Cricetid mice- (Cricetidae)- A large and very successful family that comprises the hamsters, voles, lemmings, gerbils, and the New World rats and mice. Murid mice-(Muridae) Muridae (order Rodentia, suborder Myomorpha) A family of Old World rats and mice that are perhaps the most successful of all mammalian families.Mustelids (Family Mustelidae) is a diverse group of carnivores that includes skunks, martens, badgers, otters, and minks. Various members of this family inhabit terrestrial, arboreal, semiaquatic, or aquatic habitats. The are distributed throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Coneys- any of several small ungulate mammals of Africa and Asia with rodent-like incisors and feet with hooflike toes
the dromedary or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the Bactrian camel has two humps, They are native to the dry desert areas of West Asia, and Central and East Asia, respectively. The term camel is also used more broadly to describe any of the six camel-like creatures in the family Camelidae: the two true camels, and the four South Americancamelids, the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña. Fossil evidence indicates that the ancestors of modern camels evolved in North America during the Palaeogene period, and later spread to most parts of Asia. Humans first domesticated camels before 2000 BC. The almost 14 million dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in Somalia, the Sahel, Maghreb, Middle East and Indian subcontinent). The Bactrian camel is now reduced to an estimated 1.4 million animals, mostly domesticated. It is thought that there are about 1000 wild Bactrian camels in the Gobi Desert in China and Mongolia.[There is a substantial feral population of dromedaries estimated at up to 1,000,000 in central parts of Australia, descended from individuals introduced as transport animals in the 19th century and early 20th century.
Has big rivers, Tropical evergreen forests, mountains and grassy plains like neotropical region but does not reach far into the southern temperate zone.
Large Madagascar island with its small neighbours is often included.
Climate Mainly tropical Large block of rain forests- equatorial west Africa Many small patches of rainforests elsewhere Rest of Africa covered by dry or seasonal thorn scrub or grassland grading into desert northward and southwest ward. Southern tip- warm temperate with complexly mixed vegetations
Mammals Most varied with 38 fam. excluding bats In no. of unique fam. it rank second to Neotropical Apart from Twelve exclusive fam. , rest of families shared with either palearctic or oriental region
Mammals- widely distributed Shrews With a wide distribution:- Shrews Cricetid mice Murid mice Dogs Mustelids Badgers, Otters etc. Cats Bovids(hollow-horned ruminants) Mostly antelopes, Cape buffaloes etc. Badger (Mustelid) Cape Buffaloes
Mammals- Palearctic & Oriental Fam. Fam. Shared with both palearctic and Oriental Regions Hedgehogs Porcupines Civets Hyenas Pigs Hyenas Hedgehog Porcupines African Civet
Mammals-Palearctic fam. Fam. Shared with Palearctic Dormice Jerboas (Dipodidae) Coneys (e.g. Hyrax called asDassie in S. Africa) Wild Horses Jerboas Dormice Rock Hyrax
Mammals- Difference with Palearctic Palearctic fam. not represented in Ethiopian region Moles Beavers Bears Camels (camels seen in Africa are domesticated) Eurasian Mole Eurasian Beaver
Mammals- Oriental Fam. 8 families- 3 primates and two large ungulates Pangolins or scaly anteaters, only genus shared by both regions, but all other shared fam. are different at generic level in the two regions. Scaly Anteater
Mammals- Oriental Fam. Loxodonta, the African Elephant Huge ears and long tusks Elephas, the Indian Elephant, a smaller animal
Mammals- Oriental Fam. African Black Rhino Sumatran Rhino African White Rhino Two oriental genera, one of which two-horned Indian Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis1 Javan Rhinoceros, Rhinoceros sondaicus1 Sumatran Rhinoceros, Dicerorhinussumatrensis2 White and black African Rhinoceros each with two nasal horns (2)
Lorisidae- Slender lorises in Oriental Mammals- Oriental Fam. Pottos Galagos Slender lorises Primate-Pottos (Tailless ape) Galagos (Bush babies, Nagapies, Little night monkeys) lives in Africa
Mammals- Oriental Fam. Drill Baboons Hanuman Langur Mangabeys Geladas Guenons Golden Langur Old World Monkeys- More diverse and varied Macaques, drills, baboons, mangabeys, guenons and geladas Less divers- small no. of oriental langurs
Mammals- Oriental Fam. Gorilla Orangutan Gibbon Chimpanzee Apes- Gorilla, Chimpanzee in Western and Central Africa Apes- Orangutan and Gibbon in Oriental region
Mammals No mammal fam. exclusively in common with either nearctic or neotropical Herds of large herbivorous animals on open plains, zebras, loping giraffes, leaping and springing antelopes, rhinoceros, elephants along with lions and other members of the cat family are commonly seen
Mammals- Exclusive Fam. 12 unique fam. Giraffe Hippopotamuses and aardvarks 3 fam. of insectivores 6 fam. Of rodents (interesting comparison with neotropical whose rodents are also diverse and restricted).
