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53027057 summer-internship-report-of-h-a-l-lucknow
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  • 1. Dissertation Report On A general study to capture the Training Effectiveness in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (LUCKNOW DIVISION) Submitted To: Submitted By: Prof. Prof. J.K. Sharma Rajesh Kumar MBA (EB) – 3rd Roll No – 35 sem Session : 2010 -11 Department of Business Administration University of Lucknow
  • 2. III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With deep devotion I thank all mighty God for blessing me with desire, intention, inclination, will, ability, guidance hope and achievements of required goal. The present dissertation entitled “A General study to capture the training effectiveness in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited” in partial fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Business Administration, University of Lucknow. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project. I want to thank Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for giving me the permission to commence this project in the first instance, to do the necessary research work and to use H R Departmental data. Would take this opportunity as a proud privilege to express my deep felt of gratitude to Mr. Sahadat Ali (Senior Manager Technical Training Centre.). I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Mr. Chaturbhuj Bhama, TTC Division, HAL Lucknow whose valuable guidance and suggestions was available throughout the dissertation work. His cooperation was very precious to me without which I would have been incapable to produce this dissertation work. Date: Place: (Rajesh Kumar)
  • 3. I Declaration I hereby declare that this dissertation entitled ““A General study to capture the training effectiveness in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited” submitted by me in the partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Business Administration (E- Business), to the Department of Business Administration, University of Lucknow, , is an outcome of my own efforts and is an original one. Date: Place: Lucknow RAJESH KUMAR MBA (E-Business) 3rd Department of Business Administration Semester University of Lucknow
  • 4. CONTENTS Declaration I Certificate II Acknowledgement III CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 – 7 - Introduction - Role of Training - Importance of Training and Development - Objectives of the Study CHAPTER 2 8 - 23 Profile Of Profile of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited - Introduction - HAL Products - HAL Services - HAL Divisions - Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategy - Focus on Human Resource Policy - Types of Training Programs in HAL
  • 5. CHAPTER 3 24 - 35 Training Objective and Models - Training Objective - Models of Training a) Systematic Model b) Transitional Model c) Instructional System Development Model - Methods of Training a) Cognitive Methods b) Behavioral Methods CHAPTER 4 36 - 45 Data Analysis and Evaluation - Data Analysis and Evaluation - Figurative Interpretation of Responses - Tenability of Hypothesis CHAPTER 5 46 - 48 Conclusion and Suggestion - Conclusion - Suggestions to enrich Training and Development
  • 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 49 QUESTIONNAIRE
  • 7. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction
  • 8. 2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development. Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to be comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were "resources" — an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names. Training and development encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities: training This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.
  • 9. 3 education This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs. development This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others. The conflicts are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr. John Hoover points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid." Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer. Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.
  • 10. 4 Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it  It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there  It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off  It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome  It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it  It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision  It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.
  • 11. 5 ROLE OF TRAINING IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the
  • 12. 6 horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter- team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
  • 13. 7 • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Objectives of the Study “A General study to capture the training effectiveness in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited”  To measure the employees work commitment level in the organization.  To analyze the employee’s work performance level  To measure the training commitment level of the employees  To measure the awareness of the training content and delivery approaches of the training programs in the employees. The following hypotheses were formulated in the present study: 1) Majority of the employees are happy/satisfied and committed towards the organization. 2) It is presumed that the training programs enhance the work performance level of the employees 3) Employees are aware of the outcomes of the training content and delivery approaches.
  • 14. 8 Chapter 2 Profile of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
  • 15. 9 Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder in March 1941 and took over the Management in 1942. Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centres in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record - 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and 14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft, 3600 engines and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engine. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors. HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects :
  • 16. 10 • Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) • Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) • Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) • Various military and civil upgrades. Dhruv was delivered to the Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and the Coast Guard in March 2002, in the very first year of its production, a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufacture of structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like • PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) • GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) • IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) • INSAT (Indian National Satellite) HAL has formed the following Joint Ventures (JVs) : • BAeHAL Software Limited • Indo-Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL) • Snecma HAL Aerospace Pvt Ltd • SAMTEL HAL Display System Limited • HALBIT Avionics Pvt Ltd • HAL-Edgewood Technologies Pvt Ltd • INFOTECH HAL Ltd Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co-production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also
  • 17. 11 achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation, Quality and Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities • HAL was awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD” for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre (IIMC). • HAL was presented the International - “ ARCH OF EUROPE ” Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and Innovation. • At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE).
