFreed those slaves located in“rebelling” states (secededSouthern states).Discouraged any interferenceof foreign governments.
  38. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in Americanhistory by c) examining the political, economic, and social impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th,and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America.VUS.7cLincoln’s view that the United Stateswas one nation indivisible hadprevailed.Lincoln believed that since secessionwas illegal, Confederategovernments in the Southern stateswere illegitimate and the states hadnever really left the Union. Hebelieved that Reconstruction was amatter of quickly restoringlegitimate state governments thatwere loyal to the Union in theSouthern states.Lincoln also believed that once the warwas over, to reunify the nation thefederal government should not punishthe South but act “with malice towardsnone, with charity for all… to bind upthe nation’s wounds….”The Reconstruction period ended following the extremely close presidential election of 1876. In return for support in the electoralcollege vote from Southern Democrats, the Republicans agreed to end the military occupation of the South. Known as theCompromise of 1877, this enabled former Confederates who controlled the Democratic Party to regain power. It opened the doorto the “Jim Crow Era” and began a long period in which African Americans in the South were denied the full rights of Americancitizenship.Political effectsReconstructionThe war andReconstructionresulted inSouthernresentment towardthe North andSouthern AfricanAmericans andultimately led tothe political,economic, andsocial control of theSouth by whites13th Amendment:abolished slavery.14th Amendment:citizenship & dueprocess.15th Amendment: race,color, or previouscondition of servitudecould not be used torestict voting rights.The assassination of Lincoln justa few days after Lee’ssurrender at Appomattoxenabled Radical Republicansto influence the process ofReconstruction in a mannermuch more punitive towardsthe former Confederate states.The states that seceded werenot allowed back into theUnion immediately, but wereput under militaryoccupation.Radical Republicans alsobelieved in aggressivelyguaranteeing voting and othercivil rights to African Americans.They clashed repeatedly withLincoln’s successor as President,Andrew Johnson, over the issueof civil rights for freed slaves,eventually impeaching him, butfailing to remove him fromoffice.1-2
  39. The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in Americanhistory by c) examining the political, economic, and social impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th,and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America.VUS.7cThe Southern states were left embittered anddevastated by the war.Farms, railroads, and factories had beendestroyed throughout the South, and thecities of Richmond and Atlanta lay in ruins.The South would remain a backward,agriculture-based economy and the poorestsection of the nation for many decadesafterward.Economic and social impactReconstructionThe economic andpolitical gains offormer slaves weretemporary. The North and Midwest emerged withstrong and growing industrial economies,laying the foundation for the sweepingindustrialization of the nation (other than theSouth) in the next half-century and theemergence of the United States as a globaleconomic power by the beginning of the 20thcentury.The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad soon after the war ended intensified the westwardmovement of settlers into the states between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.2-2
  40. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstructionthrough the early twentieth century by a) explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westwardmovement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, and the admission of new states to the Union.VUS.8aIn the latenineteenthand earlytwentiethcenturies,economicopportunity,industrialization,technologicalchange, andimmigrationfueledAmericangrowth andexpansion.Following the CivilWar, the westwardmovement of settlersintensified into thevast region betweenandBy the turn of the century,the Great Plains and RockyMountain region of theAmerican West was no longera mostly unsettled frontier,but was fast becoming aregion of farms, ranches, andtowns.Pacific OceanThe Homestead Act of1862 gave free public landin the western territories tosettlers who would live onand farm the land.Long cattle drives over unfenced open rangeThe years immediately before and after the Civil War were theera of the American cowboySoutherners and AfricanAmericans, in particular,moved west to seek newopportunities after the CivilWarNew technologies (for example,railroads and the mechanicalreaper), opened new lands in theWest for settlement and madefarming more prosperous.Mississippi RiverClosing ofthe frontierBy the early 20th century, all the states that make up the continentalUnited States, from Atlantic to Pacific, had been admitted.1-3
