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Mris 2
Mris 2
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Mris 2

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  • 1. 1Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition What Is an Information System?  System: collection of elements and procedures that interact to accomplish a goal  Information system: system used to generate information to support users in an organization  System development: process of designing and implementing a new or modified system
  • 2. 2Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Who Uses Information Systems?  Executive managers: strategic decisions  Middle managers: tactical decisions  Operational managers: operational decisions geared toward meeting short-term objectives  Nonmanagement workers: on-the-job decisions
  • 3. 3Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Types of Information Systems  While hundreds of specific types of information systems exist, many fall into one of eight categories
  • 4. 4Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Office Systems  Office system: A system in which office automation hardware, software, and other resources are used to facilitate communications and enhance productivity  Office automation: computer-based office- oriented technologies, such as word processing, e-mail, workgroup computing, and the like  Document processing systems (create, distribute, store, and manage documents  Formats need to be considered for archived documents so they can be read at a later date  Communications systems (e-mail, messaging, online conference, workgroup computing, etc.)
  • 5. 5Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Transaction Processing Systems  Transaction processing system: System that processes and records data created by an organization’s business transactions  Order entry systems  E-commerce systems  Point-of-sale (POS) systems  Check processing systems  Payroll systems  Accounting systems
  • 6. 6Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Management Information Systems (MISs)  Management information system (MIS): system that provides decision makers with preselected information  Usually provides information in the form of computer-generated reports  Much of the time, this information is generated from data obtained from transaction processing  Most frequently used to make moderately structured, middle-management decisions
  • 7. 7Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Decision Support Systems (DSSs)  Decision support system (DSS): provides people with the tools and capabilities to organize and analyze their decision making information  Provides information on demand and incorporate data from both internal and external sources  Tailored to help with specific types of decisions; typically used by middle and upper management  Special type of DSS targeted to upper management = executive information system (EIS)
  • 8. 8Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 9. 9Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Geographic Information Systems (GISs)  Geographic information system (GIS): system that combines geographical information with other types of data to provide a better understanding of relationships among the data  Commonly used to make decisions about locations (e.g. new facility locations, disaster risk, geographical crime patterns)
  • 10. 10Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems  Enterprise-wide system: integrates activities throughout an entire enterprise  Inter-enterprise system: links multiple enterprises, such as a business and its customers, suppliers, and partners  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems  Electronic data interchange (EDI): transfers data between different companies using the Internet or another network  Often used to automate reordering materials and products
  • 11. 11Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems, cont’d  Enterprise resource planning (ERP): large integrated system that ties together all of a business’s activities  Enterprise application integration (EAI): exchanging information from an ERP or other internal system among different applications and organizations Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems, Cont’d
  • 12. 12Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems, cont’d  Customer relationship management (CRM): a system designed to build and manage good relationships with customers  Often implemented via the Web today (eCRM) Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems, Cont’d
  • 13. 13Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems, cont’d  Supply chain management (SCM): the oversight of materials, information, and finances as they move from the original supplier to the consumer  Value chain management systems (maximize the flow of products, goods, services, and information through a value-added network of suppliers  Just-in-time (JIT) systems (resources are limited to the right amount at the right time to fill orders)  Inventory management systems (track and manage inventory) Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems, Cont’d
  • 14. 14Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 15. 15Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems, cont’d  Product lifecycle management (PLM): organizes and correlates all information about a product to help companies improve products and better track costs and profits  Price optimization systems: determine the optimal price to maximize product profitability  Requires complex calculations so more possible today than in the past Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems, Cont’d
  • 16. 16Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise systems, cont’d  Price optimization systems, cont’d  Markdown optimization software: times markdown of products that are still unsold at the end of the product life cycle  Electronic shelf labels (ESLs): used to always display the price in the product database  Enterprise architecture: a comprehensive framework used to describe and manage an organization’s business functions and systems Enterprise-Wide and Inter-Enterprise Systems, Cont’d
  • 17. 17Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Design and Manufacturing Systems  Design and manufacturing systems (use computers to automate the design or manufacturing process  Computer- aided design (CAD)  Computer- aided manufacturing (CAM)
  • 18. 18Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Artificial Intelligence Systems  Artificial intelligence (AI) system: a system in which a computer performs in ways that would be considered intelligent if observed in humans  Turing Test  Initial advances in AI made through chess-playing programs
  • 19. 19Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Intelligent agents: programs that perform specific tasks to help to make a user’s work environment more efficient or entertaining and that typically modifies its behavior based on the user’s actions  Application assistants  Search agents  Shopping bots  Entertainment bots  Chatterbots Artificial Intelligence Systems, Cont’d