  • 18. 12 HAL PRODUCTS Light Combat Aircraft (TEJAS) Helicopter (DHRUV)
  • 19. 13 SUKHOI Aero Engines of Russian Origin
  • 20. 14 Advanced Communication and Navigation Equipment Microprocessor Controller and Hydraulic Pumps
  • 21. 15 HAL SERVICES
  • 22. 16 In the year 1951, when HT-2 the first indigenously designed primary trainer made its first flight, it heralded the era of Research & Design at HAL This aircraft served as the back bone of IAF's training fleet for more than three decades. Subsequently, HAL's R&D capabilities have grown from strength to strength and have been harnessed to achieve greater heights of self reliance. The Advanced Light Helicopter - ALH (DHRUV) is the latest new generation helicopter designed and developed by HAL. It is under production since 2002. The test flights on Technology Demonstrators (TD-I and II) and Prototype Vehicles (PV-1 and 2) of Light Combat Aircraft - LCA (Tejas) are progressing satisfactorily. The Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) is undergoing test flights. In addition, HAL has successfully completed many systems updates and integration tasks. HAL has 9 Research & Design Centres engaged in the design and development of combat aircraft, helicopters, aero engines, gas turbines, engine test beds, aircraft communication and navigation systems and mechanical system accessories. The indigenously upgraded MiG-27M aircraft has received Initial Operation Clearance (IOC) and the first batch of aircraft has been delivered. First flight test on Jaguar Nav WASS upgraded aircraft with indigenously developed mission computer with weapon delivery capabilities has been carried out and retromod of fleet has been taken up. Equipped with the latest facilities, the company is backed by high profile, highly skilled manpower with an impressive track record of more than five decades of rich experience in all discipline of aeronautics.
  • 23. 17 HAL DIVISIONS
  • 24. 18 Emanating from the Company's Mission Statement, the strategic Human Resource Development (HRD) goal of HAL is to create an atmosphere of technological and managerial excellence to become a globally competitive Aerospace Industry. With the changing environment, rapid technological changes characterized by a paradigm shift from licensed production to R&D based production duly balanced with co- development / co-production, technological up gradation etc., greater customer demand, focused diversification to civilian and export markets, the overall objective of the Human Resource Development plan is to build a vibrant and learning organization, so as to meet the challenges of quality and excellence, recruitment and retention of competent human resources and develop high commitment and a sense of belongings to the Company. Accordingly, the Company's HR Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies and Policies have been identified and indicated as follows:- VISION "To make HAL a dynamic, vibrant, value-based learning organization with human resources exceptionally skilled, highly motivated and committed to meet the current and future challenges. This will be driven by core values of the Company fully embedded in the culture of the Organization" MISSION To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving self reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defence equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the
  • 25. 19 business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence. OBJECTIVES • To ensure availability of Total Quality People to meet the Organizational Goals and Objectives • To have a continuous improvement in Knowledge, Skill and Competence (Managerial, Behavioral and Technical • To promote a Culture of Achievement and Excellence with emphasis on Integrity, Credibility and Quality • To maintain a motivated workforce through empowerment of Individual and Team- building • To enhance Organizational Learning • To play a pivotal role directly and significantly to enhance Productivity, Profitability and improve the Quality of Work Life STRATEGY • To be in total alignment with Corporate Strategy • Maintain Human Resource at optimum level to meet the objectives and goals of the Company • Be competent in Mapping, Analysis and Upgradation of Knowledge and Skills including Training, Re-training, Multi- skilling etc • Cultivate Leadership with Shared Vision at various levels in the Organization • Focus on Development of Core Competence in High-Tech areas • Build Cross-functional Teams • Create awareness of Mission, Values and Organizational Goals through out the Company • Introduce / Implement personnel policies based on performance that would ensure growth, Rewards, Recognition, Motivation
