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Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
Kuliah biokima  hormon
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  • endokrinní, parakrinní, autokrinní pusobení
  • QT movie pohybu dimeru kinesinu po mikrotubulu (a pro srovnání taky myosinu po aktinu) je na http://www.sciencemag.org/feature/data/1049155.shl
  • Nekolik rodin Ruzné G proteiny prispívají k ruznzm odpovedím po aktivaci téhoy receptoru Heterotrimery:  unikátní,  podobná pro vetsinu rodin Podjednotka  váze receptor, efektor, GDP/GTP
  • Zpetna vazba z gonad na produkci FSH a LH, patri do rodiny TGF
  • Transcript

    • 1. Hormone Santoso
    • 2. Regulation of homeostasis
      • Nerves
        • fast
        • governing
      • Hormones
        • mainly metabolism, growth, differentiation, reproduction
    • 3. Hormone
      • Substance produced by a specific cell type usually accumulated in one (small) organ
      • Transport by blood to target tissues
      • Stereotypical response (receptors)
    • 4. Hormone production: “Classic” glands
      • Hypothalamus:
        • GHRH, CRH, TRH, GnRH
        • Somatostatin
        • ADH
      • Pituitary:
        • Growth hormone
        • Prolactin
        • ACTH, MSH
        • TSH
        • FSH & LH
        • Oxytocin
        • ADH
      • Pancreas:
        • Insulin
        • Glucagon
      • Ovaries:
        • Estrogens
        • Progesterone
      • Epiphysis:
        • Melatonin
      • Thyroid gland:
        • T3, T4
        • Calcitonin
      • Parathyroid glands:
        • Parathyroid h.
      • Adrenal cortex:
        • Cortisol
        • Aldosterone
        • Androgens
      • Adrenal medulla:
        • Catecholamines
    • 5. Hormone production: Less traditional sources
      • E ndothelium:
        • Endothelins
        • NO
        • Prostanoids,...
      • Immune system:
        • Cytokines
      • Platelets, mesenchyme:
        • Growth factors
      • P lacenta :
        • All hormones
      • A dipocytes :
        • L eptin
      • C ardiocytes :
        • ANP
      • Kidney :
        • E rythropoietin
        • RAS
      • GIT :
        • Gastrin
        • Cholecystokinin
        • Secretin,...
      • Gonads :
        • Inhibins
        • Activins
    • 6. Hormones, cytokines, growth factors
      • Common aspects:
        • small quantities
        • regulate other cells
        • act through receptors
      • Tight interactions between immune and endocrine systems
    • 7.  
    • 8. Endocrine and nervous systems
      • Many common aspects:
        • small quantities
        • regulate other cells & tissues
        • act through receptors
        • functional overlap between some hormones & neurotransmitters
        • excitability
        • both can secrete into blood
    • 9. Types of humoral signalization
      • Endocrine
          • from gland via blood to a distance
      • Neurocrine
          • via axonal transport and then via blood
      • Paracrine
          • neighboring cells of different types
      • Autocrine
          • neighboring cells of the same type or the secreting cell itself
    • 10. Chemical characteristics of hormones
      • Amines (from tyrosine)
          • hydroxylation - catecholamines
          • iodination - thyroid hormones
      • Peptides/proteins
      • Steroids (from cholesterol)
          • adrenocortikoids
          • sex hormones
          • active metabolites of vitamin D
    • 11. Genetic disorders
      • Peptides/proteins:
        • Often gene coding the hormone
          • ->  activity (e.g. insulin)
      • Amines & steroids:
        • gene coding enzyme catalyzing the synthesis ->  hormone level
          • and/or  precurzor level
            • e.g.  androgens in deficient estrogen synthesis
    • 12. Hormone release
      • Proteins & catecholamines:
        • secretory granules, exocytosis
          • for incorporation into granules often special sequences cleaved off in granules or after release
          • stimulus   [Ca 2+ ] i (influx, reticulum)  granules travel along microtubules towards cell membrane (kinesins, myosins)  fusion
    • 13. Hormone release
      • Thyroid hormones:
        • made as part of thyroglobulin
        • stored in folicles
        • T3 & T4 secreted by enzymatic cleavage
      • Steroid hormones:
        • leave the cell across cell membrane right after synthesis (no storage)
    • 14. Regulation of hormone release
      • Feedback
        • Negative
      Gland Target tissue  hormone product inhibition
    • 15. Regulation of hormone release
      • Feedback
        • Negative
        • Positive (only narrow dose range)
      Gland Target tissue  hormone product
    • 16. Regulation of hormone release
      • Feedback
        • Negative
        • Positive (only narrow dose range)
      • Nerve regulation
        • pain, emotions, sex, injury, stress,...
