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Ethiopian

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  • Cricetid mice- (Cricetidae)- A large and very successful family that comprises the hamsters, voles, lemmings, gerbils, and the New World rats and mice. Murid mice-(Muridae) Muridae (order Rodentia, suborder Myomorpha) A family of Old World rats and mice that are perhaps the most successful of all mammalian families.Mustelids (Family Mustelidae) is a diverse group of carnivores that includes skunks, martens, badgers, otters, and minks. Various members of this family inhabit terrestrial, arboreal, semiaquatic, or aquatic habitats. The are distributed throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
  • Coneys- any of several small ungulate mammals of Africa and Asia with rodent-like incisors and feet with hooflike toes
  • the dromedary or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the Bactrian camel has two humps, They are native to the dry desert areas of West Asia, and Central and East Asia, respectively. The term camel is also used more broadly to describe any of the six camel-like creatures in the family Camelidae: the two true camels, and the four South Americancamelids, the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña. Fossil evidence indicates that the ancestors of modern camels evolved in North America during the Palaeogene period, and later spread to most parts of Asia. Humans first domesticated camels before 2000 BC. The almost 14 million dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in Somalia, the Sahel, Maghreb, Middle East and Indian subcontinent). The Bactrian camel is now reduced to an estimated 1.4 million animals, mostly domesticated. It is thought that there are about 1000 wild Bactrian camels in the Gobi Desert in China and Mongolia.[There is a substantial feral population of dromedaries estimated[4] at up to 1,000,000 in central parts of Australia, descended from individuals introduced as transport animals in the 19th century and early 20th century.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ethiopian Region
    • 2.
      • Africa South of Atlas Mts. and Sahara
      • 3. Southern corner of Arabia
      • 4. Land connection with Northern Neighbour
      • 5. Otherwise isolated by sea
      • 6. Has big rivers, Tropical evergreen forests, mountains and grassy plains like neotropical region but does not reach far into the southern temperate zone.
      • 7. Large Madagascar island with its small neighbours is often included.
    • Climate
      Mainly tropical
      Large block of rain forests- equatorial west Africa
      Many small patches of rainforests elsewhere
      Rest of Africa covered by dry or seasonal thorn scrub or grassland grading into desert northward and southwest ward.
      Southern tip- warm temperate with complexly mixed vegetations
    • 8. Ethiopian region
      Mammals
    • 9. Mammals
      Most varied with 38 fam. excluding bats
      In no. of unique fam. it rank second to Neotropical
      Apart from Twelve exclusive fam. , rest of families shared with either palearctic or oriental region
    • 10. Mammals- widely distributed
      Shrews
      With a wide distribution:-
      Shrews
      Cricetid mice
      Murid mice
      Dogs
      Mustelids
      Badgers, Otters etc.
      Cats
      Bovids(hollow-horned ruminants)
      Mostly antelopes, Cape buffaloes etc.
      Badger (Mustelid)
      Cape Buffaloes
    • 11. Mammals- Palearctic & Oriental Fam.
      Fam. Shared with both palearctic and Oriental Regions
      Hedgehogs
      Porcupines
      Civets
      Hyenas
      Pigs
      Hyenas
      Hedgehog
      Porcupines
      African Civet
    • 12. Mammals-Palearctic fam.
      Fam. Shared with Palearctic
      Dormice
      Jerboas (Dipodidae)
      Coneys
      (e.g. Hyrax called asDassie in S. Africa)
      Wild Horses
      Jerboas
      Dormice
      Rock Hyrax
    • 13. Mammals- Difference with Palearctic
      Palearctic fam. not represented in Ethiopian region
      Moles
      Beavers
      Bears
      Camels (camels seen in Africa are domesticated)
      Eurasian Mole
      Eurasian Beaver
    • 14. Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      8 families- 3 primates and two large ungulates
      Pangolins or scaly anteaters, only genus shared by both regions, but all other shared fam. are different at generic level in the two regions.
      Scaly Anteater
    • 15. Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      Loxodonta, the African Elephant
      Huge ears and long tusks
      Elephas, the Indian Elephant, a smaller animal
    • 16. Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      African Black Rhino
      Sumatran Rhino
      African White Rhino
      Two oriental genera, one of which two-horned
      Indian Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis1
      Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus1
      Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinussumatrensis2
      White and black African Rhinoceros each with two nasal horns (2)
    • 17. Lorisidae- Slender lorises in Oriental
      Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      Pottos
      Galagos
      Slender lorises
      Primate-Pottos (Tailless ape)
      Galagos (Bush babies, Nagapies, Little night monkeys)
      lives in Africa
    • 18. Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      Drill
      Baboons
      Hanuman Langur
      Mangabeys
      Geladas
      Guenons
      Golden Langur
      Old World Monkeys- More diverse and varied
      Macaques, drills, baboons, mangabeys, guenons and geladas
      Less divers- small no. of oriental langurs
    • 19. Mammals- Oriental Fam.
