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Term paper guideline

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Term paper guideline to follow.

Term paper guideline to follow.

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  • 1. Department of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Comilla University (CoU), Comilla-3503, Bangladeshwww.cou.ac.bdTerm paper guidelinesKhondokar Fida HasanEmail: k.fidahasan@yahoo.comLecturerDept. of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Comilla University (CoU), Comilla-3503Bangladesh
  • 2. Page | 2At a glance all those aspects must have to review before submit a TERM PAPER.1. Length of paper2. Structurea) Title pageb) Table of contentsI. Inappropriate table of contentsII. Appropriate table of contentsIII. Table of contents in briefc) Introductiond) Literature reviewe) Methodologyf) Resultsg) Discussionh) Conclusioni) Bibliographyj) Appendix3. Citation guidelinesa) Quotationsb) Referencingc) Second-hand quoting/ referencing4. Style/ accuracy5. Presentation/ formatting6. Inclusion of examples7. Use of footnotes/ endnotes8. Comments on plagiarism9. Major pitfalls of writing term papers10. Assessment sheet11. Links to term paper guidelines12. Further readingsPlatform may Use:Microsoft wordLatex
  • 3. Page | 31. Length of paperPapers should be type-written (1.5 spaced) and between 20 to 25 pages long.2. StructureTerm papers should be composed of the following sections:a) Title pageb) Table of contentsc) Introductiond) Literature reviewe) Methodologyf) Resultsg) Discussionh) Conclusioni) Bibliographyj) AppendixGenerally, the introduction and theoretical part should account for a third of the paper and theremaining sections (methododology, results, discussion, conclusion) two thirds of the paper. Eachof these parts are addressed in the following.a) Title pageThe title page is the first page of a term paper. It is not numbered. It contains details of:• the title of the paper• the title of the seminar and of the course leaders/ leaders name(s)• the authors/ authors name(s) and email address(es) or other contact details• the date of submissionA good title is• focused (tells the reader what to expect of the paper)• awakens interestSometimes the use of a sub-title is necessary in order to fulfill both criteria.Avoid reference to particular researchers in the title. For example, a sub-title such as "(followingthe study Discourse functions and pragmatics of mixing: Advertising across cultures by T.K.Bhatia (1992))" is inappropriate.b) Table of contentsSample Table of Contents1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 12 Apologies............................................................................................................ 22.1 What is an apology?..................................................................................... 32.2 Apology strategies....................................................................................... 43 Method................................................................................................................. 63.1 Instrument.................................................................................................... 63.2 Informants.................................................................................................... 73.3 Data collection procedure............................................................................ 74 Findings.............................................................................................................. 8
  • 4. Page | 44.1 Frequency of apology strategies................................................................... 84.2 Realisations of illocutionary force indicating devices................................. 105 Discussion.......................................................................................................... 126 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 15Bibliography......................................................................................................... 16Appendices........................................................................................................... 18Appendix 1 Apology speech act set ..................................................................... 18Appendix 2 Production questionnaire.................................................................. 19Appendix 3 Production questionnaires collected................................................. 20Table of contents - in brief• Include all pertinent sections in the table of contents (i.e. Introduction, Literature review,Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Bibliography, Appendix)• Number your table of contents• Include page numbers• Use sub-points and indent these• Use explicit but brief titles and sub-titles• Structure your paper according to your focus of interestc) IntroductionThe introduction follows the table of contents and is the first page of the project which isnumbered.The aspects to be addressed in the introduction include:• Question posed in paperTell your reader what the paper is about - i.e. what is the research area?, what is the questionposed in the paper?• Motivation for research (e.g. research gap, desire for replication of results, ...)Motivations, such as "During the seminar on "Language in the Media" we investigated theuse of proverbs in the media and I found this interesting ... " are sometimes mentioned interm papers. These are not appropriate and should not be included in a term paper.Remember you are writing a scholarly piece of research not a story-book. Instead youshould provide a justification for your research developed out of the readings you have readtogether with your own personal experience, if relevant. You should also address thetheorietical or practidal importance of the research. In other words, tell the reader why youdecided on this research project - why is it interesting and worthwhile: why should it beread? This section should be kept brief in the introduction - the literature review provides afuther opportunity to argue for what you want to do.• Brief details of research conductedWhat research method was employed in the paper? Who were the informants?Only brief details should be given at this point.• Paper structure
