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    Cost effective research_complete_show2 Cost effective research_complete_show2 Presentation Transcript

    • COST EFFECTIVE ONLINE RESEARCH West‟s Instructional Aid Series
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 2
    • INTRODUCTION TO COST-EFFECTIVE ONLINE RESEARCH • With the Westlaw access that you enjoy as a student, you may not be accustomed to thinking about the efficiency of your online research. • In the real world, whether you are a new associate, a solo practitioner, or other legal professional, costeffective research is a necessary skill. • There are many ways to save money and time when searching on Westlaw and still getting the results you need. • Saving time is saving money. 3
    • THE BEST ADVICE WE CAN GIVE YOU! • Call a West Reference Attorney before signing on to Westlaw if you are unsure of: – the steps you must take to retrieve the needed document(s) – the database(s) most likely to contain the documents or information you need – the database(s) that will be most cost-effective – the most effective way to structure a search – which printing option to choose – which billing method to use • Reach West Reference Attorneys at 1-800-850-WEST (1-800-850-9378) 4
    • KNOW THE TERMS OF YOUR EMPLOYER‟S WESTLAW CONTRACT • WestlawPRO plans are available to small firms, government agencies, and state trial courts. – There is a flat monthly rate for databases within the plan. – WestlawPRO plans may be: • • • • Jurisdictional Topical Analytical News • Accessing material in databases outside the WestlawPRO plan incurs additional charges based on regular hourly or transactional pricing. • You may see a warning screen when attempting to access a database outside your employer‟s plan. 5
    • KNOW THE TERMS OF YOUR EMPLOYER‟S WESTLAW CONTRACT • Other types of Westlaw plans include: – Customized flat rate plans • a flat-rate payment each month for access to Westlaw • some databases are excluded • some plans have upper limits on usage – Traditional Subscription Plans • pay standard transaction or hourly rate • unlimited access to databases • Ask your employer‟s librarian or administrator about the terms of their plan. 6
    • USE PRINT RESOURCES TO SUPPLEMENT ONLINE RESEARCH • Use your library‟s print resources to help you refine your issue(s) and determine which type of document (e.g. case, statute, or law review article) you need before going online. • After running a search and retrieving relevant documents online, print a list of citations and read the documents offline in books. 7
    • USE „FIND BY CITATION‟ • Use „Find by citation‟ to retrieve a document when you know its citation. – Doing a “find” saves time: you don‟t have to access the database and then formulate a search. – Doing a “find” saves money: running a “search” in a database is more expensive then performing a “find”. 8
    • FIND BY CITATION TEMPLATES • If you don‟t know the correct citation format: Type what you believe to be the citation and a template with the correct format will appear; OR Click „Find Using a Template‟ for a list of templates; OR Type the name of the document into the „Find by citation box‟ to retrieve a list of templates. 9
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 10
    • TRANSACTIONAL v. HOURLY PRICING • Westlaw has two different options for pricing – Transactional Pricing: charges incurred by transaction. – Hourly Pricing: charges incurred by the minute. • Depending upon the type of research you are doing one option may be more cost-effective than the other. • You may change your pricing option depending upon the type of research you are doing to ensure that you are conducting the most cost effective research. 11
    • CHANGING YOUR PRICING PREFERENCE Select „Preferences‟ from the top right side of the screen. The „Location and Pricing‟ page will open and your current „Pricing‟ options will be displayed. NOTE: Any pricing changes will take effect the next time you log into Westlaw. You will need to sign off and back on for the changes to take effect. From the drop down menu you can change your pricing preferences. Once you have selected your preference click „Save Changes‟ from the bottom of the screen. 12
    • TRANSACTIONAL PRICING • With transactional pricing you incur a charge for each transaction that you complete. • Transactions include – running a search in a database, even if you retrieve no results – retrieving a document using „Find by citation‟ – retrieving a document using a hypertext link or a „Next/Previous section‟ link – using KeyCite and the Table of Authorities 13
    • TRANSACTIONAL PRICING CONT. • Transactional prices vary depending on – The type of transaction • For example, a “find” is less expensive than running a “search”. – The database you are using • For example, a search in “New York State Cases” is less expensive than a search in “All State and Federal Cases” because the former is a smaller database then the latter. • There is no charge for the following in transactional pricing – Using the „Locate in Result‟ feature – Browsing the Table of Contents, Custom Digest, or Westlaw Directory – Viewing the Scope screen for a database 14
