Solving the socialproblems ofimmigration,urbanization andindustrialization.What were the goals ofProgressives, and whatwere theiraccomplishments?
RECONSTRUCTION THROUGH THE EARLYTWENTIETH CENTURY WAS A TIME OFCONTRADICTIONS FOR MANYAMERICANS.Agricultural expansion was accomplished through warsagainst the Plains Indians (First Americans), leading tonew federal Indian policies.Industrial development brought great fortunes to a few andraised the standard of living for millions of Americans, butalso brought about the rise of national labor unions andclashes between industry and labor.Social problems in rural and urban settings gave rise tothird-party movements and the beginning of theProgressive Movement.
What were the causesof the ProgressiveMovement?
CAUSE: EXCESSES OF THEGILDED AGEIncomedisparityThe RobberBaronsCorruption
CAUSE: WORKING CONDITIONSFOR LABORDangerousworkingconditionsChild laborLibrary of Congress
WORKING CONDITIONS FORLABOR Long hours, lowwages, no jobsecurity, nobenefits Company townstook advantageof familieskeeping them aswage slaves. Inequality inemployment ofwomenLibrary of Congress
The Progressive Movement used governmentto reform problems created byindustrialization.Theodore Roosevelt’s“Square Deal”;Emphasized social reformand attacked unfairbusiness practices-conservation was also apriority!(most closely associatedwith the movement)WoodrowWilson’s “NewFreedom”;Emphasizedreform forbanking, taxesand business.William Taft wasactually seen as aProgressive failure.
Goals of ProgressiveMovementGovernment controlled bypeopleGuaranteed economicopportunities throughgovernment regulationElimination of socialinjustices
In local governments New forms to meetneeds of increasingurbanization(commission and councilmanager) Attempts to fightcorruption and respondto the people’s needs.Boss Tweed, the target of thisThomas Nast cartoon, was apolitical machine boss who stolemillions of tax dollars in NewYork.
In state governments(more power to the people)Referendum: allowing thepeople of a state to votedirectly on legislationInitiative: allowing peopleof a state to proposelegislation directly to theassemblyRecall: allowing people of astate to remove an electedofficial before his term isexpired
In elections; limiting corruptionPrimary elections;provides for people of aparty to decide who willrun in elections17th Amendment; Directelection of U.S. Senators(previously chosen bystate legislatures)Secret ballot; to secureprivacy and reduceoutside pressures
In child laborMuckraking literaturedescribing abuses ofchild labor.Muckrakers exposedproblems in society bywriting news articlesand publishingphotographs.Helped push child laborlaws in many states.Photo from National Archives
Impact of LaborUnionsLabor unions were formed tolook demand rights forworkers; better pay, fewerhours, safe workingconditions, and benefits.
Organizations Knights of Labor;America’s first majorunion, it accepted allworkers- skilled andunskilled. American Federation ofLabor (Samuel Gompers)-a craft union which onlyaccepted skilled laborersand was more prone toviolence.
Organizations American RailwayUnion (Eugene V.Debs)- skilled andunskilled workers inrailroad- had asuccessful but violentstrike Industrial Ladies’Garment WorkersUnion- demandedbetter conditions intextile industry.The Industrial Ladies’ GarmentWorkers Union gained morepopularity after the tragic fire in1911. Muckraking journalistshelped to expose the dangerousconditions which led to theseinhumane deaths.Photo from National Archives
StrikesHaymarket SquareHomestead StrikePullman StrikeThese strikes were all violentand led to public fear of labororganizations. While manywere sympathetic to unioncauses, they did not like theperceived lawless tendencies.At Haymarket Square, a striketurned violent as an anarchistthrew a bomb at police, who inturn opened fire.
Antitrust laws Sherman Anti-TrustAct— Prevents anybusiness structure that“restrains trade”(monopolies) -unsuccessful as it wasdifficult toenforce.(1890) Clayton Anti-Trust Act—Expands Sherman Anti-Trust Act; outlaws price-fixing; exempts unionsfrom Sherman Act (1914)“One sees his finish unlessgood government retakes theship.” (May,1899)
Women’s suffrage Was a forerunner of modernprotest movement Benefited from strongleadership (e.g., Susan B.Anthony) Encouraged women to enterthe labor force during WorldWar I Resulted in 19th Amendmentto the ConstitutionElizabeth Cady Stanton (seated) and SusanB. Anthony worked gain the right to vote.
The Progressive Amendments:16th: A progressive income tax17th: Direct election ofSenators18th: Banning the manufacture,sale and transportation ofalcohol19th: Granted women the rightto vote
Interest inprogressivereforms stalled asthe United Statesfaced anothercrisis-- World War 1