  • 5. Page | 5The point of detailing the structure of the paper is to guide the reader. You know what iscoming next but the reader does not. Tell him/ her what to expect.d) Literature reviewAn academic paper should reflect a wide reading of the subject area and a good understandingof key concepts and findings. The use of examples is one of the best ways of exhibiting yourfamiliarity with important concepts and it also enhances the reader-friendliness of the paper.You are expected to be critical in your reading of academic papers. In other words, you shoulddemonstrate that you are aware of previous research findings(if applicable) but also that you donot believe everything you read but rather look critically at each study, especially those ofprimary interest to your research task. Such a critical awareness may be demonstrated, forexample, by referring to contradictory findings from different researchers, by highlighting thefailings of previous studies (e.g. limited analysis/ less than ideal methodology, etc.) and also byshowing an awareness of questions which remain unanswered.You should organize your literature review as clearly as possible. Make sure to select onlythose studies most directly related to the question at hand. You should not simply provide asummary of each study but rather tie together the results of the studies so that their relevance isclear. When conflicting findings are reported in different studies, suggest possibleexplanations.Finally, in line with the introduction, make the case that the research area reviewed isincomplete or requires extension. This establishes the need for research in the area.e) MethodologyThe method employed in the empirical project conducted should be explicitly detailed. If theproject involves an analysis of a particular corpus, relevant information may include:• what genre and sub-genre (e.g. advertisements (display/ classified advertisements?; ...),editorial (service info copy/ opinion copy/ news copy [hard news/ feature article/ specialtopic news/ headlines?]) broadcast news (hard news (news bulletins)/ current or publicaffairs programs/ special-topic news/ ...?), ...)?• which media outlets (e.g. publications (newspapers [daily/ weekly?], magazines), TVchannels, radio stations)?• reason for choice of outlet (e.g. researchers interest, geographical area, audience type orsize, time of day, quality vs. popular press, interest in production or reception, ...)• detail on outputs (i.e. what time period was covered?, specific issues or bulletins to besampled within this period?)Alternatively/ additionally, if elicited data forms the empirical basis of your study, relevant detailsinclude those concerning:• Informants chosen (how many?, average age?, male/ female ratio?, mother tongue?, foreign/second languages ...? Usually the more homogeneous the informants, the better the researchdesign).
  • 6. Page | 6• research instrument employed (choice of instruments?, reasons for choice of particularinstrument?, design of instrument?, etc. A copy of the materials used (e.g. questionnaire,roleplay cards, ...) should be included in an appendix).• data collection procedure (when was the research conducted?, in what setting?, ...).• the strengths and limitations of the methodology employed.In either case, it is also important to give details of:• the strengths and limitations of the research design employed.• the scheme employed for the categorization/ coding of data (if relevant) (e.g. in a study onthe use of proverbs in advertising, you should detail the different categories of proverbsfound (e.g. fully lexicalized/ contextualized/ non-lexicalized/ ...).f) ResultsResults should be presented in a reader-friendly manner. The use of tables and graphs isrecommended (the use of colour is by no means obligatory). Tables and graphs should be eitherincluded in the main text, or alternatively (if they are large in number) included in an appendix.In the latter case, however, the appendix must be referenced (i.e. cf. Appendix 1) otherwise thereader will not know to look there).As well as presenting the results, it is also your task to guide the reader through the results in aclear and logical manner. This by no means means that every detail included in the table/ graphshould be commented on, but it does mean that the most interesting results should behighlighted for the reader.g) DiscussionThe discussion section either follows the results or may alternatively be integrated in the resultssection. This is a matter of style although the former style tends to be easier for the writer andclearer for the reader and is, thus, recommended. The section should consist of a discussion ofthe results of the study focusing on the question posed in the research paper. In addition, itshould serve to compare your results to previous research findings (i.e. do the present findingsreflect/ refute previous findings?). You should also demonstrate an awareness of the limitationsof your study in this section.h) ConclusionThe conclusion is often thought of as the easiest part of the paper but should by no means bedisregarded. There are a number of key components which should not be omitted. Theseinclude:• summary of question posed• summary of findings• summary of main limitations of the study at hand• details of possibilities for related future researchYou should note that the conclusion is not the place to introduce new insights into the question athand. All ideas and thoughts should have been already mentioned at this stage. New thoughtsshould refer to future research questions.