    • TRANSACTIONAL PRICING CONT. • Benefits of transactional pricing – It is predictable – You can browse search results online for as long as you like to determine which ones are relevant • Use transactional pricing if you – Plan to run only one or two searches – Will spend time reading documents online – Want to spend more than a minute or two in • • • • the Westlaw Directory; a Table of Contents; the Custom Digest; or a Scope screen for a database 15
    • HOURLY PRICING • With hourly pricing you are charged by how much time you spend searching or browsing within a database. • Pricing includes – database charges, which depend on the database and your Westlaw subscription plan. Most databases fall within the $8 to $30 a minute range. – connect time charges – communication charges 16
    • HOURLY PRICING CONT. • Use hourly pricing when you plan to: – run multiple searches – check a number of citations in KeyCite – retrieve many documents using „Find by citation‟ – spend only a short time on Westlaw – run your search in multiple databases 17
    • ASK AT SIGN ON • From the Pricing options drop down menu, you also have the option to „Ask at Sign On‟. – This option will create a prompt every time you log on to Westlaw to select either Hourly or Transactional Pricing before continuing on to Westlaw. – Choosing this option will remind you to think about which method of pricing will be most cost-effective each time you begin a new research project. – You should choose „Ask at Sign On‟ if your pricing choice will change often. 18
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 19
    • CHOOSING A SEARCH METHOD • Decide whether Terms and Connectors or Natural Language searching will be more effective. – Use Natural Language when: • you are searching for broad concepts • you are a new or infrequent user of Westlaw • your Terms and Connectors search is not retrieving the information you need – Use Terms and Connectors when: • you are searching for particular terms • you need all documents containing specific information, such as – all cases with a particular topic and key number; or – all articles that mention a specific company name • you need to search a database for which Natural Language searching is not available 20
    • FORMULATING A COST-EFFECTIVE SEARCH • Search Preparation – Fully plan your search on paper before signing on to Westlaw. – Articulate your issue, using concise legal terminology. • For example: liability of a car manufacturer for defective tires – Choose key terms. • For the search above, key terms include: liability car defective tire – Add reasonable alternative terms for your key terms. liability car vehicle automobile defective dangerous tire – If you are using the Terms and Connectors search method, select appropriate connectors. • For example: liab! /p car automobile vehicle /p danger! defect! /s tire 21
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 22
    • CHOOSING THE MOST COST-EFFECTIVE DATABASE • Use the smallest database that contains the documents you need. – ALL as part of a database identifier indicates a large database that contains more than one smaller database. For example: • use the database New York Cases (NY-CS) rather than All State Cases (ALLSTATES) if you only need cases from New York. • use the database Environmental Law Reviews, Texts & Bar Journals (ENV-TP) rather than All Texts & Periodicals (TP-ALL) if you need only environmental articles. • use the database for the New York Times (NYT) rather than All News (ALLNEWS) if the article you need was published in The New York Times. – Both hourly and transactional rates are higher in the larger databases. 23
    • SCOPE • The Scope screen for a database provides descriptive information on the contents of the database, dates of coverage, and helpful search tips. • Remember, in transactional pricing there is no charge to view the Scope screen. The Scope screen can be accessed by clicking on the icon. Once opened it provides content, coverage and searching information. 24
    • SUBSCRIBER • Use the SUBSCRIBER database to check the cost of searching in a database using hourly or transactional pricing. • There is no charge to view SUBSCRIBER in transactional pricing. • Law students cannot view the SUBSCRIBER database. 25
    • ACCESSING SUBSCRIBER Type “Subscriber” into a „Search for a database‟ box and then enter the database identifier into the template. Subscriber will then display the hourly and transaction rates for the database. 26
