2008vus8d progressives


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2008vus8d progressives

  1. 1. Solving the socialproblems ofimmigration,urbanization andindustrialization.What were the goals ofProgressives, and whatwere theiraccomplishments?
  2. 2. RECONSTRUCTION THROUGH THE EARLYTWENTIETH CENTURY WAS A TIME OFCONTRADICTIONS FOR MANYAMERICANS.Agricultural expansion was accomplished through warsagainst the Plains Indians (First Americans), leading tonew federal Indian policies.Industrial development brought great fortunes to a few andraised the standard of living for millions of Americans, butalso brought about the rise of national labor unions andclashes between industry and labor.Social problems in rural and urban settings gave rise tothird-party movements and the beginning of theProgressive Movement.
  3. 3. What were the causesof the ProgressiveMovement?
  4. 4. CAUSE: EXCESSES OF THEGILDED AGEIncomedisparityThe RobberBaronsCorruption
  5. 5. CAUSE: WORKING CONDITIONSFOR LABORDangerousworkingconditionsChild laborLibrary of Congress
  6. 6. WORKING CONDITIONS FORLABOR Long hours, lowwages, no jobsecurity, nobenefits Company townstook advantageof familieskeeping them aswage slaves. Inequality inemployment ofwomenLibrary of Congress
  7. 7. The Progressive Movement used governmentto reform problems created byindustrialization.Theodore Roosevelt’s“Square Deal”;Emphasized social reformand attacked unfairbusiness practices-conservation was also apriority!(most closely associatedwith the movement)WoodrowWilson’s “NewFreedom”;Emphasizedreform forbanking, taxesand business.William Taft wasactually seen as aProgressive failure.
  8. 8. Goals of ProgressiveMovementGovernment controlled bypeopleGuaranteed economicopportunities throughgovernment regulationElimination of socialinjustices
  9. 9. ProgressiveAccomplishments
  10. 10. In local governments New forms to meetneeds of increasingurbanization(commission and councilmanager) Attempts to fightcorruption and respondto the people’s needs.Boss Tweed, the target of thisThomas Nast cartoon, was apolitical machine boss who stolemillions of tax dollars in NewYork.
  11. 11. In state governments(more power to the people)Referendum: allowing thepeople of a state to votedirectly on legislationInitiative: allowing peopleof a state to proposelegislation directly to theassemblyRecall: allowing people of astate to remove an electedofficial before his term isexpired
  12. 12. In elections; limiting corruptionPrimary elections;provides for people of aparty to decide who willrun in elections17th Amendment; Directelection of U.S. Senators(previously chosen bystate legislatures)Secret ballot; to secureprivacy and reduceoutside pressures
  13. 13. In child laborMuckraking literaturedescribing abuses ofchild labor.Muckrakers exposedproblems in society bywriting news articlesand publishingphotographs.Helped push child laborlaws in many states.Photo from National Archives
  14. 14. Impact of LaborUnionsLabor unions were formed tolook demand rights forworkers; better pay, fewerhours, safe workingconditions, and benefits.
  15. 15. Organizations Knights of Labor;America’s first majorunion, it accepted allworkers- skilled andunskilled. American Federation ofLabor (Samuel Gompers)-a craft union which onlyaccepted skilled laborersand was more prone toviolence.
  16. 16. Organizations American RailwayUnion (Eugene V.Debs)- skilled andunskilled workers inrailroad- had asuccessful but violentstrike Industrial Ladies’Garment WorkersUnion- demandedbetter conditions intextile industry.The Industrial Ladies’ GarmentWorkers Union gained morepopularity after the tragic fire in1911. Muckraking journalistshelped to expose the dangerousconditions which led to theseinhumane deaths.Photo from National Archives
  17. 17. StrikesHaymarket SquareHomestead StrikePullman StrikeThese strikes were all violentand led to public fear of labororganizations. While manywere sympathetic to unioncauses, they did not like theperceived lawless tendencies.At Haymarket Square, a striketurned violent as an anarchistthrew a bomb at police, who inturn opened fire.
  18. 18. GainsLimited workhoursRegulated workconditionsPreserved rightsof unions toorganize
  19. 19. Antitrust laws Sherman Anti-TrustAct— Prevents anybusiness structure that“restrains trade”(monopolies) -unsuccessful as it wasdifficult toenforce.(1890) Clayton Anti-Trust Act—Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unionsfrom Sherman Act (1914)“One sees his finish unlessgood government retakes theship.” (May,1899)
  20. 20. Women’s suffrage Was a forerunner of modernprotest movement Benefited from strongleadership (e.g., Susan B.Anthony) Encouraged women to enterthe labor force during WorldWar I Resulted in 19th Amendmentto the ConstitutionElizabeth Cady Stanton (seated) and SusanB. Anthony worked gain the right to vote.
  21. 21. The Progressive Amendments:16th: A progressive income tax17th: Direct election ofSenators18th: Banning the manufacture,sale and transportation ofalcohol19th: Granted women the rightto vote
  22. 22. Interest inprogressivereforms stalled asthe United Statesfaced anothercrisis-- World War 1