  • 26. 20 FOCUS OF HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY • Competence Building • Commitment • Motivation • Employee Relations In the backdrop of the above, the focus of Human Resource Development initiatives at HAL emphasizes the following: I) MAN POWER PLANNING • Out sourcing of low tech and medium tech jobs • Fresh induction only in critical / highly specialized areas based on requirements due to increase in work load and super annuation profile (Annexure-II). In the Workmen Cadre, induction will be restricted to Direct Workmen only • Improving the existing qualification profile by focusing on induction of professionally qualified personnel and diploma holders Hence focus of recruitment would be to recruit people with a combination of knowledge, skill, experience and attitude in line with the organizational requirement through appropriate manpower plan both short term (contract appointments) and long term recruitment programme. II) TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training is one of the most important tools for developing human resource. Hence, identification of training competency profile in terms of Vision, Mission of the Company would be the strategic point of the training and development strategy of the Company. The following objectives have been set in this regard:-
  • 27. 21 • To provide training to all employees at regular intervals in a plan period of 5 years • training to become an integral component of individual professional evolution by: o updating knowledge to avoid obsolescence o enhancing professional creativity o enabling employees to shoulder higher responsibility o creating a business trend and strategic thinking to take up new business challenges (creation of Centre of Excellence, etc) The goals of training will be to progressively achieve 7 days training per employee per year with a budget of 2% of annual Wage Bill. Keeping in view the organizational requirement and goals and objectives of training, the following have been identified as the key focus areas of training: • Technology • Tooling • Quality • Information Technology Further, to facilitate the development of soft skills (change of mind-set, managerial development etc.) training would be imparted on a continuous basis. Tie-ups with Centers of Excellence like IITs, NDC, FIAS France etc. for imparting training would be given prime importance. III) PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL : Appraising people for meeting the Company's goal would be the prime focus of performance management. The new
  • 28. 22 Performance Appraisal System based on work planning and commitment (mutually agreed tasks) , self-review and performance analysis, performance review and feedback would ensure that the focus would be on value adding activities rather than on routine activities which bear no relationship with the Organization’s goals and objectives. Identification of low performers and resultant corrective action through out the Company would be given priority. Similarly, faster career growth opportunity would be provided to high performers. IV) REWARD SYSTEM The focus of the reward system in the Company is to promote team work and cultivate a sense of achievement and excellence in the Organization. This is in addition to the existing scheme of reward for an individual who innovatively and creatively makes exemplary contributions in the key thrust areas of the Company that would lead to its achieving overall excellence. Coupled with the above, schemes like "Inter Divisional Competition" and "Profit Sharing Scheme" have been institutionalized in the Company for team reward. V) SCHEME FOR LEARNING AND CERTIFICATION FOR EXECUTIVES A "Learning Organization" is essential for survival in the present era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization. Therefore, "Knowledge" is the only core competence of Organizations for coping with changes. Since individual knowledge is the starting point for organizational knowledge, it is only the employees who can convert knowledge into efficient actions.
  • 29. 23 In line with the above philosophy, among other initiatives like institutionalizing Learning Centers in Divisions etc., HAL has also introduced the scheme for Learning and Certification for executives as a starting point for building individual knowledge. The scheme inter-alia provides an opportunity for the Junior and Middle Management Cadre Executives to broaden their perspective by not only learning about all functions and procedures in their respective disciplines but also in related areas and overall knowledge about the Organization and its environment. So far, approximately, 45% (both for "O" & "A" level) of executives have been certified (Annexure IV). It is proposed to expand the coverage of this scheme further, if required, by linking the scheme to some kind of reward mechanism. Lastly, the HRD Plan will also include time-to-time OD Interventions to address specific requirement of the Company. Types of Training Programs in HAL 1) Internal Programs 2) Staff College / HMA (HAL Mgmt. Academy Bangalore) 3) External Programs (CMTI - Central Manufacturing Technology Institute, IIT – Indian Institute of Technology) 4) Apprentices Programs 5) Diploma Technician Training 6) Workshops
  • 30. 24 Chapter 3 Training Objective and Models
  • 31. 25 Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives, 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training. Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise.