  41. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstructionthrough the early twentieth century by a) explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westwardmovement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, and the admission of new states to the Union.VUS.8aIn the latenineteenthand earlytwentiethcenturies,economicopportunity,industrialization,technologicalchange, andimmigrationfueledAmericangrowth andexpansion.During this period, immigrants from Europe entered America through Ellis Island in New York harbor. Their first viewof America was often the Statue of Liberty, standing nearby, as their ships arrived following the voyage across theAtlantic.Immigrants contributions to theindustrial growth of America.Chinese workers helped to build theTranscontinental Railroad.Immigrants worked in textile and steelmills in the Northeast, the clothingindustry in New York City, and Slavs,Italians, and Poles worked in the coalmines of the East.They often worked for very low payand in dangerous working conditionsto help build the nation’s industrialstrength.Priorto1871Immigrants flock to AmericaMost immigrants toAmerica came fromnorthern and westernEurope (Germany,Great Britain,Ireland, Norway, andSweden).1871until1921Most immigrants camefrom southern andeastern Europe (Italy,Greece, Poland, Russia,and present-dayHungary andYugoslavia), as well asAsia (China and Japan).Came to America seekingfreedom and better livesfor their families2-3
  42. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstructionthrough the early twentieth century by a) explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westwardmovement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, and the admission of new states to the Union.VUS.8aIn the latenineteenthand earlytwentiethcenturies,economicopportunity,industrialization,technologicalchange, andimmigrationfueledAmericangrowth andexpansion.Mounting resentment led Congress to limit immigration, through the Chinese ExclusionAct of 1882 and Immigration Restriction Act of 1921. These laws effectively cut offmost immigration to America for the next several decades; however, the immigrants of this periodand their descendants continued to contribute immeasurably to American society.ProblemsHousing shortagesWorkers’ lived in harshconditions crowded intotenements and slums.The need for new publicservices, such as sewage andwater systems and publictransportation.New York City beganconstruction of the world’sfirst subway system aroundthe turn of the 20th century,and many cities built trolleyor streetcar lines.Immigrants flock to AmericaWhile often settling inethnic neighborhoods inthe growing cities, theyand their childrenworked hard to learnEnglish, adoptAmerican customs, andbecome Americancitizens.Immigrants beganthe process ofassimilation intowhat was termedthe American“melting pot.”The public schoolsserved an essentialrole in the process ofassimilatingimmigrants intoAmerican society.Fear andresentment thatimmigrants wouldtake jobs for lowerpay than Americanworkers.There was prejudicebased on religious andcultural differences.Immigrants often facedhardship and hostility.CongressGrowth of CitiesChicagoDetroitClevelandPittsburghNew YorkManufacturing& transportationcenters3-3
  43. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the earlytwentieth century byb) describing the transformation of the American economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern industrialeconomy and identifying major inventions that improved life in the United StatesVUS.8bDuring the period from the Civil War to World War I, the United States underwent an economic transformation thatinvolved a developing industrial economy, the expansion of big business, the growth of large-scale agriculture, and the riseof national labor unions and industrial conflict.Inventions/InnovationsCorporation (limited liability)Bessemer steel processLight bulb (Thomas Edison)and electricity as a source ofpower and lightTelephone (AlexanderGraham Bell)Airplane (Wright Brothers)Assembly line manufacturing(Henry Ford)Technological change spurred growth of industry primarily in northern cities.Industrial leadersReasons for economic transformationGovernment policies of laissez-faire capitalismand special considerations (e.g., land grantsto railroad builders).The increasing labor supply (from immigrationand migration from farms).America’s possession of a wealth of naturalresources and navigable rivers.John D. Rockefeller (oil)Andrew Carnegie (steel)J.P. Morgan (finance)Cornelius Vanderbilt (railroads)
  44. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through theearly twentieth century by c) analyzing prejudice and discrimination during this time period, with emphasis on “Jim Crow”and the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois.VUS.8cDiscrimination and segregation against African Americans intensified and took newforms in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.African Americans disagreed about how to respond to the developments.Discrimination and segregation against African Americans.Jim Crowlaws forcedseparation ofthe races inpublic placesin SouthernStates.Intimidationand crimesdirectedagainstAfricanAmericans(lynching).In Plessy v.Ferguson, theSupremeCourt upheldJim CrowLaws(separate butequal).GreatMigrationDuring the 19th & early 20th century,African Americans left the South insearch of jobs and to escape povertyand discrimination.NorthernCitiesIda B. Wells led an anti-lynching crusade andcalled on the federalgovernment to takeaction.Booker T. WashingtonWashington believed the wayto equality was throughvocational education andeconomic success; heaccepted social separation.Du Bois believed that education wasmeaningless without equality. He supportedpolitical equality for African American byhelping to form the National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People (NAACP).W.E.B. Du Bois
