DivisionsofGermany The Soviets dominated EasternGermany as they marched in todefeat Hitler. Germany was partitioned into Eastand West Germany. West Germany becamedemocratic and resumed self-government after a few years ofAmerican, British and Frenchoccupation. East Germany remained under thedomination of the Soviet Unionand did not adopt democraticinstitutions. The capital city of Berlin was alsodivided into an "East" and a"West". This posed a particularproblem for West Germany asBerlin was entirely inside EastGermany!
MarshallPlan(1947) Europe lay in ruins andneeded assistance torebuild. U.S. provided massivefinancial aid to help rebuildEuropean economies ($12.5Billion). This was an attempt to stopthe spread of communismby providing a "friendship". Even though this plan wasmade available to thenations of Eastern Europe(dominated by the Soviets),they refused the economicassistance-- an order givenfrom Moscow. Even though it was the mostexpensive plan to date, itwas very successful!Destruction on Germany
Rebuilding JapanJapan was economically and morally defeated -and occupied by AMERICAN forces.
Rebuilding Japan The U.S. and othernations imposed strictlimitations on Japan afterthe war. General Mac Arthur wasresponsible for overseeingthe rebuilding of Japanand the organization ofthe new government. Japans Constitution wasmodeled after the U.S.Constitution. The plan of government in Japan isstill referred to as “Mac Arthur’sConstitution”.
RebuildingJapan Japan was limited intheir ability to makewar-- their army andnavy were restrictedin size and power sothat neither could bestrong enough towage war, only toprotect theirboundaries. The U.S. committedto the role ofprotecting Japanmilitarily. This freed much ofJapansresources. Instead offocusing onmaintaining armedforces, Japan hasbeen able to utilizemore resources todevelop a strongeconomy. Since Japanssurrender, she hasbecome one ofAmericas strongesttrade allies in theworld!
The UnitedNations The general purpose ofthe United Nations is toprovide for a way for allnations to work togetherto solve problems inorder to prevent war. It was formed in 1945,and was similar to theconcept of the Leagueof Nations. It first met in SanFrancisco, and today theU.N. resides in NewYork. Its charter was writtenby the victorious Allies.Flags courtesy of www.theodora.com/flags used with permission
Cold WarThemesContainment:To stop the spread ofCommunismDomino Theory:The idea that if onenation falls toCommunism, itsneighbor would fall, andeventually Communismwould dominate anentire region andthreaten the U.S.CollectiveSecurity:Using an alliance systemto prevent aggression(such as NATO)MassiveRetaliation:Using the threat ofcomplete war as adeterrent to attack inorder to keep the peace(President Eisenhower).This helped spark thearms race.Brinkmanship:Existing near a state ofwar so that each sidewould take great carenot to upset the balanceof peace.Arms Race:The rapid buildup ofweapons and military todeter any attack.Flags courtesy of www.theodora.com/flags used with permission