  • 7. Page | 7i) BibliographyFrom the very beginning of a research project, you should be careful to note all details ofarticles gathered. Literat, a free program designed specifically for keeping track of references,can be downloaded from the philosophical faculty of the University of Düsseldorf. Referencesfiled in this system may be copied easily into MS Word. Alternatively, a simple Word table or asystem of cards may be used. Find the system which is best for you.The bibliography should contain ALL references included in the paper. References not included inthe text in any form should NOT be included in the bibliography.The key to a good bibliography is consistency. Choose a particular convention and stick to this. Ifyou wish to include a full-stop after the date of publication, make sure you do this consistently;alternatively if you wish to put a comma after the date, do this in all cases.Bibliographical conventions:What follows is one possible format which you may use for your bibliography. It follows linguisticconventions. The researchers surnames are given first, followed by the initials of the researchersfirst names. After the names follows the year. Titles of edited books, monographs and journals aregiven in italics. Details of the publishing house follows those of the place of publication.Take note of all commas, full-stops and formatting details (e.g. use of italics, etc.)MonographsCrystal, D. (2001), Language and the internet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Edited volumesGass, S./Neu, J. (eds.) (1996), Speech acts across cultures. Challenges to communication in asecond language. Berlin/ NY: Mouton de Gruyter.[(eds.) is used when there is more than one editor; and (ed.) where there is only one editor. InGerman the abbreviation used is (Hrsg.) for Herausgeber].Edited articlesSchmidt, R./Shimura, A./Wang, Z./Jeong, H. (1996), Suggestions to buy: Television commercialsfrom the U.S., Japan, China, and Korea. In: Gass, S./Neu, J. (eds.) (1996), Speech acts acrosscultures. Challenges to communication in a second language. Berlin/ NY: Mouton de Gruyter:285-316.* If a number of articles from a particular edited volume are included in the bibliography, there isno need to list the edited volume each time. Instead the edited volume itself should be listed onceand each reference from the volume in the following short format:Schmidt, R./Shimura, A./Wang, Z./Jeong, H. (1996), Suggestions to buy: Television commercialsfrom the U.S., Japan, China, and Korea. In: Gass, S./Neu, J. (eds.) (1996): 285-316.
  • 8. Page | 8i.e. it is not necessary to give the name of the edited volume, the place of publication or thepublisher each time.Journal articles:McQuarrie, E.F./Mick, D.G. (1992), On resonance: A critical pluralistic inquiry into advertisingrhetoric. Journal of consumer research 19, 180-197.Staczek, J.J. (1993), The English language and the Gulf War: Corpus linguistics, variation, andword-formation. World Englishes 12, 1, 15-24.Electronic book:Chandler, D. (1994), Semiotics for beginners [HTML document]. Retrieved [5.10.01] from theWorld Wide Web, http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/.Electronic journal articles:Watts, S. (2000) Teaching talk: Should students learn real German? [HTML document]. Germanas a Foreign Language Journal [online] 1. Retrieved [12.09.00] from the World Wide Web,http://www.gfl-journal.com/.Other websites:Verterhus, S.A. (n.y.), Anglicisms in German car advertising. The problem of gender assignment[HTML document]. Retrieved [13.10.01] from the World Wide Web,http://olaf.hiof.no/~sverrev/eng.html.Unpublished papers:Takahashi, S./DuFon, M.A. (1989), Cross-linguistic influence in indirectness: The case of Englishdirectives performed by native Japanese speakers. Unpublished paper, Department of English as aSecond Language, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu.Unpublished theses/ dissertations:Möhl, S. (1996), Alltagssituationen im interkulturellen Vergleich: Realisierung von Kritik undAblehnung im Deutschen und Englischen. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Hamburg.Walsh, R. (1995), Language development and the year abroad: A study of oral grammaticalaccuracy amongst adult learners of German as a foreign language. Unpublished PhD dissertation,University College Dublin.Also note:• Remember to follow linguistic rather than literature conventions (i.e. the year of publicationshould be placed after researchers names rather than at the end of the reference).• The bibliography should be arranged in alphabetical order.