  45. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through theearly twentieth century byd) identifying the impact of the Progressive Movement, including child labor and antitrust laws, the use of labor unions,and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.VUS.8dReconstruction through the early twentieth century was a time of contradictions for many Americans.Agricultural expansionIndustrial developmentSocial problemswas accomplished through wars againstthe Plains Indians (First Americans),leading to new federal Indian policies.raised the standard of living formillions of Americans,but also brought about the riseof national labor unionsand clashes between industryand labor.in rural and urban settings gaverise to third-party movementsandthe beginning of theProgressive Movement.1-4
  46. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through theearly twentieth century byd) identifying the impact of the Progressive Movement, including child labor and antitrust laws, the use of labor unions,and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.VUS.8dThe Progressive Movement used government to reform problems created byindustrializationTheodore Roosevelt’s“Square Deal”Woodrow Wilson’s“New Freedom”).Working conditionsDangerousChild laborCompany townsEmployment of WomenLong hoursLow wagesNo job securityNo benefitsGovernment controlled by peopleGuaranteed economic opportunitiesthrough government regulationElimination of social injusticeProgressive MovementGoals2-4
  47. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through theearly twentieth century byd) identifying the impact of the Progressive Movement, including child labor and antitrust laws, the use of labor unions,and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.VUS.8dIn local governmentcommission and council managerwere new forms to meet increasingurbanizationIn state governmentReferendumInitiativeRecallIn ElectionsPrimary elections17th Amendment - direct election ofU.S. SenatorsSecret ballot3-4Womens suffrage19th Amendment to the ConstitutionEncouraged women to enter thelabor force during World War IStrong leaders ( Susan B. Anthony)Was a forerunner of modern protestmovementIn child laborMuckraking literature describingabuses of child laborChild labor lawsProgressiveaccomplishments
  48. The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through theearly twentieth century byd) identifying the impact of the Progressive Movement, including child labor and antitrust laws, the use of labor unions,and the success of the women’s suffrage movement.VUS.8dOrganizationsKnights of LaborAmerican Federation ofLaborInternational LadiesGarmentWorkers UnionAmerican Railway UnionStrikesHaymarketSquareHomesteadStrikePullmanStrikeImpact of labor unionsSamuel GompersAmerican Federation of LaborEugene V. DebsAmerican Railway UnionAntitrust lawsSherman Anti-Trust ActPrevents any businessstructure that restrains trade(monopolies)Clayton Anti-Trust Act ExpandsSherman Anti-Trust Act;outlaws price-fixing; exemptsunions from Sherman ActLimited work hoursRegulated work conditions4-4
  49. VUS.9aProposed bySecretary of StateJohn HayWould give allnations equal tradingrights in ChinaOpen Door PolicyThe growing role of theUnited States ininternational tradedisplayed the American urgeto build, innovate, andexplore new markets.20th century AmericanForeign policy issues havetheir origins in Americasemergence as a worldpower at the end of the 19thcentury.Americas intervention inWorld War I ensured herrole as a world power for theremainder of the century.President Taft urgedAmerican investmentin Latin AmericaUnited States wouldstep in if unrestthreatened theirinvestmentDollar diplomacyGrowth occurredfrom the late 1880sto World War IThis was the first eraof true globaleconomyInternational tradeCreation ofinternationalmarketsThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 bya) explaining the changing policies of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growinginfluence of the United States in foreign markets.1-2
  50. VUS.9bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 bya) explaining the changing policies of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growinginfluence of the United States in foreign markets.The growing role of theUnited States ininternational tradedisplayed the American urgeto build, innovate, andexplore new markets.Americas intervention inWorld War I ensured herrole as a world power for theremainder of the century.20th century AmericanForeign policy issues havetheir origins in Americasemergence as a worldpower at the end of the 19thcentury.2-2LATIN AMERICASpanish AmericanWarPanama Canal /role of T.RooseveltUnited Statesasserted theright to intervenein Cuban affairs.Treaty wasnegotiated tobuild the Canal.Puerto Ricoannexed by theUnited States.U. S. encouragedPanamasindependencefrom Colombia.OPEN DOOR POLICYurged foreigners to obeyChinese laws & observefair competition.Philippines annexedafter the SpanishAmerican War.Annexation of Hawaiiby the U.S. afterHawaiis monarchywas deposed.ASIA & THE PACIFIC
  51. VUS.9bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 byb) evaluating United States involvement in World War I, including Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the Treaty ofVersailles, and the national debate over treaty ratification and the League of Nations.While American entry into World War I ensured Allied victory, the failure toconclude a lasting peace left a bitter legacy.Americas military resourcestipped the balance power andled to the defeat of Germany.1-2U.S.INVOLVEMENTIN WORLD WAR IBritain,France,& RussiaGermany& Austria-HungaryU.S.remainedneutral for3 years.Strongsentimentto stay outofEuropeanWar.Ties to Britainand Germancontinued useof submarine-warfare(freedom of theseas) led to U.S.decision to goto war in 1917.Americans wanted tomake the world safe fordemocracy (Wilson).Germany started the War.1914War begins 1914.