        • e.g.  oxytocin with nipple stimulation
    • 17. Combined feedback Stress etc. CRH secretion in hypothalamus ACTH secretion in pituitary  plasma ACTH cortisol secretion in adrenals  plasma cortisol stimulation inhibition
    • 18. Regulation of hormone release
      • Rhythms
        • circadian
      Cortisol (nM) Time of day 09 09 21
    • 19. Regulation of hormone release
      • Rhythms
        • circadian
          • light/dark fine/tune endogenous rhythm of cells & suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus
          • melatonin, cortisol
        • monthly
        • seasonal (day length; atavistic)
        • developmental (puberty, menopause)
      • Pulsations/oscillations
          • gonadotropins
    • 20. Pulsatility in GnRH & LH release 12:00 16:00 14:00 Time of day
    • 21. Hormone action
      • Receptor
        • specificity of a response to a given hormone
      • (Second messenger)
      • ∆ activity or concentration of enzymes, transcription factors, or structural proteins
    • 22. Hormone action
    • 23. Receptors
      • ∆ affinity or expression modulates hormone action
          • e.g. phosphorylation, pH, osmolarity,...
      • down-regulation
      • up-regulation
    • 24. Membrane receptors
      • Large glycoproteins, often several subunits
      • Typically 7x through membrane
      • After activation:
        • dissociation from the hormone
        • or endocytosis of the complex, then degradation in lysozomes, recycling
    • 25. G proteins
    • 26. G proteins
        • a subunit binds activated receptor
        • releases GDP, binds GTP
        • dissociates from its b subunit & the receptor
        • binds & activates/inhibits effector (adenyl/guanylate cyclase, phospholipase C)
        • hydrolyzes GTP to GDP
        • re-associates with its b-g dimer
    • 27. Intracellular signal transduction (second messengers)
        • cAMP
        • cGMP
        • IP 3
        • Ca/calmodulin
        • tyr kinases
        • Smad
        • MAP kinases
        • One hormone can use several systems (in various cells or for different functions)
    • 28. cAMP
    • 29. Adenylate cyclase - cAMP - protein kinase A
        • PKA phosphorylates target enzymes (in/activation)
        • sometimes complementary (e.g. Ca channel activation + Ca pump inhibition)
        • can affect gene expression
          • cAMP regulatory element (CRE) on DNA binds transcription factor, CRE binding protein (CREB)
        • cAMP hydrolysis: phosphodiesterases
    • 30. cGMP
    • 31. Ca-calmodulin
        • G proteins activate Ca channels (ROC)
        • Ca influx stimulates Ca release from endoplasmic reticulum (CICR)
        • Ca, mainly by binding calmodulin, modulates many enzymes, often via protein kinase C
    • 32. Phospholipase C - IP 3 & DAG
        • from cell membrane phospholipids
        • IP 3 activates Ca channel of the endoplasmic reticulum