  • 9. Page | 9• If you are referencing an internet article with no year given, include the abbreviation n.y.where the year of publication would normally be included (in brackets, if the aboveformating conventions are adopted).• Page numbers are not usually given for internet sources since the number of pages differswith different computers/ printers.• a, b, c, ...: If a number of articles in your bibliography were published by the same author inone particular year, these must be differentiated by the use of letters after the relevant year.e.g. Crystal, D. (1999a),Crystal, D. (1999b)The point of this convention is to make clear to the reader which article is of importance at aparticular point in the text.• Reference to original publication dates can be given in square brackets following thereference.• Abbreviations may be given for places of publication. If used, they should be usedconsistently,e.g. Use "N.Y." for "New York" and "N.J." for "New Jersey", or just "New York" and "NewJersey" but do not use "N.Y." and "New Jersey".j) AppendixThe appendix should be used for data collected (e.g. questionnaires, transcripts, ...) and fortables and graphs not included in the main text due to their subsidiary nature or to spaceconstraints in the main text.Although the appendices should be listed in the table of contents, it should be remembered thatthe appendices should be read parallel to the main text, not following it. The reader cannot,however, be expected to know exactly when each appendix is relevant and must, therefore, betold when to refer to which appendix. To do this a simple (cf. Appendix 1) should be includedat the relevant place in the text and all appendices should be clearly numbered.For example:"This research instrument essentially requires respondents to write both sides of an open roleplay ordialogue for a series of situations (cf. Appendix 6 for an example) ..."3. Citation guidelines (i.e. referring to particular passages, books or authors in thetext)If you knowingly do not acknowledge other authors thoughts, ideas or research, you can beaccused of plagiarism. Here we deal with the following issues:a) Quotationsb) Referencingc) Second-hand quoting/ referencingIt should be noted here that it is suggested here to only include minimal citation details in the text(i.e. authors names, year of publication and page number(s), if relevant). For complete details, thereader is expected to consult the bibliography.
  • 10. Page | 10a) QuotationsIncorporating quotations into the text:I. Quotations of less than three lines in length should be placed in quotation marks andincorporated into the main text. The quotation details may or may not be included in themain text. An example where the reference details are included in the text is thefollowing:As Meara (1994:32) comments: "Despite the huge amount of resources that the yearabroad uses up, there is not a great deal of research on how effective it really is".This lack of research relates in particular to the development of pragmaticcompetence during a period of study abroad ...Alternatively, the source may be given directly after the quotation, as in the following case:In contrast, politeness in pragmatics is concerned with "… ways in which the relationalfunction in linguistic action is expressed" (Kasper 1994:3206). In other words, ....II. Quotations of three lines or more should be indented left and, if desired, also right. A newline should be used for the quotation and the quotation given in single spacing. Thesequotations do not require quotations marks. The reference details may or may not beincluded in the main text.Example:For the purpose of the present study, I will take as a working definition ofpragmatics that proposed by Crystal (1985:240). He defines pragmatics as:… the study of LANGUAGE from the point of view of the users, especiallyof the choices they make, the CONSTRAINTS they encounter in usinglanguage in social interaction, and the effects their use of language has on theother participants in an act of communication (original emphasis).The reference to choices and constraints in this definition reflects ...Alternatively, the reference may be given directly after the quotation, as in the followingcase:Grice argues that because speakers are rational individuals and share common goals,conversations are governed by a co-operative principle, which reads:Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage atwhich it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange inwhich you are engaged (Grice 1975:45).Associated with this principle are four maxims – the maxims of quantity, quality,relation and manner – which are observed in effective conversation....
