Jyothi . N<br />2nd sem MLISc<br />Dept of LIS<br />Bangalore university<br />
<ul><li>Early computing machines:
Abacus-5000 years ago
Pascal’s device-1642
Babbage’s Difference engine and analytical engine
Jacquard loom-1820
Punch card reader
ABC-First all electronic computer
A Great step in the technology.
Framework for the growth of computer.
Five generations have been identified till today.</li></li></ul><li>Analytical MachineDifference Engine <br />Jacquard loo...
They are:<br /><ul><li>First generation(1945-1956)
Second generation(1956-1963)
Third generation(1964-1971)
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Generations of computer

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  1. 1. Jyothi . N<br />2nd sem MLISc<br />Dept of LIS<br />Bangalore university<br />
  2. 2. <ul><li>Early computing machines:
  3. 3. Abacus-5000 years ago
  4. 4. Pascal’s device-1642
  5. 5. Babbage’s Difference engine and analytical engine
  6. 6. Jacquard loom-1820
  7. 7. Punch card reader
  8. 8. ABC-First all electronic computer
  9. 9. A Great step in the technology.
  10. 10. Framework for the growth of computer.
  11. 11. Five generations have been identified till today.</li></li></ul><li>Analytical MachineDifference Engine <br />Jacquard loom Abacus<br />
  12. 12. They are:<br /><ul><li>First generation(1945-1956)
  13. 13. Second generation(1956-1963)
  14. 14. Third generation(1964-1971)
  15. 15. Fourth generation(1971- Present)
  16. 16. Fifth generation(Present – Beyond)</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>UNIVAC
  17. 17. ENIAC
  18. 18. EDVAC</li></ul>Characteristics:<br /><ul><li>Vacuum tubes for internal operations were used.
  19. 19. Magnetic drums were used for memory.
  20. 20. Punched cards were used for input and output.
  21. 21. Processors operated in a microsecond speed range.
  22. 22. Low level language for programming was used.</li></ul>Examples:<br />UNIVAC(Universal Automatic Computer)<br />ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and <br />computer)<br />EDVAC(Electronic discrete variable <br />automatic computer)<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>Advantages
  24. 24. Fastest devices at those times
  25. 25. Computations in milliseconds
  26. 26. Advent of electronic digital computer through vacuum technology
  27. 27. Disadvantages
  28. 28. Huge and non portable
  29. 29. Emission of large amount of heat
  30. 30. Constance maintenance
  31. 31. Costly
  32. 32. Limited commercial use
  33. 33. Frequent hardware failures
  34. 34. Less storage capacity</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics:<br /><ul><li>Transistors were used for internal operations.
  35. 35. Magnetic core for main memory.
  36. 36. Magnetic tapes and disks were used for secondary memory.
  37. 37. Use of high level language i.e., COBOL and FORTRAN came into common use.
  38. 38. Reduced computational time i.e., microseconds to milliseconds.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Advantages
  39. 39. Smaller size compared to 1st generation
  40. 40. More reliable, faster, powerful and more memory
  41. 41. Less heat generation
  42. 42. Less hardware failures
  43. 43. Wider commercial use
  44. 44. Better portability
  45. 45. Disadvantages
  46. 46. Requires a frequent maintenance
  47. 47. More costlier
  48. 48. Manual assembly of individual components into function unit required</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics:<br /><ul><li>IC’s(integrated circuits) were used for internal operations.
  49. 49. Microcomputers were introduced.
  50. 50. Emergence of software industry.
  51. 51. Reduced computational time from micro second to nanosecond.
  52. 52. Systems were totally general purpose and could be used or a number of commercial applications.
  53. 53. Multiprogramming facility.
  54. 54. Use of high level languages.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Advantages:
  55. 55. Smaller in size
  56. 56. More reliable
  57. 57. Less heat generation
  58. 58. Reduced computational time
  59. 59. Less power supply
  60. 60. Reduced cost
  61. 61. Low maintenance cost
  62. 62. Less hardware failures
  63. 63. Disadvantages:
  64. 64. High sophisticated technology is required for the manufacture of IC chips</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics:<br /><ul><li>More circuits on chips LSI, VLSI.
  65. 65. Introduction of micro computer and PC’s.
  66. 66. Introduction of microprocessor.
  67. 67. Use of chips for memory.
  68. 68. Easily portable because of small size.
  69. 69. Advantages:
  70. 70. Small in size
  71. 71. Very reliable
  72. 72. Much faster computations
  73. 73. Easily portable
  74. 74. Cheapest among all generations
  75. 75. Minimal cost and labour at the assembly stage
  76. 76. Widely used for the general purpose
  77. 77. Disadvantages:
  78. 78. Highly sophisticated technology is required for the manufacturing of VLSI and LSI chips.</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics:<br /><ul><li>Development of storage technology.
  79. 79. Advancement in networking technology.
  80. 80. Development of super computers.
  81. 81. Development of robots to assist the human being(Artificial intelligence).
  82. 82. Concept of parallel processing in computer.
  83. 83. Improved overall functions and performance.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The various generations of the computers is the great step in the evolution of computer technology.
  84. 84. Today the application of computer were not only restricted to the particular field but it is applied both for general and commercial purpose.
  85. 85. The various generations reveals the changing dimensions of computer technology through the various periods.</li></li></ul><li>

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