• Why did the United Statesabandon its traditionalisolationist foreignpolicy?• How did the United Statesexpand its influence in theworld?
Some Key Ideas:• Many 20th Century American foreignpolicy issues have their origins inAmerica’s emergence as a world powerat the end of the 19th Century.• American intervention in WWI ensuredits role as a world power.• Growth of international trade displayedAmerican urge to build, innovate andexplore new markets.
WilliamMcKinley(1897-1901)TheodoreRoosevelt(1901-1909)William Taft 1909-1913Photos National Archives
Isolationism vs. Imperialism• The idea that theU.S. should not beinvolved in affairs ofother nations• The “new world’was to be left aloneby Europe was thesignificantstatement of theMonroe Doctrine• Expand to acquire newlands/ materials/markets• Generally refers tocolonization• Powerful statement ofRoosevelt Corollary(“Big StickDiplomacy”)- the U.S.would intervene in theWestern Hemisphere
“Speak softly and carry a big stick…”-- Rooseveltproclaimed the U.S to become the police of the West.
Reasons for Expansion:• Competeeconomically withEurope• Expansion as anatural right --including belief incultural superiority• Need for newmarkets and newraw materials.Courtesy National Archives
Spanish AmericanWar (1898):• Caused by yellowjournalism andeconomic interest inCuba• Puerto Rico was annexedby U.S.• Cuba became a“protectorate” of theU.S.Wreck of the U.S.S. Maine, 1898;accusations against Spain encouragedU.S. to declare war.Yellow Journalists oftenexaggerated to “hype” thenews in order to sell papers!“A splendid little war”
• President Roosevelt wanted itbuilt• Would assist U.S. in trade andwith Navy by connecting theAtlantic and Pacific• U.S. encouraged (backed)Panama’s independence fromColombia in order to get accessto the canal zone• U.S. gained right to build andrun canalTheCanalZonePanama Canal (1903):
Dollar Diplomacy:• President Taft urgedbanks and businessesto invest in LatinAmerica• He promised U.S.would step in if civilunrest threatenedAmericaninvestments• This was a morepassive imperialismWilliam Taft.
Hawaii: • U.S. interests werein Chinese trade,sugar plantationsand a naval base• U.S. efforts deposedHawaii’s monarchand created a newgovernment• U.S. annexed Hawaiiin 1898Queen Liliuokalani was the last monarch of the islands.She was loved by her people and opposed theAmericanization of her society.National Archives Photo
Philippines:• Annexed afterSpanish AmericanWar• Struggled as U.S.needed to fightFilipino FreedomFighters who wantedindependence• U.S. finally grantedPhilippineindependence! ”Our boys entrenched against the Filipinos." Ca.1899-1900
Open Door Policy (1899):• European nations hadcarved China into“spheres ofinfluence”- places ofpolitical andeconomic domination-forbidding free trade• U.S. wanted a pieceof the trade action
Open Door Policy (1899):• Secretary of StateJohn Hay proposed apolicy that would giveequal trading rights inChina.• Open Door policy alsourged all foreigners toobey Chinese law• This was move toenhance faircompetition