  52. VUS.9bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 byb) evaluating United States involvement in World War I, including Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the Treaty ofVersailles, and the national debate over treaty ratification and the League of Nations.While American entry into World War I ensured Allied victory, the failure toconclude a lasting peace left a bitter legacy.2-2Objections to U.S.foreign policydecisions made by aninternationalorganization, not byU.S. leaders.Senate’s failure toapprove Treaty ofVersailles.President Wilsons plan toeliminate the causes of war.Fourteen PointsKey ideasSelf-determination.Freedom of the seas.League of Nations.Mandate system.Treaty of VersaillesFrench and English insisted onpunishment of Germany.A League of Nations was created.European map was redrawn, creatingnew nations.League debate in U.S.TreatySenate
  53. VUS.9cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 byc) explaining the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on the American people, and the ways the NewDeal addressed it.The New Deal altered permanently the role of American government in the economy. Italso fostered changes in people’s attitudes toward government’s responsibilities. Organizedlabor acquired new rights, as the New Deal set in place legislation that reshaped modernAmerican capitalism. 1-3STOCK MARKETCAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSIONOver speculation on stocks using borrowed moneythat could not be repaid when the stock marketcrashed in 1929 and stock prices collapsed.Federal Reserve’s failure to prevent widespreadcollapse of the nation’s banking system in the late1920s and early 1930s, leading to severe contraction inthe nation’s supply of money in circulation.High protective tariffs that produced retaliatorytariffs in other countries, strangling world trade(Tariff Act of 1930, popularly called the Hawley-Smoot Act).Bank failuresTariffs
  54. VUS.9cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and keydomestic events after 1890 byc) explaining the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on the American people, and the ways the NewDeal addressed it.The New Deal altered permanently the role of American government in the economy.It also fostered changes in people’s attitudes toward government’s responsibilities.Organized labor acquired new rights, as the New Deal set in place legislation thatreshaped modern American capitalism.2-3UNEMPLOYMENTIMPACT OF THE GREAT DEPRESSIONPOLITICAL UNRESTFARMFORECLOSURESHomelessnessMigrationFinancial systemcollapseGrowing militancyof labor unionsBANK CLOSINGS
  55. VUS.9cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and key domesticevents after 1890 byc) explaining the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on the American people, and the ways the New Dealaddressed it.The New Deal altered permanently the role of American government in the economy. Italso fostered changes in people’s attitudes toward government’s responsibilities.Organized labor acquired new rights, as the New Deal set in place legislation thatreshaped modern American capitalism. 3-3UNEMPLOYMENT1 out of 4 workersNEW DEALRelief measures provideddirect payment to peoplefor immediate help(Works ProgressAdministration WPA).Social Security Actoffered safeguardsfor workers.Role of government changedto a more active participantin solving problems.Recovery programs were designedto bring nation out of thedepression over time (AgriculturalAdjustment Act AAA)."We have nothing to fear,but fear itself."Franklin RooseveltReform measurescorrected unsoundbanking and investmentpractices (FederalDeposit InsuranceCorporation FDIC).FDRRallied a frightened nation.
  56. VUS.10aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II bya) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war,including military assistance to Britain and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.The United States gradually abandoned neutrality as events in Europe and Asia pulled the nations toward war.U.S. was officially neutralduring the first 2 years of theWar.War began with Hitlers invasionof Poland in 1939, followed shortlyafter by the Soviet Unionsinvasion of Poland & the Balticcountries.1-2Strong isolationistsentiment in theU.S.U.S. increasingly helped Britain.Gave Britain warsupplies and old navalwarships.FDR compared it to “lending a garden hose to a next-doorneighbor whose house is on fire”.Lend-Lease ActIn return for militarybases in Bermuda andthe Caribbean.Germany poundedBritain from the air(the Battle of Britain).Germany overranFrance, & most ofEurope (1940).In mid-1941, Hitler turnedon his former partner andinvaded the Soviet Union.WORLD WAR II
  57. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.ALLIEDSTRATEGY1-7AXISSTRATEGYEuropeGaincontrol ofSoviet oilfields.GermanyGreatBritainSovietUnionUnitedStatesSovietUnionDefeatquickly.GreatBritainDefeat HitlerFirstMostAmericanmilitaryresourceswere targetedfor Europe.Before America’sindustrial andmilitary strengthcould turn thetide.Defeat through abombing campaignand submarinewarfare.
  58. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.ALLIEDSTRATEGY2-7AXISSTRATEGYIslandhoppingcampaignPacificAir Attackson JapanSubmarinewarfare cutting ofJapanese suppliesHoped thatAmerica wouldacceptJapanesepredominancein SoutheastAsia and thePacific.Invaded thePhilippines andIndonesia.Rather than conduct abloody and costly warto reverse Japanesegains.JapanJapanbasesmoving closerPlanned to invade bothAustralia and Hawaii.