      Gorilla
      Orangutan
      Gibbon
      Chimpanzee
      Apes- Gorilla, Chimpanzee in Western and Central Africa
      Apes- Orangutan and Gibbon in Oriental region
    • 20. Mammals
      No mammal fam. exclusively in common with either nearctic or neotropical
      Herds of large herbivorous animals on open plains, zebras, loping giraffes, leaping and springing antelopes, rhinoceros, elephants along with lions and other members of the cat family are commonly seen
    • 21. Mammals- Exclusive Fam.
      12 unique fam.
      Giraffe
      Hippopotamuses and aardvarks
      3 fam. of insectivores
      6 fam. Of rodents (interesting comparison with neotropical whose rodents are also diverse and restricted).
    • 22. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Giraffe fam. two genera
      Okapi
      Giraffe
    • 23. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Amphibious hippopotamus fam. 2 genera
      Choeropsisliberiensis or Hexaprotodonliberiensis(Pygmy Hippopotamus)
      Hippopotamus amphibius
    • 24. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Aardvarks- *Order Tubulidentata – only 1 genus
      (Cape anteater- size of a small pig with a highly curved back, long snout and long tongue, on the four digits of its front feet and the five of its hind there are sharp hoofs for digging through termites nests)
      *Exclusive Order
      Aardvark
    • 25. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Endemic insectivores
      Otter shrews
      Golden moles
      Elephant shrews
      Elephant shrews
      Golden Mole
      Otter Shrews
    • 26. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Endemic rodents
      Anomaluridae (anomalures or scaly-tailed flying squirrels) Three genera: Anomalurus(Scaly-tailed Flying Squirrels), Idiurus(Flying Mice), Zenkerella(Cameroon Scaly-tail or Flightless Scaly-tailed Squirrel)
      some are squirrel like but others are more like mice
      some are gliders like, the gliding Idiurusand the african flying squirrel, Anomalurusbut some are not.
      Idiurus
      Anomalurus
      Zenkerella
    • 27. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Endemic rodents
      Fam. Pedetidae
      Pedetescapensis <Spring Haas /Spring Hare (the sole representative)>
      Pedestes(Spring Haas)
    • 28. Mammals- Exclusive fam.
      Cave Rat
      Other Endemic rodents
      Cave rats and Rock rats (affinities with old world procupines)
      Gundis and Blesmols(Mole Rats)
      Rock Rat
      Gundis
      Blesmol Naked Mole Rat
      Blesmol (Mole Rat)
    • 29. Mammals- Overview
      Diverse mixture of widely distributed fam.
      Fam. shared with oriental regions
      Exclusive fam.
      A few fam. with other relationships
      Oriental Relationships are relatively stronger than shown for many Ethiopian genera and even some species of mammals also occur in Oriental Region or have some close relatives there
    • 30. Ethiopian Region
      Birds
    • 31. Birds
      Numerous having strong affinities with Oriental Region
      67 fam., 53 occur all or much of the world
      Six exclusive fam.
      Three – honey guides, broad bills and bulbuls shared only or mainly with oriental region
      Five –crab plover, sand grouse, hoopoes, a doubtful bombycillid and a doubtful honey eaters have special or doubtful relationship
    • 32. Birds- common
      Cuckoos
      Woodpeckers
      Hornbills
      Sunbirds
      Orioles
      Many birds of prey
      Few pigeons, parrots
      and pheasants
      Wood pecker
      Hornbill
      Red crested sun bird
      Oriole
    • 33. Birds- widely distributed fam.
      Hawks
      Owls
      Herons
      Storks
      Kingfisher
      Larks
      Swallow
      Thrushes
      Thrushes
      Heron
      Storks
      Lark
      Swallow
      Kingfisher
    • 34. Birds- Old world fam.
      Bustards
      Rollers
      Bee eaters
      O.world flycatchers
      Warblers
      Weaver birds
      Starlings
      Kori Bustard
      Roller
      Starlings
      Warblers
      Weaver Bird
      Bee eater
      Blue Fly catcher
    • 35. Birds- Tropical/ Old world tropical fam.
