Working through thecourt system andmass protest, publicopinion was changedwhich securedpassage of Civil Rightslegislation.VUS.14b
The March on Washington 1963 JFK had sent a civilrights bill toCongress, which hadtabled it. Dr. King organized amarch on Washingtonto bring pressure onCongress to pass it. August 28, Kingappeared before acrowd of 250,000 atthe Lincoln Memorial.
The March on Washington 1963 Participants andviewers were movedby the speech “I Havea Dream.” Public opinion beganto support Civil Rightslegislation. This proved the powerof non-violent protest.
JFK wasassassinated inNovember, 1963in Dallas. Lee HarveyOswald wasbelieved to be thelone gunman This did not stopthe Civil RightsMovement...BROTHERSJohn Kennedy (right) was the firstof these two brothers to beassassinated. Bobby (left) was theAttorney General in 1963. He wasassassinated in 1968 as he wasrunning for president!
Lyndon Johnson; NewPresident LBJ was more ofan advocate forCivil Rights thanJFK Johnson coerced(pushed) Congressto pass two keycivil rights acts LBJ saw equalrights as part of hisprogram called the“Great Society”
Civil Rights Act of 1964: Pressure from the march and LBJ forcedCongress to sign the measure: The act prohibited discrimination basedon race, religion, national origin, andgender. It also integrated publicaccommodations. Using the interstate commerce clause ofthe Constitution, the law wasenforceable.
A March for Voting Rights: Dr. King organized amarch to raiseawareness for votingrights in Selma, 1965. The non-violentprotesters wereattacked by the policewith fire hoses anddogs. This raised publicopinion to support anew voting rights law.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965: Outlawed literacy testing as avoting qualification. Federal registrars were sent toSouth to register the voters. Provided for marshals toinvestigate actions ofdiscrimination. Resulted in large increase inblack voting in the South. LBJ again used coercive tacticsto get Congress to pass this law!
CivilDisobedience;refusal to obey anunjust law andacceptconsequence(advocated by MLK) Non-violence;peaceful protest(advocated by MLK) Black Power: moremilitant movement oflate 1960’s which lostpatience with non-violent protest(advocated by BlackPanthers and MalcolmX)
National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People(NAACP) Organized in 1909 by many Americans,including W.E.B. DuBois, worked for political,social and economic equality. The organization challenged segregation inthe courts. Through congressional lobbying andchallenging laws in courts, the NAACPcontinues to work for all Americans “of color”
•By interpreting its powers broadly, the SupremeCourt can reshape American Society.•Changing public opinion was necessary in orderfor the government to respond with new legislation.•Non-violent protest seems to get the most positiveresults from American society.•The concepts of civil rights are still issues inpolitics today.LEGACY OF THESE PROTESTS: