American entry into World War I ensuredAllied victory!
General Causes of WWI:Europe hadbecome a“powder keg”ready toexplode...
General Causes of WWI:•Nationalism:focusing on self-interest of eachnation;•Imperialism:competition forcolonies andcontrol of tradeThe nations of Europe were rapidly buildingtheir naval power in order to protect theiroverseas markets. This is a Germanbattleship.
General Causes of WWI:•Militarism:increased arms raceand using militaryas diplomatic tool•Alliance System:Europe formed twolarge “armedcamps” (Allies andCentral Powers)The assassination of theAustrian prince provided thespark to ignite World War I.Austria declared war on Serbia.Within weeks the continent wasat war in 1914!
MAP OF MILITARY ALLIANCESIN WORLD WAR IRed = AlliedPowersPurple =CentralPowersGray =Neutral
U.S. Attempted to Stay Neutral:• There was strongsentiment to stayout of the war.• U.S. avoidedinvolvement for 3years.• President Wilsonvowed to stayneutral in 1916...President Wilson
U.S. JOINED THE FIGHT IN1917:• German use of unrestrictedsubmarine warfare wasattacking American ships• Sinking of Lusitania; apassenger ship carryingAmericans• Zimmerman Telegram whichencouraged Mexico to attackthe U.S.German U-boats (above) sankmany ships. The Lusitania(below) was carrying Americanpassengers when it was attacked.
U.S. JOINED THE FIGHT IN1917:• American social and economicties to Allied powers• Russia left the war under itscommunist revolution• To make the world “safe fordemocracy” (Woodrow Wilson)The Russian CommunistRevolution of 1917 wasinspired by Lenin. Afterdestroying the Tsar, Russiacreated became the SovietUnion, and drew a peaceagreement with Germany.
AMERICANS TIPPEDTHE BALANCE!• Use of American resources atthe front and behind the lines• Infusion of fresh troopsboosted morale• Fighting stopped on November11, 1918 with an armisticeOne of many recruiting postersfrom the United States
Could this be alasting peace?•Wilson’s Plan•The Treaty of Versailles•Failure of the League ofNations
While Americanentry into WorldWar I ensured Alliedvictory, THE FAILURETO CONCLUDE ALASTING PEACE LEFT ABITTER LEGACY.
Wilson’s Plan for aLasting Peace
The 14 Points Included:• Self-determination: thatnational boundaries be decidedbased on people, and theyshould establish their owngovernments• Freedom of Seas: opentrading to all peaceful nations• No secret treaties or alliancesshould be formed• Mandate System: Colonialpolicies should consider theinterests of the people• Arms should be reduced• League of Nations: toprovide peaceful means ofsolving disputes rather thanwar
Meeting at Versailles:• Britain, France and Italywished to punish Germanyand Austria• Central Powers andU.S.S.R. were not invitedto attend the conference• Wilson was forced to concede(give in) most of his 14Points!In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiatethe Treaty; Lloyd George of Britain,Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France,and Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.
The Treaty of Versailles• Many new nations wereformed as land wastaken from the defeatednations• Mandates (capturedcolonies) were given toAllies to rule• Germany had to paywar reparations ($33billion)• Germany had to sign a“war guilt clause”• The League of Nationswas formed
Comparing political maps of Europe:Notice how many new nations were formed by the Treaty ofVersailles. What problems could this cause?
• Felt it was toopunitive• Objected to foreignpolicy decisions beingmade by internationalorganizations (theLeague of Nations)• Senate refused toratify the treaty• Senate refused tojoin the League ofNations!America Opposed the Treaty
Weaknesses of theTreaty• Germany was humiliated anddestroyed• Allies had ignored the needs of thenew Soviet government• International instability was createdin the new nations and mandates• U.S. returned to isolationist policies