  • 11. Page | 11Referencing quotations:One author:(Chandler 2001:23)Two authors:McQuarrie/Mick (1992:196)More than two authors:Schmidt et al. (1996:286)Other conventions applying to quotations:f = the page given plus that following;e.g. 3f = pages 3 + 4a, b, c, ...: If a number of articles are included in the bibliography which were published by thesame author in one particular year, these must be differentiated by the use of letters.e.g. Schneider 1999aSchneider 1999bThe point of this convention is to make clear to the reader which article is of importance at aparticular point in the text.Online sources: Page numbers should not be given where reference is to an on-line source as pagebreaks differ for many users.ReferencingReferencing quotations:The same conventions occur here as for quotation sources.One author:(Chandler 2001:23)Two authors:McQuarrie/Mick (1992:196)More than two authors:Schmidt et al. (1996:286)Integrating references into the main text:There are a number of possibilities here. Examples include:Crystal (2001:23) reports that ....orAs McQuarrie/Mick (1992:195f) state ...or... A further reason relating to the lack of concern with pragmatic issues in the foreign languageclassroom is that research on the teaching of L2 pragmatic competence is still in its infancy (cf.Tateyama et al. 1997:163, Kasper 2000c:383).
  • 12. Page | 12orIn the past years, many researchers (e.g. Crystal 2001:23) have commented on ...Other citation conventions applying to references:f = the page given plus that following;e.g. 3f = pages 3 + 4ff = the page given plus those followinge.g. 3ff = pages 3 and those followingpassim = the page given plus elsewhere in the texte.g. 3 passim = page 3 and also other places in the texta, b, c, ...: If a number of articles are included in the bibliography which were published by thesame author in one particular year, these must be differentiated by the use of letters.e.g. Barron 1999aBarron 1999bThe point of this convention is to make clear to the reader which article is of importance at aparticular point in the text.Online sources: Page numbers should not be given where reference is to an on-line source as pagebreaks differ for many users.Second-hand quoting/ referencingOn no account should you include any quotations which you have not read yourself nor should youstrictly speaking refer to other research which you have not consulted yourself. If the latter casecannot be avoided, you should note this in the text and include both this reference and the originalreference in your bibliography.4. Style/ accuracyTerm papers should not be written in a casual conversational style. They are academic papersand should therefore be written in an academic style.Some points to note:• Academic English or indeed German involves use of a broad, appropriately used vocabularyand a wide variety of relatively complex sentence structures - i.e. avoid overuse of highfrequency vocabulary, repetitiveness and the use of short, simple sentences. Your task is tocommunicate your ideas and results to your reader in a clear, explicit, straightforwardmanner. Your use of language should facilitate this aim.• Consistent orthography: When writing in English, use the orthography of one varietyconsistently - i.e. do not switch between British English and American English orthography.If writing in German, choose the old or the new orthography conventions and do not switchfrom one to the other.• When referring to yourself in the paper, you should try to avoid the use of "I" (although thisconvention appears to be changing somewhat recently). Alternatives to "I" include the use
  • 13. Page | 13of the passive (e.g. "The questionnaire was distributed to 30 informants") or constructions,such as "the researcher" (e.g. "The researcher was present at all times during the datacollection").• Do not start a new paragraph unless you wish to introduce a new point or idea.• Never include vague statements such as "Many researchers ...." without mentioning theresearchers in question.• When including numbers in your paper, note that the numbers up to ten should be writtenout (e.g. five magazines). Over ten, the figure itself may be included (e.g. 20 newspapers).• All abbreviations used should be introduced in the first instance with the word written outin full. Also, if a number of abbreviations are used, a list of these should be included on aseparate page following the table of contents.• Ensure you have no spelling mistakes or typing errors in the paper. The spell checkincluded with word processing packages is advisable in this regard. However, do not relyexclusively on spell checks. Instead, read through your paper yourself or preferably asksomeone else to read it through for you. Ensure in particular that all key words andresearchers names are spellt correctly.A search for blank spaces is also worthwhile as these prove quite annoying to readers. Thisis easily done with a simple search (rather than searching for a word, search for two blankspaces).• Punctuation errors are also common. If unsure, consult a reference book.• If writing in a foreign language, you should have your paper read by a native speaker beforesubmission.5. Presentation/ formatingAttending to the formal appearance of your paper is also an important aspect of writing termpapers. The following are some general guidelines:• Papers should be submitted in a neat manner. Pages should be bound together in somemanner - the use of a folder is recommended for this purpose. Use of a word processor and agood quality printer also adds to the quality of presentation.• One and a half spacing is recommended. Times New Roman 12 is a suitable font size. Widemargins are necessary for comments by the person correcting. A top margin of 2.5 cm, abottom margin of 2 cm, a left-hand margin of 4 cm and a right-hand margin of 2 cm isrecommended.• Occasional use of lists set apart from the main text is also a welcome relief to the reader.They are clearer and are also quicker to read than the same list included as part of the maintext.• Main headings and sub-headings should be given in different sizes in the main text.