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Giraffe fam. two genera Okapi Giraffe
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Amphibious hippopotamus fam. 2 genera Choeropsisliberiensis or Hexaprotodonliberiensis(Pygmy Hippopotamus) Hippopotamus amphibius
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Aardvarks- *Order Tubulidentata – only 1 genus (Cape anteater- size of a small pig with a highly curved back, long snout and long tongue, on the four digits of its front feet and the five of its hind there are sharp hoofs for digging through termites nests) *Exclusive Order Aardvark
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Endemic insectivores Otter shrews Golden moles Elephant shrews Elephant shrews Golden Mole Otter Shrews
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Endemic rodents Anomaluridae (anomalures or scaly-tailed flying squirrels) Three genera: Anomalurus(Scaly-tailed Flying Squirrels), Idiurus(Flying Mice), Zenkerella(Cameroon Scaly-tail or Flightless Scaly-tailed Squirrel) some are squirrel like but others are more like mice some are gliders like, the gliding Idiurusand the african flying squirrel, Anomalurusbut some are not. Idiurus Anomalurus Zenkerella
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Endemic rodents Fam. Pedetidae Pedetescapensis <Spring Haas /Spring Hare (the sole representative)> Pedestes(Spring Haas)
Mammals- Exclusive fam. Cave Rat Other Endemic rodents Cave rats and Rock rats (affinities with old world procupines) Gundis and Blesmols(Mole Rats) Rock Rat Gundis Blesmol Naked Mole Rat Blesmol (Mole Rat)
Mammals- Overview Diverse mixture of widely distributed fam. Fam. shared with oriental regions Exclusive fam. A few fam. with other relationships Oriental Relationships are relatively stronger than shown for many Ethiopian genera and even some species of mammals also occur in Oriental Region or have some close relatives there
Birds Numerous having strong affinities with Oriental Region 67 fam., 53 occur all or much of the world Six exclusive fam. Three – honey guides, broad bills and bulbuls shared only or mainly with oriental region Five –crab plover, sand grouse, hoopoes, a doubtful bombycillid and a doubtful honey eaters have special or doubtful relationship
Birds- common Cuckoos Woodpeckers Hornbills Sunbirds Orioles Many birds of prey Few pigeons, parrots and pheasants Wood pecker Hornbill Red crested sun bird Oriole
Birds- Old world fam. Bustards Rollers Bee eaters O.world flycatchers Warblers Weaver birds Starlings Kori Bustard Roller Starlings Warblers Weaver Bird Bee eater Blue Fly catcher
Birds- Tropical/ Old world tropical fam. Trogons Hornbills Barbets Honey guides Pittas Bulbuls Sunbirds Barbet Trogon Honeyguide Pitta
Birds- Exclusive Ostriches Secretary birds Ostrich is the only member of a unique order, doubtfully related to other large flightless birds in other parts of the southern hemisphere Secretary Birds Ostriches
Reptiles - Lizards Exclusive fam.- Cordylidae or spinytailed lizards or girdle-tailed lizards Spiny-tailed Lizard
Reptiles - Lizards Chameleon fam – nearly exclusive, only 4 of 50 sp. found outside Africa and only one lizard lives as far as India. A few agamid (Agama sp.) and lacertid (wall lizard/ True Lizard) lizards No Iguanids Agama Chameleon
Reptiles Crocodiles and turtles abound Pelmedusid turtle- side necks (Neotropical) (Pelomedusaand Pelusios) Trionychids Testudinine land tortoises An emydine in northwestern Africa Pelomedusa Pelusios
Amphibians Less distinctive Widespread frogs and toads Pipid fam. represented by Xenopus, the African clawed toad or Platanna (like neotrop relative aquatic) Hylid tree frogs absent Polypedatids tree frog present No tailed amphibians Xenopus
Fishes- common Diverse Carps Old world cat fishes Characins Lung fishes
Fishes - Endemic Mormyrids Characin From their electric organs in their tails, the mormyrids generate an electric field and they are made aware of prey in their muddy pools when this field is distorted. Not related to electric eels of Amazon A fam. Shared by Ethiopian and Neotropical Mormyrids Characins
Fishes - Endemic Lung fish Protopterus Related to Neotropical Lung fish Lepidosiren Protopterus
Overview Most varied fauna of all region In no of endemic fam. Second to neotropical region In fish, amphibia, reptiles it resembles both neotropical and oriental region In mammals and birds has strong affinity with oriental region. Similarities with both neotropical and oriental regions because all three have a tropical climate Stronger similarities with oriental because its similarities are much more stronger with the tropics of the old world than those of the new world
Overview As a whole, vertebrate fauna is most like the Oriental one the two are roughly similar in size and in composition they share many fam., v. many genera and some sp. Parts of the fauna have close relationships with Palearctic principally by northward extension of tropical groups including many migratory birds and certain fam., genera and species of other vertebrates
Overview Some parts of fuana more distantly related to Neotropical region Include several imp grps of fishes, certain amphibians and reptiles but v few birds and mammals Hardly any direct relationships b/w Ethiopian and Australian region b/w Ethiopian and Nearctic region.
Overview Fauna is richest and most varied in more tropical areas. A strong general reduction of fauna northward into Sahara and less strong reduction and some differentiation southward into South Africa. Some differentiation of a west African wet forest and an east African open forest and steppe fauna, although the two overlap and mix complexly. These general differences led Wallace to divide the region into 3 subregions: West Africa, East Africa and South Africa