  • 32. 26 Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected
  • 33. 27 situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately. Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants. MODELS OF TRAINING Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). The Training System A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad between the sequential stages in the process of training need
  • 34. 28 analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies. The three model of training are: 1) System Model 2) Transitional model 3) Instructional System Development Model Systematic Model The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows:
  • 35. 29 1. Analyze and identify the training needs i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 2. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 3. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 4. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 5. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
  • 36. 30 Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed. Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.
  • 37. 31 The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented. Instructional System Development Model Instructional System Development model or ISD training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable
  • 38. 32 strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.
  • 39. 33 The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase.
  • 40. 34 METHODS OF TRAINING There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:  LECTURES  DEMONSTRATIONS  DISCUSSIONS  COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) o INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) o PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) o VIRTUAL REALITY Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:  GAMES AND SIMULATIONS o BEHAVIOR-MODELING o BUSINESS GAMES o CASE STUDIES o EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS
  • 41. 35 o IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE o ROLE PLAYS Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means. Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD Management Development – The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes. Management development method is further divided into two parts: ON THE JOB TRAINING – The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for on the job development are: • COACHING • MENTORING • JOB ROTATION • JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) OFF THE JOB TRAINING – There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:  SENSITIVITY TRAINING  TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS  STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES  SIMULATION EXERCISES
  • 42. 36 Chapter 4 Data ANALYSIS & Interpretation
  • 43. 37 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA Data analysis is a practice in which raw data is ordered and organized so that useful information can be extracted from it. The process of organizing and thinking about data is a key to understanding what the data does and does not contain. There are a variety of ways in which people can approach data analysis, and it is notoriously easy to manipulate data during the analysis phase to push certain conclusions or agendas. For this reason, it is important to pay attention when data analysis is presented, and to think critically about the data and the conclusions which were drawn. Raw data can take a variety of forms, including measurements, survey responses, and observations. In its raw form, this information can be incredibly useful, but also overwhelming. Over the course of the data analysis process, the raw is ordered in a way which will be useful. In the course of organizing the data, trends often emerge, and these trends can be highlighted in the write-up of the data to ensure that readers take note. Charts, graphs, and textual write-ups of data are all forms of data analysis. These methods are designed to refine and distill the data so that readers can glean interesting information without needing to sort through all of the data on their own. Summarizing data is often critical to supporting arguments made with that data, as is presenting the data in a clear and understandable way. The raw data may also be included in the form of an appendix so that people can look up specifics for themselves. Some people divide data analysis into:
  • 44. 38  Descriptive statistics,  Exploratory data analysis,  Confirmatory data analysis. Descriptive statistics are used to describe the main features of a collection of data in quantitative terms. Exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data for the purpose of formulating hypothesis worth testing, complementing the tools of conventional statistics for testing hypothesis. The term used for the set of ideas about hypothesis testing, p-values, confidence intervals etc. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making statistical decisions using experimental data. It is sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, in contrast to exploratory data analysis. INTERPRETATION OF DATA Interpretation refers to the task of drawing inferences from the collected facts after an analytical or experimental study. In the fact it is search for broader meaning of research findings. In one sense interpretation is awarded with relationship with the collected data, partially overlapping analysis. Interpretation also extends beyond the data of the study to include the results of other research theory and hypothesis. The interpretation is a device through which the observed data can be better understand and it also provides a theoretical conception which can serve as a guide for further research. The tabulation and interpretation of data has been divided according to the questionnaire.