      Trogons
      Hornbills
      Barbets
      Honey guides
      Pittas
      Bulbuls
      Sunbirds
      Barbet
      Trogon
      Honeyguide
      Pitta
    • 36. Birds- Exclusive
      Ostriches
      Secretary birds
      Ostrich is the only member of a unique order, doubtfully related to other large flightless birds in other parts of the southern hemisphere
      Secretary Birds
      Ostriches
    • 37. Birds- Exclusive
      Hammer-heads
      Crested touracos
      Crested Touracos
      Hammer-head
    • 38. Birds- Exclusive
      Mouse birds
      Helmet shrikes
      Mouse Birds
      Helmet Shrikes
    • 39. Birds- exclusive subfam. Or nearly so
      Guinea fowls
      Tree hoopoes
      Bush shrikes
      Buffalo weavers
      Widow birds
      Tick bird
      Tick bird
      Guinea Fowl
      Widow bird
      Buffalo weavers
      Tree hoopoes
      Bush shrike
    • 40. Birds- overview
      Less distinctive
      Strongly oriental in their main relationships
      Few exclusive groups
    • 41. Ethiopian Region
      Reptiles
    • 42. Reptiles-Snakes
      Many snakes
      Constricting pythons
      Biting poisonous vipers
      Viper
      Python
    • 43. Reptiles - Lizards
      Exclusive fam.- Cordylidae or spinytailed lizards or girdle-tailed lizards
      Spiny-tailed Lizard
    • 44. Reptiles - Lizards
      Chameleon fam – nearly exclusive, only 4 of 50 sp. found outside Africa and only one lizard lives as far as India.
      A few agamid (Agama sp.) and lacertid (wall lizard/ True Lizard) lizards
      No Iguanids
      Agama
      Chameleon
    • 45. Reptiles
      Crocodiles and turtles abound
      Pelmedusid turtle- side necks (Neotropical) (Pelomedusaand Pelusios)
      Trionychids
      Testudinine land tortoises
      An emydine in northwestern Africa
      Pelomedusa
      Pelusios
    • 46. Ethiopian Region
      Amphibians
    • 47. Amphibians
      Less distinctive
      Widespread frogs and toads
      Pipid fam. represented by Xenopus, the African clawed toad or Platanna (like neotrop relative aquatic)
      Hylid tree frogs absent
      Polypedatids tree frog present
      No tailed amphibians
      Xenopus
    • 48. Ethiopian Region
      Fish
    • 49. Fishes- common
      Diverse
      Carps
      Old world cat fishes
      Characins
      Lung fishes
    • 50. Fishes - Endemic
      Mormyrids
      Characin
      From their electric organs in their tails, the mormyrids generate an electric field and they are made aware of prey in their muddy pools when this field is distorted. Not related to electric eels of Amazon
      A fam. Shared by Ethiopian and Neotropical
      Mormyrids
      Characins
    • 51. Fishes - Endemic
      Lung fish Protopterus
      Related to Neotropical Lung fish Lepidosiren
      Protopterus
    • 52. Ethiopian Region
      Overview
    • 53. Overview
      Most varied fauna of all region
      In no of endemic fam. Second to neotropical region
      In fish, amphibia, reptiles it resembles both neotropical and oriental region
      In mammals and birds has strong affinity with oriental region.
      Similarities with both neotropical and oriental regions because all three have a tropical climate
      Stronger similarities with oriental because its similarities are much more stronger with the tropics of the old world than those of the new world
    • 54. Overview
      As a whole, vertebrate fauna is most like the Oriental one
      the two are roughly similar in size and in composition
      they share many fam., v. many genera and some sp.
      Parts of the fauna have close relationships with Palearctic
      principally by northward extension of tropical groups including many migratory birds and certain fam., genera and species of other vertebrates
    • 55. Overview
      Some parts of fuana more distantly related to Neotropical region
      Include several imp grps of fishes, certain amphibians and reptiles but v few birds and mammals
      Hardly any direct relationships
      b/w Ethiopian and Australian region
      b/w Ethiopian and Nearctic region.
    • 56. Overview
      Fauna is richest and most varied in more tropical areas.
      A strong general reduction of fauna northward into Sahara and less strong reduction and some differentiation southward into South Africa.
      Some differentiation of a west African wet forest and an east African open forest and steppe fauna, although the two overlap and mix complexly.
      These general differences led Wallace to divide the region into 3 subregions: West Africa, East Africa and South Africa