  • 20. 20Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Expert system: provides the type of advice that would be expected from a human expert  Knowledge base: database containing facts provided by human experts and rules the system should use to make decisions based on those facts  Inference engine: program that applies the rules to the data stored in the knowledge base, in order to reach decisions  Is only as good as the knowledge base and inference engine; also needs honest, correct information from the user in order to work correctly Artificial Intelligence Systems, Cont’d
  • 21. 21Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 22. 22Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Neural network: expert systems in which the human brain’s pattern-recognition process is emulated by the computer system  Used in :  Handwriting, speech, and image recognition  Geographical mapping  Medical imaging  Crime analysis  Biometric identification  Vision systems (quality checks in manufacturing, recognizing postage stamps, etc.) Artificial Intelligence Systems, Cont’d
  • 23. 23Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Robotics: the study of robot technology  Robot: A device, controlled by a human operator or a computer, that can move and react to sensory input  Used in situations:  That are dangerous or impossible for people to perform  Where immense precision is needed  To perform monotonous tasks  To assist individuals Artificial Intelligence Systems, Cont’d
  • 24. 24Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition  Types of robots  Military robots (unmanned planes and vehicles, devices to initially investigate locations, exoskeleton suits, etc.)  Business robots (monitoring facilities, implementing videoconferencing, etc.)  Personal robots (entertainment, perform communications tasks, perform household tasks, etc.) Artificial Intelligence Systems, Cont’d
  • 25. 25Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 26. 26Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 27. 27Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Responsibility for System Development  Information systems (IS) department: includes most, if not all, of the computer and networking personnel for an organization including:  Data processing personnel  Systems analyst: studies systems in order to determine what works needs to be done and how this work may best be achieved  Business analyst  System analysis and design group  Programmers  Operations personnel
  • 28. 28Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Responsibility for System Development  Outsourcing companies: outside vendors used to process specific business tasks  Use growing, primarily due to cost  Offshore offsourcing = outsourced to another country  Captive offshoring = companies setting up their own facilities in another country  Need to consider appropriateness of outsourcing, as well as security and privacy  System development team is typically led by systems analyst; team should include users
  • 29. 29Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)  System development life cycle (SDLC): process consisting of size phases of system development
  • 30. 30Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Preliminary Investigation  Preliminary investigation: the phase of the system development life cycle in which a brief feasibility study is performed to assess whether or not a full- scale project should be undertaken  Purpose is to define and evaluate the problem and see if it is worthy of further study  Documentation: Feasibility report (includes recommendation regarding whether or not the project should move on to the next stage in the SDLC)
  • 31. 31Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition System Analysis  System analysis: the phase of the system development life cycle in which a problem area is thoroughly examined to determine what should be done  Data collection: gathering information about the system (organizational chart, observation, interviewing users, etc.)  Data analysis: analyzing information to determine requirements for the new systems  Tools include data flow diagrams, decision tables, checklists, etc.  Documentation: any instruments used for data gathering; any tools developed
  • 32. 32Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 33. 33Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition System Design  System design: the phase of the system development life cycle in which a model of the new system and how it will work is formally established  Helpful to develop a model of the new system  System flowcharts  Input/output designs  Data dictionary  Most companies will also perform a cost/benefit analysis (should consider both tangible and intangible benefits)  Documentation: Specifications of new system
  • 34. 34Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 35. 35Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition System Acquisition  System acquisition: the phase of the system development life cycle in which hardware, software, and other system components are acquired  Need to determine if needed products will be purchased or developed in house  Software to be developed moves into the program development process (covered in Chapter 13)  Products to be purchased need to be identified and a vendor selected  Can use RFP and/or RFQ  Bids need to be evaluated; vendor rating systems and benchmark tests can be helpful  Documentation: RFPs, RFQs, any vendor evaluation materials, etc.
  • 36. 36Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition System Implementation  System implementation: the phase of the system development life cycle that encompasses activities related to making the system operational  Direct conversion (old system deactivated; new system installed)  Parallel conversion (both old and new operated for a period of time)  Phased conversion (new system implemented by module)  Pilot conversion (new system installed at a pilot location initially)  Documentation: Implementation schedule, test data, test results, etc.
  • 37. 37Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition
  • 38. 38Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition System Maintenance  System maintenance: the phase of the system development life cycle in which minor adjustments are made to the finished system to keep it operational until the end of the system’s life or until the time that the system needs to be redesigned  One of the first activities is the post-implementation review (identifies any glitches in the new system that need to be fixed)  An ongoing-process  When a major change is needed, the project goes through the SDLC again  Documentation: Completed project folder
  • 39. 39Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Approaches to System Development  Traditional system development: SDLC phases are carried out in the preset order  Used primarily when system requirements are easy to determine, when the system is very familiar, or when management requests it  Time-consuming  Prototyping: a small model, or prototype, of the system is built before the full-scale development effort is undertaken  Prototype can be revised as needed before full system is developed  End-user development: user is primarily responsible for the development of the system
  • 40. 40Chapter 12 Understanding Computers, 11th Edition Summary  What Is an Information System?  Who Uses Information Systems?  Types of Information Systems  Responsibility for System Development  The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)  Approaches to System Development

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