  59. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.3-7Major battlesand militaryturning pointsNorth AfricaGermanforcesEl Alamein Egypt &SuezCanalBritishforcesThe defeat kept the MiddleEast oil supplies from Hitler.Threatendefeated
  60. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.4-7EuropeMajor battlesand militaryturning points.Siege of theKilled or capturedover 100 thousandGerman soldiers.SovietUnionGermanyStalingraddefeatedKept from seizingSoviet oil fields.Tide turnedagainstGermany in theEast.
  61. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.5-7EuropeMajor battles and militaryturning points.D-DayGermanyAmerican &Allied troops.Invaded June6,1944.(Normandy)OccupiedFrance.Intensedefense.HeavyAmericancasualties.Under GeneralEisenhower.The liberation of western Europe had begun.Thelandingssucceeded.caused
  62. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.6-7PacificMajor battles andmilitary turning points.The U. S. invadedIWO JIMA and OKINAWAMIDWAYA much largerJapanesenaval forceAmerican naval forces DefeatedThis endedJapanese threatto HawaiiThis began a series ofAmerican victories in the"island hoppingcampaign.Brought U.S.closer to Japan.Cost thousands ofAmerican lives & evenmore Japanese livesJapanese fought fiercelyCommitted suiciderather than surrender.
  63. VUS.10bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byb) describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific,including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman’s decision to use theatomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan.Wartime strategies reflect the political and military goals of alliances, resources on hand, and the geographicalextent of the conflict.7-7Atomic BombPresident Truman ordered the use of theatomic bombs.Faced with horrendouscasualties if Japan wasinvaded.To force theJapanese tosurrender.Hiroshima NagasakiTen of thousandswere killed in bothcities.Japanese leaderssurrenderedshortly after thebombs were used.American forcesdid not have toinvade Japan.
  64. VUS.10cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byc) describing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen andNisei regiments.World War II solidified the nation’s role as a global power and ushered in social changes and established reformagendas that would preoccupy public discourse in the United States for the remainder of the 20th century.Women entered into previously male job roles as African Americans and others struggled to obtain desegregationof the armed forces and end discriminatory hiring practices.Minorityparticipation1-1All-Minority military unitsIndividual medal.Additional contributions ofminoritiesAssigned to non-combat roles.Served in segregated units.African AmericansCommunication codes (Navajo).Suffered highcasualties.Tuskegee AirmenDemanded the right to serve incombat.Nisei regimentsAfrican AmericanflyersAsian AmericansolidersServed in Europewith distinction. highly decorated.Mexican American also fought (not segregated).Minority unitsWon numerousunit citations.
  65. VUS.10dThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II byd) describing the Geneva Convention and the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II.The conduct of war often reflects social and moral codes of a nation.The treatment of prisoners of war often reflected the savage nature of conflict and the cultural norms ofthe nation.TheGenevaConvention1-1PRISONERS OF WARAttempted toensure the humanetreatment of POWs.By establishingrules to befollowed by allnations.Received treatmentcloser to the ideasof the Convention.Treatment often reflectedthe savagery of thefighting.POWs inEuropePOWs in thePacificJapaneseAmerican POWssuffered brutaltreatment after thesurrender of thePhilippines.Bataan DeathMarchSoldiers oftencommitted suiciderather thansurrender.
  66. VUS.10eThe student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II bye) analyzing the Holocaust (Hitler’s “final solution”), its impact on Jews and other groups, andpostwar trials of war criminals.Specific groups, often the object of hatred and prejudice, face increased risk of discrimination duringwartime.Affected groupsJewsPolesSlavsGypsiesUndesirables(homosexuals,mentally ill, politicaldissidents)1-1SIGNIFICANCEGENOCIDE:The systematic andpurposefuldestruction of aracial, political orcultural group.NurembergtrialsNazi leaders & otherswere convicted of warcrimes.FINAL SOLUTION:Germanys decision toexterminate all Jews.Emphasized individualresponsibility foractions during a war,regardless of ordersreceived.Led to increased demandfor a Jewish homeland.
  67. VUS.11aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front bya) explaining how the United States mobilized its economic, human, and military resources.Success in the war required the total commitment of the nation’s resources. On the home front, publiceducation and the mass media promoted nationalism.Economic resources1-1Human resourcesMilitary resourcesRationing was used tomaintain supply ofessential products to thewar effort.War bonds & income taxwere used for financingthe war.Business retooled frompeacetime to wartimeproduction (e.g.,carmanufacturing to tankmanufacturing).U.S. government & industry forged aclose working relationship toallocate resources effectively.More women & minoritiesentered the labor force asmen entered the armedforces.Citizens volunteered insupport of the wareffort.The draft/selective servicewas used to providepersonnel for the military.