        • DAG:  PKC affinity to Ca
    • 33. Tyrosin kinases
        • Receptor autophosphorylation upon hormone binding unmasks tyr-kinase activity
            • typically insulin (& growth factors)
        • Or conformational change of the receptor upon hormone binding attracts & activates cytoplasmic tyr-kinases
            • e.g. growth hormone
        • tyr-kinases phosphorylate cascades of tyr & ser kinases & phosphatases
    • 34. Inhibins, activins & TGF system Hormone
    • 35. Intracellular receptors
      • Lipophilic hormones:
        • Thyroid
        • Steroid
        • Vitamin D
      • Enter the cell or all the way to nucleus, where they bind the receptor (large oligomeric protein)
    • 36. Intracellular receptors
      • C-terminal domain binds hormone
        • hormone specificity
      • Central domain binds DNA
        • (HRE, hormone regulatory unit, 8-15 bases)
        • gene specificity
      • N-terminal domain activates RNA polymerase
    • 37. Function of intracellular receptors
      • Hormone displaces inhibitory protein (e.g. HSP)  translocation to nucleus, DNA binding
          • corticoids
      • Or hormone binding displaces the receptor from resting, inhibitory association with DNA
          • thyroid hormones
    • 38. Magnitude of response
      • hormone concentration
      • number of receptor molecules
      • duration of exposure
      • intracellular conditions (second messengers, kinases,…)
      • synergistic or antagonistic influences
    • 39. Dose/response max. response ~sensitivity
    • 40. Decrease in max. response
      • less target cells
      • less receptors
      • less/lower activity of enzymes activated by hormone
      • less substrate for final product
      • more non-competitive inhibitor
    • 41. Drop in sensitivity
      • less receptors
      • lower receptor affinity
      • modulating factors
      • faster hormone degradation
      • antagonistic hormones
    • 42. Transport of hormones
      • Freely in blood:
        • Catecholamines
        • Most peptides
      • Specific transport globulins (from liver):
        • Steroids
        • Thyroid hormones
    • 43. Transporter binding lengthens hormone halftime Plasma halftime (days) % bound hormone Thyroxin T3 Testosterone Cortisol
    • 44. Inactivation of hormones
      • Target tissue uptake
      • Metabolic degradation (plasma, liver , kidney)
      • Excretion in urine (  by transporter binding; low for proteins - also re-absorbtion & degradation in kidneys)
    • 45. Measuring hormones
      • Immunoassay (pM)
      • Bioassay (biol. activity can differ from concentration or immunoreactivity - e.g. mutation of the gene for the hormone)
    • 46. KELENJAR APA SAJA YANG DAPAT MENGHASILKAN HORMON
      • HIPOFISA  HIPOFISA ANTERIOR, MEDULA, POSTERIOR
      • THYROID
      • PARATHYROID
      • ADRENAL  KORTEKS & MEDULA
      • PANKREAS  SEL ALPHA, SEL BETA, SEL DELTA, SEL F