    • FINDING THE APPROPRIATE DATABASE • If you don‟t know which database(s) might be appropriate, use the Westlaw Directory. – Access the Westlaw Directory by clicking „Directory‟ on the toolbar. – You can view the Directory in either a Tree view or Web View. • In the Tree view, click either a plus (+) or minus (-) symbol to expand a category and click the blue hypertext link to access a search page for a database. • In the Web view, click a yellow folder to expand a category or click a blue hypertext link to access a search page for a database. – You can change the view of your Directory from the Preferences link at the top right side of your screen. – No transactional charges are incurred by browsing the Directory. 27
    • WESTLAW DIRECTORY From „Preferences‟ click „Document Display‟ to change the Westlaw Directory display. Tree View Web View 28
    • SEARCH FOR A DATABASE • You can also find the appropriate database by entering a description of the material your searching for in the ‘Search for a Database’ box located on the left side of most tabs on Westlaw. Note: You incur no transactional charges for using Search for a Database. Enter the description of what you are searching for in Search for a Database. A list of possible database names and their identifiers is displayed. Check the database you need and click OK at the bottom of the screen. 29
    • FIND A DATABASE WIZARD • In addition to the Westlaw Directory and „Search for a Database‟, you can also find a database using the Find a Database Wizard. – The „Find a Database Wizard‟ link is located on the left side of the Westlaw Directory, under the „Search for a Database‟ box on a tab, or from the link „Find a Database‟ in „Find and Print‟. – The „Find a Database Wizard‟ asks a series of questions to guide you to a suggested database. – The „Find a Database Wizard‟ is a good option when you aren‟t sure where to go in the Westlaw Directory. – No transactional charges are incurred by utilizing the „Find a Database Wizard‟. 30
    • ACCESSING FIND A DATABASE WIZARD Access the Find a Database Wizard from the left side of a tab, left side of the Westlaw Directory, or from Find and Print. Once within the „Find a Database Wizard‟ answer the template questions to find the correct database. 31
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 32
    • BILL BY LINE v. BY DOCUMENT • Printing charges apply to a document when you: – Print – Download – Email – Export – Fax • You can pay for printing “By Document” or “By Line” – You can change your pricing option from Preferences. Note: You must log out and log back in for changes to take effect. 33
    • BILL BY LINE • Bill by Line pricing is better for printing short documents (less than five pages). – Current Cost as of August 2010: • 5 cents per line for most Westlaw databases or • Up to 18 cents per line for selected databases You can limit your document to specific fields by clicking Tools in the lower right corner of the document display and then print only those fields. Or, you can print just the page(s) containing your search terms or a Result List rather than printing entire documents. 34
    • BILL BY DOCUMENT • Bill by Document pricing charges you a flat printing rate per document transmitted offline, regardless of its length. • Each of the following print options is considered a document when using bill by document pricing: – – – – Full text or Statutory text only Selected Star pages First page only the Result List • Current Cost as of August 2010: – $16.50 or $27.50 per document for most Westlaw databases – Up to $55 per document for some databases 35
    • SAVE ON WESTLAW • Using the Save on Westlaw print option, you can store your print request for up to 30 days with no print charges in the Offline Print Directory. • At any time within the 30 days, you can access the Print/Delivery Manager from the Site Map, and select the document for printing, downloading or emailing or delete the document altogether. 36
    • SAVE ON WESTLAW CONT. Select Save on Westlaw from the Other print option. To later access the document and change the delivery destination, click on Print/Delivery Manager from the Site Map. From there you can select the document and print, email, download, fax, save for additional time, or delete the document. 37
    • PRINTING AT NO CHARGE • There is no charge for printing information from the following services: – KeyCite list – Westlaw Directory – Scope • In addition, there is no charge for using the following functions while online: – Print screen – Internet browser print – Copy and paste 38
    • CONTENT • Introduction • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Searching • Formulating a Cost-Effective Search • Choosing the Most Cost-Effective Database • Choosing the Best Pricing Option for Printing • Other Cost-Effective Services • Conclusion 39
    • FIND AND PRINT • The Westlaw Find & Print service can be accessed from: – findprint.westlaw.com – the westlaw.com home page – the westlaw.com sign-on page • You can enter citations and automatically print up to 99 documents at one time. • You can also check a list of cases with KeyCite. • The current charge as of August 2010 can range from $30.50 - $149.00 per document. There is no additional charge for content within your firm‟s subscription. 40