  68. VUS.11bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) describing the contributions of women and minorities to the war effort.Contributions to a war effort come from all segments of a society. Women entered into previouslymale job roles as African Americans and others struggled to obtain desegregation of the armedforces and end discriminatory hiring practices.1-1Women duringWorld War IIIncreasingly participated in theworkforce to replace menserving in the military (e.g.,Rosie the Riveter).Participated in non-combatmilitary roles.African Americans duringWorld War IIMigrated to citiesto work in war plants. Campaigned for victory inwar and equality at home.
  69. VUS.11cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byc) explaining the internment of Japanese Americans during the war.Prejudice, coupled with wartime fears, can affect civil liberties of minorities.1-1Reasons for internmentStrong anti-Japaneseprejudice on theWest Coast.False belief thatJapanese Americanswere aiding the enemy.Internment of JapaneseAmericansAffected JapaneseAmerican populationalong the West Coast.Japanese Americanswere re-located tointernment camps.The Supreme Courtupheld the internment.A public apologywas eventually issuedby the U.S. government.Financial paymentwas made to survivorsof the internment.Internment ofJapaneseAmericans
  70. VUS.11dThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byd) describing the role of media and communications in the war effort.During World War II, the media and entertainment industries sawtheir role as supporting the war effort by promoting nationalism. 1-1Media / CommunicationsassistanceU.S. governmentmaintained strictcensorship of warreporting.Ad campaigns &public morale keptAmericans focusedon the war effort.Boostedmorale.Patrioticsupport for thewar effort.Portrayed theenemy instereotypicalways.TheentertainmentindustryMoviesPlaysShowsProduced That
  71. VUS.12aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front bya) describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formationof the United Nations, and the Marshall Plan.Wars have political, economic, and social consequences.1-1Became democraticand resumed self-government after afew years.Germanydivided into 4sectorsWas occupied by American forces.Most of Eastern &Central Europewere occupied bythe Soviet UnionsAmericanFrenchBritishSovietUnionWestGermanyRemained under thedomination of theSoviet Union and didnot becomedemocratic.EastGermanyThe U N was formed nearthe end of WWII to create aworld body to try to preventfuture global wars.U.S. launched the MarshallPlan (massive financial aid)to rebuild Europeaneconomies & prevent thespread of communism.Europe lay in ruinsAdopted a democratic for ofgovernment & resumed self-government.Became a strong ally of the U.S.JapanPostwar outcomes
  72. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.Demonstrated the power of American public opinion inreversing foreign policy.1-10United Satesled western nations.It tested the democratic system toits limits, left scars on Americansociety that have not yet beenerased.Was a competition todetermine howgovernment, society,& economy wereorganized.DemocracyIndividual freedomMarket economy.Soviet Union(east)Influenced AmericanTotalitarianstateSet the framework forglobal politics for 45 yearsafter WWII.Made many Americans deeply skeptical of futuremilitary or even peacekeeping interventions.U.S.s containment policy (anti-communist) in Asia led to Americasinvolvement in the Korean &Vietnamese Wars.Domestic politicsConduct offoreign affairsRole ofgovernment in theeconomyBelieved inSocialism.The Vietnam WarBelieved inCold WAR
  73. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.10-10Impact of the Cold War in the United States.Played on American fears by recklesslyaccusing many government officials &citizens of being communist based onflimsy or no evidence.Fear of CommunismSenator JosephMcCarthySchools held nuclearattack drills.The threat of nuclear war.Citizens were urged tobuild bomb shelters.Soviets buildnuclear weaponsusing technicalsecrets obtainedby spyingConvicted ofspying for theSoviets.Alger HissJulius & EthelRosenbergMcCarthyism: the making offalse accusation based onrumor or guilt by association.The Cold War made foreignpolicy a major issue inevery presidential election.Military expenditures benefitedVirginias economy throughout theCold War.Hampton Roads,home to severallarge naval & airbases.Norther Virginia, home of thePentagon & many privatecompanies that contract with themilitary
  74. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.2-10A competition to determine how government, society, & economy wereorganized.Democratic politicalinstitutionsCold War lasted from.TotalitariangovernmentEnd of WWII (1945) to the collapse of the Soviet Union (1989).Origins of theCommunist(socialist) economicsystem.Cold WARUnited Sates Soviet UnionFundamental valuesFree market economicsystem
  75. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.3-10A competition to determine how government, society, &economy were organized.Cold War lasted from 1945-1989.Origins of theThe TrumanDoctrine ofcontainment ofcommunism.Cold WARMajor principleof U.S. foreignpolicy during theCold War.Keepcommunismfromspreading.Resistcommunistaggression intoother countries.The North AtlanticTreatyOrganization(NATO)A defensivealliance to preventa Soviet invasionof Western Europe.United States &westernEuropeancountriesformed.The Sovietallies in easternEurope formed .The WarsawPact.Each kept large militaryforces in Europe.