      • LAMBUNG (GASTER)
      • DUODENUM (USUS HALUS = INTESTINUM TENUE)
      • OVARIUM
      • TESTIS
      • THYMUS
    • 47. KELENJAR HIPOFISA (PITUITARI)
      • TERDIRI DARI HIPOFISA ANTERIOR (DEPAN), MEDULA (TENGAH) & POSTERIOR (BELAKANG)
      • ANTERIOR & MEDULA  ADENOHIPOFISA
      • POSTERIOR  NEUROHIPOFISA  ADA SINYAL SYARAF BARU DISEKRESIKAN
      • KELENJAR HIPOFISA  MASTER GLAND  KARENA DPT MENGHASILKAN HORMON & HORMON YANG DIHASILKAN DAPAT MERANGSANG KELENJAR LAIN UNTUK MENGHASILKAN HORMON LAIN  hipofisa anterior  TSH = tyrosomatotropic hormone  merangsang kelenjar thyroid  untuk menghasilkan thyroksin  thyroksin digunakan untuk metabolisme tubuh (kh, protein, lipid)  berarti jln menuju hipofisa anterior akan terhambat dst
    • 48. HIPOFISA ANTERIOR
      • HORMON PERTUMBUHAN = GROWTH HORMONE = SOMATOTROPIN = GH  HORMON INI BEKERJA PD TULANG, OTOT, RAWAN, KULIT & BEKERJANYA SANGAT TERBATAS  PD PRIA  LHR  21 THN  PERTMBUHAN DRASTIS 13-16 THN; SDGKAN PD WANITA  LHR  18 THN  PERTUMBUHAN DRASTIS 9-12 THN
      • GH SANGAT DIPENGARUHI KADAR GLUKOSA DLM DRH  BILA SELESAI MAKAN KDR GULA DLM DRH AKAN MENING-KAT, GH TDK MAU BEKERJA; BILA KDR GULA DLM DRH MENU-RUN, GH BEKERJA SECARA MAKSIMAL
      • BILA GH BEKERJA NORMAL  TBH AKAN NORMAL, BILA HI-PERSEKRESI  MANUSIA RAKSASA (GIANT), BILA HIPOSEKRE-SI  MANUSIA KERDIL/CEBOL  LORAIN  PENDEK & KURUS; FROLICH  PENDEK, GENDUT, PERUT BUNCIT
    • 49. LANJUTAN HIPOFISA ANTERIOR
      • THYROTROPIC HORMONE = THYROSOMATOTROPIC HORMONE = TSH  MEMPENGARUHI KEL THYROID  MENG-HASILKAN THYROKSIN (T4), LIOTIRONIN (T3) & KALSITONIN
      • ADRENO CORTICO TROPIC HORMONE (ACTH)  ADA 3 KELOMPOK BESAR  1. GLUKOKORTIKOID  PENGHASIL GULA; 2. MINERALOKORTIKOID  MENGATUR KESEIMBANGAN CAIRAN ANTARA ION Na & ION K; 3. GONADO-KORTIKOID  UTK WANITA  ESTRONE & PROGESTRONE;  UTK PRIA  TESTRONE
      • PROLACTINE = LACTOGENIC HORMONE = LUTEOTROPIC HORMONE = LTH  PERSIAPAN PRODUKSI AIR SUSU IBU (ASI)  PD SAAT SEORANG WANITA DINYATAKAN MENIKAH & HAMIL; MSH GADIS TDK KELUAR ASI KRN ADA HORMONE YG MENGHAMBAT  ESTROGEN
    • 50. LANJUTAN HIPOFISA ANTERIOR
      • GONADOTROPIN HORMONE (GTH) tdd:
      • FSH  FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE & LH (LUTEINIZING HORMONE) = ICSH = INTERSTITIAL CELL STIMULATING HORMONE
      • PDWANITA  FSH  MEMATANGKAN TELUR DALAM FOLIKEL OVARIUM MULAI DR FOLIKEL AWAL – PRIMER – SEKUNDER – TERSIER – DE GRAAF (MATANG) ; LH  MENEBALKAN DDG RAHIM & MEMPERTAHANKAN IMPLANTASI JANIN
      • PD PRIA  FSH  MEMATANGKAN SPERMATOGONIUM  SPERMATOZOA MELALUI SPERMATOGENESIS, SPERMIOGENE-SIS, TRANSFORMASI; LH = ICSH  MENGHASILKAN SEL LEYDIG YANG MEMPRODUKSI HORMON TESTOSTERON
    • 51. HIPOFISA MEDULLA
      • MENGHASILKAN MSH = MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONE  AKAN MENGHASILKAN PIGMEN MELANIN UNTUK WARNA KULIT
      • MAKIN BANYAK MELANIN MAKIN HITAM PIGMEN KULIT, MAKIN SEDIKIT MELANIN MAKIN PUTIH PIGMEN KULIT