  • 45. 39 1) Figurative Interpretation of the Responses Testing Employee’s Work Commitment Level Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree I would be happy to spend the rest of my carrier with the organization 3 3 6 9 29 I work here because the people are great and they have helped a lot in my work 2 6 9 11 22 I really feel as if this organization's problem are my own 2 4 8 13 23 Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire 10 8 10 18 4 I work here because they provide training that could benefit me in my works 5 7 9 16 13 Training provided has motivated me to work harder than before and catch up on my to-do list 5 6 11 15 13 My organization values my contribution to its well being and appreciate any extra effort for me 2 7 17 16 8
  • 46. 40 2) Measuring Employee’s Work Performance Level Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Training programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase performance 0 0 6 15 29 Training programs encourage teamwork and self- managed team culture 3 6 11 20 10 Training programs encourage me to make criticisms, which contribute more to productivity 4 6 13 17 10 Training programs provide knowledge sharing demonstrated in the organization 2 3 10 21 14 Training programs improved my skills and knowledge at performance level 2 3 7 13 25 Training programs provide supportive and trusting work environment for my efficient performance 1 5 11 11 22 Training programs provide to update work of skills which increase my performance in the job 1 4 8 22 15 Training programs provide me to communicate openly and honestly with my subordinates so that I know my strengths and weaknesses 8 9 10 11 12
  • 47. 41 3) Training Commitment Level of the Employee’s Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Most training programs were able to fulfill my expectation 5 6 14 18 7 Most of training programs are practical and do relate to the actual at work 6 7 11 19 7 In most training programs, I was treated as "important" individual 11 16 9 8 6 I was able to test out training techniques in my work so that the training objectives are achieved 5 7 12 18 8
  • 48. 42 4) Understanding of Training Content and Delivery Approaches Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Providing a platform to showcase technical skills 4 7 16 12 11 Mentoring another people in organization as role model 8 11 13 12 6 Helping personal growth 3 6 13 17 11 Updating existing skills and acquiring new technologies 4 5 13 17 11 Utilizing information gathered to support and assist the top management 3 7 15 12 13 Assessing comprehensive new hiring training programs 3 6 10 17 14 Problem solving and conflict resolution 4 6 15 12 13
  • 49. 43 5) Respondent Profile a) Gender b) Age Group
  • 50. 44 c) Education Level d) Years of Service in the Current Organization
  • 51. 45 Tenability of Hypothesis The tenability of the hypothesis have been checked in the light of above findings. Hypothesis 1 “Majority of the employees are happy/satisfied and committed towards the organization” According to the results of the study, majority of the employees feel happy and are willing to spend the rest of their carrier with the organization. Along with this, the employees also feel the organization’s problem as their own and adhering to the organization is not the consequence of any obligation to them. Hypothesis 2 “It is presumed that the training programs enhance the work performance level of the employees” Majority of the employees feel that training programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase their performance level. Also the training program provide knowledge sharing demonstrated in the organization. In addition to this, the training program also provide supportive and trusting work environment for their efficient performance. Hypothesis 3 “Employees are aware of the outcomes of the training content and delivery approaches” According to the results of the study, majority of the users slightly agree that most of the training programs were able to fulfill their expectation. Also the training programs are practical and were able to apply the training techniques in their work so that the training objectives are achieved. This shows that the employees are aware of the outcomes of the training content.
  • 52. 46 Chapter 5 Conclusion and Suggestion
  • 53. 47 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION As previously mentioned, training and development can be initiated to address a "performance gap" (learning needed to meet performance standards for a current task or job), "growth gap" (learning needed to achieve career goals) or "opportunity gap" (learning needed to qualify for an identified new job or role). Majority of the employees feel happy and are willing to spend the rest of their carrier with the organization. Along with this, the employees also feel the organization’s problem as their own and adhering to the organization is not the consequence of any obligation to them. Further, the employees feel that training programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase their performance level. Also the training program provide knowledge sharing demonstrated in the organization. Also, the training programs are practical and employees were able to apply the training techniques in their work. Keeping in view the organizational requirement and goals and objectives of training, the following have been identified as the key focus areas of training: • Technology • Tooling • Quality • Information Technology Further, to facilitate the development of soft skills (change of mind-set, managerial development etc.) training would be imparted on a continuous basis.