  76. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.4-10A competition to determine how government, society, &economy were organized.Cold War lasted from 1945-1989.Origins of theChinaCold WARCommunistChinaSoviet UnionPRESIDENT NIXONS FOREIGN POLICY IN THE 1970S EXPLOITED THIS SPLIT.U.S. fears ofcommunistdomination of most ofthe world .Allies that becamerivals for territory &diplomatic influence.Communist take over ofincreasedShortly afterWWII
  77. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.5-10A competition to determine how government, society, &economy were organized.Cold War lasted from 1945-1989.The Korean WarAmerican involvement in the Korean War in the early 1950s reflectedTHE AMERICAN POLICY OF CONTAINMENT OF COMMUNISM.But eventually ended in a stalematewith South Korea free of communistoccupation.U.S. forces led acounterattack that drovedeep into North Korea.invadedWar threatened to widenCommunistNorth KoreaSouth KoreaCommunistChinese enterthe war on theside of NorthKorea.ABCD
  78. North Vietnam(communist )VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.6-10The Vietnam WarAmerican involvement in Vietnam also reflectedTHE AMERICAN POLICY OF CONTAINMENT OF COMMUNISM.The United States helped thegovernment of South Vietnam(non-communist) to resist.After Kennedysassassination in 1963, thebuildup was intensifiedunder President LyndonJohnson.The scale of combat in Vietnamgrew larger over the course of the1960s.Attempted to force a communistgovernment in South Vietnam.(mid 1950s to early 1960s)The American militarybuildup in Vietnambegan under PresidentKennedy.American military forces repeatedlydefeated the North Vietnamese forcesin the field, but could not force an endto the war on favorable terms byfighting a limited war.
  79. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.7-10The Vietnam WarAmerican involvement in Vietnam also reflectedTHE AMERICAN POLICY OF CONTAINMENT OF COMMUNISM.Opposition to the warincreased, especially oncollege campuses.President Nixon instituted apolicy of Vietnamization.( 1975) PresidentNixon was forcedfrom office by theWatergate scandal.Vietnam bitterly divided the country.There was support for theAmerican military and conduct ofthe war among many Americans(1968) President Johnson declined toseek reelection.Nixon was elected President on apledge to bring the war to anhonorable end.Vietnamization failed. In 1975 bothNorth & South Vietnam were mergedunder the communist control.Vietnamization withdrawingAmerican troops andreplacing them with SouthVietnamese forces whilemaintaining military aid toSouth Vietnamese troops.
  80. VUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.8-10Cuba was also a site Cold War confrontations.Many Cubansfled to Florida.Led a communist revolution(late 1950s) that took overAnti-Castro refuges attemptto overthrown the Castrogovernment.Fidel CastroThe Bay of Pigs invasionfails.Cuba(becomescommunist)Cuba remainedcommunist.
  81. Soviet UnionVUS.12bThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byb) explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment ofcommunism, the American role of wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization (NATO) in Europe.9-10Cuba was also a site Cold War confrontations.Was providing aide& support to CastroStationedmissiles in CubaCubanMissileCrisis(1962)Ordered the Soviets toremove the missiles.For several days theworld was on thebrink of nuclear war.Leadership blinked andremoved the missiles.PresidentKennedy
  82. American military forces during the Cold WarVUS.12cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byc) explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War.1-3A strong military was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often atgreat personal and family sacrifice, yet they did their duty.President Kennedys inauguraladdresspledged that the United Stateswould “pay any price,bear any burden, meetany hardship, supportany friend, oppose anyfoe, in order to assurethe survival and thesuccess of liberty.”“Ask not what your country can do for you;ask what you can do for your country.”
  83. American military forces during the Cold War.VUS.12cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byc) explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War.2-3A strong military was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often atgreat personal and family sacrifice, yet they did their duty.Millions of Americans served in themilitary, defending freedom in wars andconflicts that were not always popular.Many were killed or wounded.As a result of their service, the UnitedStates and American ideals of democracyand freedom ultimately prevailed in theCold War struggle with Sovietcommunism.President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963. This event shook thenation’s confidence and began a period of internal strife and divisiveness,especially spurred by divisions over U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
  84. American military forces during the Cold WarVUS.12cThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byc) explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War.3-3A strong military was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often atgreat personal and family sacrifice, yet they did their duty.returned often to face indifferenceor outright hostility from somewho opposed the war.Not until years after the end of theVietnam war did the divisiveness ofthe war began to heal in America.returned to a gratefulandsupportive nation.Vietnam veterans wererecognized and honored fortheir service and sacrifices.WORLD WAR IIVIETNAMVETERANS
  85. VUS.12dThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front byd) explaining the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War, including the role of Ronald Reagan.1-1Challenged moral legitimacy ofthe Soviet Union.(Mr. Gorbachev, tear down thiswall).Increased U.S. military &economic pressure on the SovietUnion.Collapse of the Soviet UnionPresident ReaganIncreasing Soviet military expensesto compete with the U.S.Fast-paced reforms (marketeconomy)Raising nationalism in Sovietrepublics.Gorbachev glasnost andperestorika (openness andeconomic restructuringEconomic inefficiencyRole ofBoth internal and external pressures caused thecollapse of the Soviet Union.