  • 14. Page | 14• Bold print, italics and bulleting can also be employed to enhance the clarity of organisationand structure of the paper. However, avoid overuse. In the main text, generally speaking,o bold print should be used for headings and sub-headings (and for titles of graphs/tables included).o bulleting can be used for lists.o Italics can be used for examples but see the section on the inclusion of examples.o Underlining can be used for emphasis.• All tables and graphs should be clearly numbered and given an appropriate title.e.g. Figure 1: Frequency of the politeness marker bitte (please) with conventionally directrequest strategiese.g. Table 1: Terms used by Irish learners to describe the German people prior to the yearabroad.• All sections should be numbered as in the table of contents.• Inverted commas should be used consistently. In German, use the following invertedcommas: „ “. In English, choose between the use of double (" ") or single ( ) quotationmarks. Generally speaking, double quotation marks are associated with American Englishand single with British English. However, such conventions are not as either/or as they oncewere and the reader may become confused by the use of for both single quotation marksand apostrophees (e.g. the researchers).6. Inclusion of examplesIt is recommended to include some of the data gathered in your investigation in the text ofyour paper for illustratory purposes. Examples taking the form of sentences should start on anew line and be indented, as in the following example:An example of the present learners use of the politeness marker bitte (please) include:(1) A2F:Judith, kann ich bitte deine Aufzeichnungen ausleihen, weil ...(A2F (translation): Judith, can I borrow your notes, please because ... )* (1) refers to the number of the example. This is recommended where a number of examples aregiven and examples are referred to on a number of occasions. A2F refers to the informant who gavethis response on the questionnaire employed.Shorter examples (e.g. words or phrases) do not need to be set apart from the main text but theyshould be formated in some consistent way - e.g. italicised throughout the text.Whether long or short, where necessary, examples given should also be translated. The translatedversion should be marked as such.7. Footnotes/ endnotesFootnotes should not generally be used for references as this is very space-consuming and not
  • 15. Page | 15reader-friendly. Instead, incorporate your references into the main text (cf. citation/ referencingguidelines). Of course, if a number of researchers findings are of relevance at a particular pointin the text, including these in a footnote may be more reader-friendly than including a long listin the main text. Use your intuition on this point.Footnotes are designed to enhance the reader-friendly nature of the text. They are used to givefurther information which is not directly relevant to the text and which the reader does not have toread to understand the argument/ discussion at hand.8. Comments on plagerismWhat is plagerism?Plagerism is when you knowingly use the intellectual work of others without acknowledgement. Itcan take the form of direct copying from the writings of others or the presentation of the ideas ofothers in a paraphrased form - without acknowledgement.If you like the ideas of a researcher, you may of course refer to these ideas or indeed quote from thewritings of this person as long as you formally acknowledge their work but you may not simplyadopt his/ her ideas as your own. This also applies to works written in a different language.Translation of ideas or writings is also plagerism if the original author is not acknowledged.What about internet materials?Internet materials used should be cited just as all other sources used.What are the reprecussions, if I plagerise in a term paper submitted to the Department of ICT inthe Comilla University?Term papers may in certain instances be failed on the grounds of plagerism alone.Want to read more on plagerism?Have a look at Laura MacGregors (2001) article "A student guide to plagerism"9. Major pitfalls of writing term papers• Lack of focusBefore writing a term paper, you should ensure you have a question which you attempt toanswer in your paper. This question should be kept in mind throughout the paper. Answerthis question and only this question. Include only information/ details/ analyses of relevanceto the question at hand. Waffle and irrelevancies only serve to annoy your readers -remember they have many more papers to read besides yours. Keep them interested anddont waste their time.Sometimes, the relevance of a particular section may be clear to you but not to your readers.To avoid this, ensure you briefly explain the relevance of every section.• Badly structuredYour text should flow from one sentence to the next, from one paragraph to the next, andfrom one section to the next. In other words, you should attempt to hold your readersattention at all times, from the beginning to the end of the paper.Generally speaking, you should not introduce a new paragraph unless you are addressing a