    • You can access Find and Print from westlaw.com‟s home page. Access from findprint.westlaw.com. Or access from westlaw.com‟s sign-on page. From Find and Print you can also retrieve KeyCite information for a list of citations. 41
    • THE KEY NUMBER SYSTEM • West‟s Key Number System allows you to quickly find other cases that discuss the same legal issue as the case at hand. • A unique key number is assigned to every point of law. – The key numbers are linked to every headnote in West‟s National Reporter System that discusses that point of law. • The next slide contains an example of a search in West‟s Key Number System. 42
    • You can access the Key Number System from the tool bar at the top of the screen. From this screen you can search for a key number by term or by browsing the key number digest. If you search by term, Westlaw will retrieve key numbers based on your terms and will suggest related terms. Click the hyper-linked key number or check the box to search that topic. From the Digest Outline you can expand and collapse categories to find relevant key numbers. To search a key number check the box to the left of the number and click Search selected. 43
    • On the next screen, check to ensure that the key number you selected is displayed and select the jurisdiction you want search. You can also add additional terms to your search from this screen. Click Search. You have now created a Custom Digest of the headnotes from your jurisdiction that address your issue. 44
    • KEYSEARCH • Another way to find relevant key numbers is through KeySearch. – West attorney-editors have created logical topics and subtopics that are arranged alphabetically. – Links to popular subtopics are listed below each main topic for quick retrieval. Use KeySearch when you are unfamiliar with an area of the law or are unfamiliar with the Key Number System. 45
    • KEYSEARCH CONT. • Clicking the yellow folder icons allows you to narrow your subtopic further. – A magnifying glass icon indicates that you are in the narrowest subtopic. – Clicking the magnifying glass, brings you to a search screen that allows you to search cases with headnotes, cases without headnotes, or secondary sources. You can also include additional terms. Note: the KeySearch path is displayed at the top of the page so that it is easy to navigate back to larger categories. 46
    • RESULTSPLUS • ResultsPlus appears on the results screen after you have run a search on Westlaw. Click „View All Results‟ for a complete list of ResultsPlus results. • ResultsPlus suggests additional relevant documents from secondary sources, motions and briefs, and suggests possible Key Numbers based upon your search terms. • Using ResultsPlus you can retrieve numerous additional relevant materials with only one search. 47
    • STATUTESPLUS AND REGULATIONSPLUS • The „Links for‟ tab, which is in the left frame when viewing a statute or regulation, contains resources that provide information and documents essential for thorough statutory research. • These resources expedite, expand and verify your statutory or regulatory research. • StatutesPlus and RegulationsPlus saves money because it saves time. • It‟s a one stop shop! 48
    • STATUTESPLUS CONT. • „Links for‟ includes quick links to: – KeyCite information – Table of Contents – Section Outline – Notes of Decisions – Historical Versions – Analysis (Secondary Sources) – Legislative History – Administrative Materials – Cross References – 50 State Surveys 49
    • OTHER COST-EFFECTIVE SERVICES • Locate in Results is a search within the results of a prior search. Under transactional billing there is no extra transactional fee for a locate search. • Table of Contents browsing incurs no transactional or hourly database charges. However, there is a charge if you link to a particular document. • KeyCite lets you quickly trace the history of a case(s) through the appellate process and/or retrieve a list of cases and secondary sources that cite the case. • KeyCite Alert monitors and automatically delivers to you any change in the status of a case or statute. Cost depends on pricing plan. 50
    • OTHER COST-EFFECTIVE SERVICES • WestClip allows you to stay up-to-date on legal issues without spending unnecessary time online by running searches automatically. Results can be automatically delivered to the destination of your choice. • WestCheck.com automatically extracts citations from a word-processing document and runs them in KeyCite to determine whether they are good law and/or to retrieve a list of cases and secondary sources citing the document. 51
    • CONCLUSION • Don‟t forget the Westlaw Reference Attorneys! – – Available to help you at no charge – There are licensed attorneys – They are fully experienced Westlaw users – • Available 24 hours a day, seven days a week They are a knowledgeable and friendly research resource Call the Reference Attorneys at: 1-800-850-WEST 52