  86. VUS.13aBy interpreting its powers broadly, the Supreme Court can reshape American society.Brown v. Board of EducationThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s bya) identifying the importance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of ThurgoodMarshall and Oliver Hill, and how Virginia responded.Thurgood Marshall NAACP Legal DefenseTeamOliver Hill NAACP Legal Defense Team inVirginiaKey PeoplePlessy v.FergusonoverturnedSegregated schools are unequaland must desegregate.Supreme Court decision Included a Virginia Case.
  87. VUS.13aBy interpreting its powers broadly, the Supreme Court can reshape Americansociety.Brown v. Board of EducationThe student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s bya) identifying the importance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of ThurgoodMarshall and Oliver Hill, and how Virginia responded.Massive Resistance. Closing some schools.Establishment of private academies.White flight from urban school systems.Supreme Court decisionthat segregated schoolsmust desegregate.Virginiaresponse2-2Included aVirginiaCase.
  88. VUS.13bAfrican Americans, working through the court system and mass protest, reshapedpublic opinion and secured the passage of civil rights legislation.The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s byb) describing the importance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People(NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting RightsAct of 1965.Challengedsegregation inthe courts.NAACP. The National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People.1963 March on Washington“I have a dream” speech given by MartinLuther King.Helped influence public opinion to supportcivil rights legislation.Demonstrated the power of non-violent, massprotest.Civil Rights Act of 1964Prohibited discrimination based on race,religion, national origin, and gender.Desegregated public accommodations.Voting Rights Act of 1965Outlawed literacy tests.Federal registrars were sent to the South to register voters.The act resulted in an increase in African American voters.President LyndonJohnson played amajor role in thepassage of the act.
  89. VUS.14aGender worker diversity has altered the workplace.The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developmentsin the contemporary United States by a) analyzing the effects of increased participation ofwomen in the labor force.Increased participation ofwomen in the labor forceAn increasingly large percentageof America’s labor force.Many working mothers.Women in nontraditional jobs.Role of courts in providingopportunities.Issues of working womenNeed for affordable day care.Equitable pay.“Pink collar” ghetto (lowprestige, low paying jobs).“Glass ceiling” (perception thatcareer advancement for women isnot equal to men).Sandra Day O’Connorwas the first womanto serve on theUnited StatesSupreme Court.Sally Ride was the firstfemale astronaut inthe United States.
  90. VUS.14bNew immigrant groups have increased American diversity and redefined American identity.The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developmentsin the contemporary United States by b) analyzing how changing patterns of immigration affect the diversityof the United States population, the reasons new immigrants choose to come to this country, and their contributions tocontemporary America.PoliticalfreedomEconomicopportunityReasons forimmigrationBilingualeducation / ESLclassesPublic policy(toward Cuba)Politics/votingEffects ofimmigrationPopularity ofethnic food,music & the arts.Role in the laborforce.Contributions ofimmigrantsUnited StatesAsian countriesLatin American countriesIncreasingimmigrationfrom
  91. VUS.14c The American space program was a triumph of American technologicalprowess.The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developmentsin the contemporary United States by c) explaining the media influence on contemporary Americanculture and how scientific and technological advances affect the workplace, health care, and education.MoonRace to thefirst person to step on the (1969)PresidentKennedy pledgedsupportAmericanSpace Program(early 1960s)(early1960s)Americanastronaut NeilArmstrong"one small step forman, one giantstep for mankind."1-2Astronaut John Glennwas the American toorbit the Earth.
  92. VUS.14cDramatic advances in technology have affected life in America in many significant areas.Technology can make communication and information more accessible.The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developmentsin the contemporary United States by c) explaining the media influence on contemporaryAmerican culture and how scientific and technological advances affect the workplace, healthcare, and education.Cable TV / 24hour news (CNN)Changes in work/school/health careExamples ofTechnologicaladvances.2-2PersonalcomputersCellular phonesWorld Wide WebTeleconmmutingDistancelearningGrowth in whitecollar careersBreakthroughsin medicalresearchDr. Jonas Salk(polio vaccine)Over the past three decadesimproved technology and mediahave brought about better access tocommunication and information forrural areas, businesses, andindividual consumers.As a result, many more Americanshave access to global informationand viewpoints.

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