  • 16. Page | 16new point - and if you are, ensure you do use a new paragraph. Put yourself in the readersposition or better still, ask someone else to read your text before you submit it (preferablysomeone not familar with the area) - can they follow your line of argument?; do thedifferent sections link well?• Assuming expert knowledge of the readerDo not assume that your readers are experts in your area of research. Instead, imagine themto be familiar with the area but not with the specific details of your specific question/ topic.Make your paper reader-friendly. Guide your readers, tell them why you are giving detailsof a particular aspect. Give examples of concepts of importance. Interpret your data for thereaders and discuss it in a reader-friendly manner.• Carelessness (spelling, formating, ...)Before submitting, you should spell-check your document for typing errors. If you arewriting your text in a foreign language, you should have it checked by a native speaker.Ensure your paper is formatted in a consistent manner:o Have you used the same spacing throughout the main text?o Are all headings/ sub-headings formatted consistently (size/ italics/ bold/ font/ ..)?o Have you consistently either left a space between paragraphs or not left a space?o Are all your bibliographical details complete? From the beginning of your researchefforts, you should ensure that you take exact notes of researchers names, titles ofarticles, edited editions and monographs, place of publication details, details of therelevant publishing house, and also page number for articles. In the bibliographysection above, I referred to the use of Literat, a free program designed specificallyfor keeping track of references. This is one of many possibilities.o Are your bibliographical details formated in a consistent manner? The bibliographyis the easiest part of a term paper to write but also that part which is often the mostcareless part of students term papers and that which causes the most annoyance tolecturers correcting papers so it is well worth putting some effort into (check theguidelines).10. Assessment sheetAs you will note, all points detailed above are taken into account in the final grading.Names:Title:
  • 17. Page | 17Seminar:Length of paper:Appearance of paper:Typing errors, etc.:Language/ style:Title:Focus of paper:Table of contents/ structure:Introduction:Conclusion:Bibliography:Choice of literature:Method of citation:Integration of literature:Method:Analysis/ discussion:Final overall commentDate:Grade:11. Links to term paper guidelines• Widok, Europa-Universität Viadrina• Writing academic essay guidelines presented by Daniel Chandler• APAStyle.org electronic reference guidelines• A guide for writing research papers presented by the Capital Community College, Hartford,Connecticut12. Further readingsAlley, M. (1987), The craft of scientific writing. Englewood Cliffs/ N.J.: Prentice.Buenting, K.-D./Bitterlich, A./Pospiech, U. (2000), Schreiben im Studium mit Erfolg: ein Leitfaden.2nd revised ed. Berlin: Cornelsen Scriptor.Eco, U. (1991), Wie man eine wissenschaftliche Abschlußarbeit schreibt. Doktor-, Diplom- undMagisterarbeit in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften. 4th ed. Heidelberg: Müller.
  • 18. Page | 18Gibaldi, J. (ed.) (1992), Introduction to scholarship in modern languages and literatures. 2nd ed.N.Y.: MLA Publications.Greenbaum, S./ Whitcut, J. (1988), Guide to English usage. London: Longman.Peck, J. (1999), The students guide to writing. Grammar, punctuation and spelling. Basingstoke,etc.: Macmillan.Poenicke, K. (1988), Duden: Wie verfaßt man wissenschaftliche Arbeiten? Ein Leitfaden vom 1.Studiensemester bis zur Promotion. 2nd revised ed. Mannheim, etc.: Dudenverlag.Poenicke, K. (1989), Die schriftliche Arbeit: Materialsammlung und Manuskriptgestaltung fürFach-, Seminar- und Abschlußarbeiten an Schule und Universität. 2nd ed. Mannheim, etc.:Dudenverlag.Standop, E. (1990), Die Form der wissenschaftlichen Arbeit. 13th ed. Heidelberg: Quelle & Myer.Wilkinson, A.M. (1991), The scientists handbook for writing papers and dissertations. EnglewoodCliffs/ N.J.: Prentice Hall.