      • ORANG BULE MENJEMUR KULIT TUBUH PD SAAT ULTRA VIOLET MATAHARI TIDAK BAIK (DIATAS JAM 9 PG S/D 15 SORE, SEHINGG PIGMEN KULIT PECAH SHG MENIMBULKAN BERCAK PECAH BER-WARNA COKLAT SPT NODA PADA KULIT
    • 52. HIPOFISA POSTERIOR = NEUROHIPOFISA
      • OXYTOSIN  REGULASI KONTRAKSI RAHIM SETIAP 3 JAM, 2,5 JAM, 2 JAM, 1,5 JAM, 1 JAM SEKALI S/D 10 MENIT SEKALI; SELAIN ITU JG MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES PENGELUARAN AIR SUSU IBU BILA SETELAH MELAHIRKAN KELENJAR MAMMAE IBU DIHISAP OLEH BAYI
      • RELAXIN  MEMBUKANYA SIMPHISIS PUBIS (TLG KEMALUAN) SEHINGGA BAYI MUDAH DILAHIRKAN
      • KEDUA HORMON DI ATAS HARUS BEKERJA SAMA AGAR BAYI MUDAH DILAHIRKAN
      • ADH = ANTI DIURETIKA HORMONE = PITRESSIN = VASOPRES- SIN  MENCEGAH AGAR URIN YANG KELUAR TIDAK TERLALU BANYAK ( IN PUT = OUT PUT)  BILA TIDAK AKAN MENYE-BABKAN DIABETES INCIPIDUS
    • 53. KELENJAR THYROID
      • 1. THYROKSIN  UNTUK METABOLISME TUBUH BAIK META-BOLISME KH, PROTEIN MAUPUN LIPID
      • 2. LIOTIRONIN  MERUPAKAN BAHAN BAKU THIROKSIN DGN SYARAT HARUS ADA ION IODIUM  DEKAT LAUT ATAU HASIL DARI LAUT  IKAN, GARAM YG BERIODIUM
      • 3. KALSITONIN  MERUPAKAN BAHAN BAKU PEMBENTUKKAN PARATHORMON YANG JUGA DISEKRESIKAN OLEH KELENJAR PARATHYROID -- > BERFUNGSI UNTUK MENGATUR KADAR CALCIUM (ION Ca2+) DALAM DARAH
    • 54. KELENJAR PARATHYROID
      • MENEMPEL PD KELENJAR THYROID SEBANYAK 2 PASANG  SEPASANG PD BAGIAN ATAS & SEPASANG PD BAGIAN BAWAH
      • MENGHASILKAN PARATHORMONE = HORMON PARATHYROID YG BERFUNGSI MENGATUR KADAR CALCIUM DALAM DARAH
      • CALCIUM DIBUTUHKAN TUBUH:
      • 1. DALAM PROSES MEMPERCEPAT PEMBEKUAN DARAH APA-BILA TERDAPAT LUKA
      • 2. DALAM PROSES PEMBENTUKAN & MEMPERKUAT TULANG & GIGI
    • 55. KELENJAR ADRENAL (ANAK GINJAL)
      • DISEBUT KELENJAR SUPRARENALIS
      • ADA BAGIAN KORTEKS (TEPI) & MEDULLA (TENGAH)
      • BAGIAN KORTEKS MEMPUNYAI 3 (TIGA) KELOMPOK BESAR:
      • 1. GLUKOKORTIKOID  MENGHASILKAN KORTISON & HIDRO-KORTISON  UNTUK PEMBENTUKAN GULA BILA TUBUH KEKURANGAN GULA
      • 2. MINERALOKORTIOD  ALDOSTERON  KESEIMBANGAN CAIRAN TUBUH ANTARA ION Na (NATRIUM = SODIUM) & ION K (KALIUM=POTASIUM)
      • 3. GONADOKORTIKOID  PEMBENTUKAN HORMON PD WANITA  ESTRONE & PROGESTRONE SERTA PD PRIA  TESTRONE
    • 56. LANJUTAN KELENJAR ADRENAL
      • BAGIAN MEDULA (TENGAH)
      • ADRENALIN & EPINEPHRIN SERTA DERIVATNYA YAITU: NORADRENALIN & NOREPINEPHRIN
      • DILATASI (PELEBARAN) PEMBULUH DARAH CORONARIA JANTUNG
      • DILATASI PEMBULUH DARAH & OTOT-2 BRONKIOLUS AGAR RESPIRASI BERJALAN NORMAL
      • KONSTRIKSI (PENYEMPITAN) PEMBULUH DARAH PD DAERAH MUKA (TERUTAMA BILA KITA DIPERMALUKAN)  AKIBAT LAIN TERJADINYA HIPERTENSI (TEKANAN DARAH TINGGI)
      • MENGHASILKAN GULA DARI GLIKOGEN OTOT
    • 57. KELENJAR PANKREAS
      • BERFUNGSI GANDA  DAPAT MENGHASILKAN EKSOKRIN  BGN ACINI (ACINUS) SERTA ENDOKRIN  BGN PULAU-2 LANGERHANS
