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Wwii atlantic

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  • 1. The War for Europe and North Africa Chapter 17, Section 2
  • 2. The United States and Britain
    • After Pearl Harbor - the United States and Britain meet
    • Churchill made the journey to meet with Roosevelt
    • Churchill urges Roosevelt to start in Europe
      • Hitler was a bigger threat
  • 3. The Battle of the Atlantic
    • Hitler began submarine attacks on the East Coast
      • Goal: Limit supplies reaching Europe
    • Germany appeared to be succeeding
      • 7 months into 1942 - 681 Allied ships had been destroyed
    • The US began sending convoys
      • Groups of ships
      • Airplanes accompanied ships to detect U-Boats
    • Liberty ships were built - allowed fleet to outnumber Germans and defeat them
  • 4. The Battle of Stalingrad
    • Winter forced Germany to remain in Moscow and Leningrad in 1941-1942
    • Spring/Summer - Germans went south in order to capture oil fields and destroy Stalingrad
      • Key industrial city
    • Luftwaffe (German Air Force) bombed the town nightly
    • Russian officers saw potential for failure
      • Wanted to bomb factories
      • Stalin insisted that they finish
  • 5. Battle of Stalingrad
    • Germans were resilient
    • By the end of September - controlled 90% of the city
    • Winter came and the Soviets used it to their advantage
      • Soviets surrounded the city
    • Hitler urged the Germans to continue
    • The Germans surrendered on January 31st, 1943
      • 1,100,000 Soviet soldiers died
        • More than the total number of American deaths in the entire war.
    • Turning point in the war - Soviets went on the offensive and moved West
  • 6. North African Front
    • The Americans and the British opened a new operation - North Africa
      • Axis-controlled
      • General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the troops
    • Troops arrived in Casablanca, Oran and Algiers in North Africa
    • Afrika Korps surrendered in May 1943
  • 7. Italian Campaign
    • Meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt - “ unconditional surrender ”
    • Decided to attack Italy before launching attach across the English Channel
    • Captured Sicily in 1943
      • The Italian people were extremely disappointed
    • Forced Mussolini to resign
    • Hitler was still determined to defeat the Allies in Italy - before they got to Germany
    • “ Bloody Anzio” - 4 months, 25,000 Allied casualties & 30,000 Axis.
    • Success in 1945
  • 8. Heroes in Combat
    • Tuskegee Airmen
      • African American - 99th Pursuit Squadron
      • Saw first success in Italy - continued distinguished service throughout the war
    • Buffaloes
      • African American - 92nd Infantry Division
      • Won More than 200 medals
    • Mexican-Americans
      • 7 Congressional Medal of Honor winners
      • An all-Chicano unit became one of the most decorated of the war
    • Japanese Americans
      • 100th Battalion was most decorated unit in U.S. history
  • 9. D-Day/Normandy
    • General Eisenhower
      • Organized 3 million troops ( American, British and Canadian )
    • Planned attack on Normandy in France
    • Set up a phantom army
      • Sent orders to attack Calais (150 miles away)
      • Hitler sent troops to protect the port
    • June 6, 1944
  • 10. D-Day/Normandy
    • Shortly after midnight, three divisions parachuted behind enemy lines
    • Largest land-sea-air attack in army history
    • German retaliation was brutal
      • Omaha Beach
    • 7 days of fighting secured 80 miles
    • Additional supplies and troops arrived within a month
    • General Omar Bradley ordered land and air attack at St. Lo in order for General Patton to advance his troops
  • 11. D-Day/Normandy
    • Two days after Patton’s troops attacked, Paris was liberated
      • Four years of occupation
    • By September 1944 , Allies freed France, Belgium and Luxembourg
  • 12. The Battle of the Bulge
    • October 1944, Americans captured Aachen
    • Hitler sent troops to recapture Belgian port of Antwerp
      • Hoped to disrupt supply lines
    • December 16th - Hitler broke through American defenses
    • Tanks drove 60 miles into Allied territory
      • Created a “ bulge ” in the line
      • Captured 120 American GIs
        • Killed in a large field
  • 13. The Battle of the Bulge
    • Battle continued for a month
    • Germans were pushed back - lost men, supplies
    • There wasn’t much the Nazis could do but retreat
  • 14. Liberation of Death Camps
    • Allied troops in the East moved into the German heartland
    • Soviet troops were the first to see a Nazi death camp in July, 1944
    • SS Guards attempted to burn, destroy evidence
    • Soviets found crematorium and storehouses in addition to a thousand starving prisoners
    • Americans would liberate camps later in the war
  • 15. Unconditional Surrender
    • April 25, 1945 - Soviets in Berlin
    • Hitler committed suicide on April 30th - a day after marrying Eva Braun
    • On May 8, 1945 - Eisenhower accepted the unconditional surrender of the Third Reich
    • V-E Day = Victory in Europe Day
  • 16. Roosevelt’s Death
    • President Roosevelt was elected for a fourth term
    • On April 12, 1945 - President Roosevelt suffered a stroke and died
    • Harry Truman became president

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