  • 54. 48 Suggestions to Enrich Training and Development: Some Basic Requirements of Learners • Learners Must Be Willing to Grow, to Experience • Growth Involves the Entire Learner • Growth Requires Seeking Ongoing Feedback Some Basic Requirements of Supervisors • Include Learners in Development of Training and Development Plan • If Available, Have Human Resources Representative Play Major Role • Provide Ongoing Feedback and Support • When Assessing Results of Learning, Maximize Feedback About Performance • Budget Necessary Funds for Resources Learner Will Need • Set Aside Regular Times for Supervisor and Learner to Meeting Developing the Training and Development Plan • Document a Training and Development Plan (Goals, Methods and Evaluation) • Don't Worry About Whether Your Plan is Perfect or Not -- The Plan is Guide, Not Law • Remember that Development is a Process
  • 55. 49 Bibliography - www.hal-india.com/ - K. Ashwathapa, Human Resource and Personal Management, Tata McGraw Hill - Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. - http://managementhelp.org/trng_dev/gdlns.htm - http://traininganddevelopment.naukrihub.com/training- implementation.html - A Guide To Effective Human Resources Management - Murugan Anandarajan, Claire Simmers
  • 56. 1 Questionnaire A General study to capture the training effectiveness in Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Part A – Employee’s Work Commitment Listed below are statements that represent feelings that YOU might have about your organization. Please indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement with each statement by circling a number from 1 to 5 using the scale below: - 1 3 4 5 7 Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree I would be happy to spend the rest of my career with this organization 1 2 3 4 5 I work here because the people are great and they have helped a lot in my works 1 2 3 4 5 I really feel as if this organization’s problems are my own 1 2 3 4 5 Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire 1 2 3 4 5 I work here because they provide training that could benefited me in my works 1 2 3 4 5 Training provided has motivated me to work harder than before and catch up on my to-do list 1 2 3 4 5 My organization cares and shows concern about my general satisfaction at work 1 2 3 4 5 My organization values my contribution to its well being and appreciate any extra effort from me 1 2 3 4 5 Part B – Employee’s Work Performance Listed below are statements that represent YOUR perceptions towards your performance after attending any of training conducted by your organization. Please indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement with each statement by circling a number from 1 to 5 using the scale below: - 1 3 4 5 7 Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Training programs establish a clear view of work roles and increase performance 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs encourage teamwork and self – managed team culture 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs encourage me to make criticisms, which contribute more to productivity and productions 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs provide knowledge sharing demonstrated in the organization 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs improved my skills and knowledge at performance level 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs provide supportive and trusting work environment for my efficient performance 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs provide to update work of
  • 57. 2 skills which increase my performance in on – the – job 1 2 3 4 5 Training programs provide me to communicate openly and honestly with my subordinates so that I know my strengths and weaknesses 1 2 3 4 5 Part C – Training Commitment Listed below are statements that represent training commitment provided by your organizations, which reflects to YOUR commitment. Please indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement with each statement by circling a number from 1 to 5 using the scale below: - 1 3 4 5 7 Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Most training programs able to fulfill my expectation of needs 1 2 3 4 5 Most of training programs are practical and do relate to the actual problems at work 1 2 3 4 5 In most training programs, I was treated as “important” individuals 1 2 3 4 5 I able to test out training techniques in my work so that the training objectives are achieved 1 2 3 4 5 Part D – Training Contents and Delivery Approaches Listed below are training and development contents that most of the training programs might have which YOU had attended. Please indicate the degree of your agreement or disagreement with each statement by circling a number from 1 to 5 using the scale below: - 1 3 4 5 7 Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Neutral Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Providing a platform to showcase technical skills 1 2 3 4 5 Mentoring another people in organization as role model 1 2 3 4 5 Helping personal growth 1 2 3 4 5 Updating existing skills and acquiring new technologies 1 2 3 4 5 Utilizing information gathered to support and assist the top management 1 2 3 4 5 Assessing comprehensive new hiring training programs; and updated organizational procedures and policies 1 2 3 4 5 Problem solving and Conflict Resolution 1 2 3 4 5
  • 58. 3 Part E – Respondent Profile Please tick (√) the answer and fill in the blanks when necessary 1. Gender  Male  Female 2. Age  21- 30 31- 40 41- 50 51 and above 3. Education Level  ITI  Diploma  Degree / Professional Certificate  Post Graduate 4. Years of service in your current organization  Less than 2 years  2 to 5 years  6 to 10 years  More than 10 years ~ Thank you for your time and patience ~

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