      • 1. SEL A = ALPHA  GLUKAGON  MENGHASILKAN GULA BILA TUBUH KEKURANGAN GULA
      • 2. SEL B = BETA  INSULIN  MENGURAIKAN GULA BILA BERLEBIHAN MENJADI GLIKOGEN DALAM OTOT
      • 3. SEL D = DELTA  SOMATOSTATIN  TERGANTUNG DR KE-BUTUHAN TUBUH  MEMBANTU SEL A BILA KEKURANGAN GULA & MEMBANTU SEL B BILA KELEBIHAN GULA
      • 4. SEL F  PANKREOPEPTIDA  MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES PENCERNAAN MAKANAN TERUTAMA PROTEIN
    • 58. KELENJAR LAMBUNG (GASTER)
      • MENGHASILKAN GASTRIN
      • MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES GERAK PERISTALTIK YANG TERATUR SEHINGGA MAKANAN DIANTAR ANTARA LAMBUNG MULAI DARI ESOPHAGUS, KARDIA LAMBUNG, FUNDUS LAMBUNG DAN PYLORUS LAMBUNG
      • MEMBENTUK MAKANAN YANG PADAT MENJADI LUNAK ATAU DALAM BENTUK CAIR (KHIME) SEHINGGA MUDAH DICERNA OLEH INTESTINUM TENUE (USUS HALUS) YG TDD: DUODENUM, JEJENUM, ILEUM
    • 59. KELENJAR DUODENUM
      • MENGHASILKAN SEKRETIN
      • MEMBANTU DALAM PROSES GERAK PERISTALTIK DALAM USUS HALUS MULAI DARI DUODENUM, JEJENUM KEMUDIAN KE ILEUM  KE USUS KASAR/BESAR (INTESTINUM CRASSUM)
      • MEMPERCEPAT PENGANTARAN NUTRISI KE JARINGAN DAN SEL-SEL SETELAH DALAM BENTUK KHIME
    • 60. KELENJAR THYMUS
      • MENGHASILKAN THYMOSIN
      • BERFUNGSI UNTUK KEKEBALAN TUBUH MANUSIA
      • KEKEBALAN ADA 2 (DUA) MACAM:
      • 1. KEKEBALAN SELULER  KEKEBALAN YANG DIBERIKAN PD SAAT KITA DALAM KANDUNGAN IBU  IBU MAKAN PROTEIN ATAU DISUNTIK  AKAN TERBENTUK ANTIBODI YANG AKAN DIBERIKAN KE ANAK SHG ANAK MENJADI KEBAL
      • 2. KEKEBALAN HUMORAL  KEKEBALAN YANG DIBERIKAN SETELAH ANAK DILAHIRKAN MELALUI VAKSINASI/IMUNISASI MULAI DARI BCG; DPT 1, 2, 3; POLIO 1, 2, 3, CAMPAK, RUBELLA, HEPATITIS DAN DILAKUKAN PENGULANGAN SETELAH 1 THN, 3 THN, 6 THN
    • 61. KELENJAR OVARIUM
      • MENGHASILKAN ESTROGEN & PROGESTERON
      • ESTROGEN  BERFUNGSI UNTUK MEMATANGKAN TELUR DALAM FOLIKEL-2 TELUR (FOLIKEL AWAL, PRIMER, SEKUN-DER, TERSIER, DE GRAAF), MENEBALKAN DINDING RAHIM UTK PERSIAPAN BILA OVUM KETEMU DG SEL SPERMA
      • MENGEMBANGKAN PAYUDARA SECARA MAKSIMAL, MULAI DARI PUTING & AEROLA (bgn berwarna coklat yg mengelilingi puting)
      • TANDA SEKS SEKUNDER PD WANITA
      • MENSTIMULI PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA PADA SALURAN TELUR (OVIDUCT)
      • PROGESTERON  BERFUNGSI MEMPERTAHANKAN KETEBA-LAN DDG RAHIM SHG BILA TERJADI PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA AKAN DI IMPLANTASIKAN
      • MENGHAMBAT PERTEMUAN OVUM DG SEL SPERMA BILA MELEBIHI KAPASITAS YANG SEHARUSNYA
    • 62. KELENJAR TESTIS (TESTES)
      • MENGHASILKAN HORMON TESTOSTERON
      • SETIAP 3 (TIGA) TUBULUS SEMINIFERUS DLM TESTIS KETEMU AKAN MENGHASILKAN HORMON TSB
      • MENINGKATKAN HASRAT LIBIDO PRIA
      • SEBAGAI TANDA SEKS SEKUNDER PRIA  SUARA BERAT, TUMBUH JAKUN (ADAM APPLE’S), BAHU MELEBAR, PINGGANG TETAP RAMPING
    • 63. Terima Kasih

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