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Bw360 en col62

  1. 1. BW360 SAP BI Performance & Administration InternalOnly SAP NetWeaver Information IntegrationPartner Use Date Training Center SAPSAP Instructors Education Website PartnerUseInternal Only Participant Handbook Course Version: 2006 Q2 Course Duration: 5 Day(s) Material Number: 50081099 An SAP course - use it to learn, reference it for work
  2. 2. Copyright Copyright © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed without prior notice. Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software components of other software vendors. Trademarks • Microsoft®, WINDOWS®, NT®, EXCEL®, Word®, PowerPoint® and SQL Server® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. InternalOnly • IBM®, DB2®, OS/2®, DB2/6000®, Parallel Sysplex®, MVS/ESA®, RS/6000®, AIX®, S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, and OS/400® are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation. • ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation. • INFORMIX®-OnLine for SAP and INFORMIX® Dynamic ServerTM are registered trademarks of Informix Software Incorporated.Partner • UNIX®, X/Open®, OSF/1®, and Motif® are registered trademarks of the Open Group. • Citrix®, the Citrix logo, ICA®, Program Neighborhood®, MetaFrame®, WinFrame®, VideoFrame®, MultiWin® and other Citrix product names referenced herein are trademarks of Use Citrix Systems, Inc. • HTML, DHTML, XML, XHTML are trademarks or registered trademarks of W3C®, World Wide Web Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. • JAVA® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SAPSAP • JAVASCRIPT® is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc., used under license for technology invented and implemented by Netscape. • SAP, SAP Logo, R/2, RIVA, R/3, SAP ArchiveLink, SAP Business Workflow, WebFlow, SAP EarlyWatch, BAPI, SAPPHIRE, Management Cockpit, mySAP.com Logo and mySAP.com are Partner trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries allUse over the world. All other products mentioned are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. DisclaimerInternal THESE MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED BY SAP ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND SAP EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR APPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT Only LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO THESE MATERIALS AND THE SERVICE, INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS, LINKS, OR ANY OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS CONTAINED HEREIN. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAP BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST REVENUES OR LOST PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS OR INCLUDED SOFTWARE COMPONENTS.
  3. 3. About This Handbook This handbook is intended to complement the instructor-led presentation of this course, and serve as a source of reference. It is not suitable for self-study. Typographic Conventions InternalOnly American English is the standard used in this handbook. The following typographic conventions are also used. Type Style DescriptionPartner Example text Words or characters that appear on the screen. These include field names, screen titles, pushbuttons as well as menu names, paths, and options. Use Also used for cross-references to other documentation both internal (in this documentation) and external (in other locations, such as SAPNet). SAPSAP Example text Emphasized words or phrases in body text, titles of graphics, and tables EXAMPLE TEXT Names of elements in the system. These include report PartnerUse names, program names, transaction codes, table names, and individual key words of a programming language, when surrounded by body text, for example SELECT and INCLUDE.Internal Example text Screen output. This includes file and directory names and their paths, messages, names of variables and parameters, and passages of the source text of a program. Only Example text Exact user entry. These are words and characters that you enter in the system exactly as they appear in the documentation. <Example text> Variable user entry. Pointed brackets indicate that you replace these words and characters with appropriate entries. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. iii
  4. 4. About This Handbook BW360 Icons in Body Text The following icons are used in this handbook. Icon Meaning For more information, tips, or background Note or further explanation of previous point InternalOnly Exception or cautionPartner Procedures Use Indicates that the item is displayed in the instructors presentation. SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only iv © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  5. 5. Contents Course Overview ............................................................................. vii Course Goals.................................................................................vii Course Objectives ...........................................................................vii InternalOnly Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver .......................................................................1 SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types ....................... 2 Unit 2: InfoProviders......................................................................... 13Partner InfoCube Data Model ...................................................................... 15 Data Store Object Architecture ........................................................... 33 MultiProvider ................................................................................ 36 Use Virtual Providers ............................................................................ 42 Real-time InfoCubes ....................................................................... 48 Data Store Object for Direct Update ..................................................... 60 SAPSAP Unit 3: Process Chains...................................................................... 65 Process Chains Design .................................................................... 66 Managing Process Chains ................................................................ 76 PartnerUse Unit 4: InfoProvider Administration and Tuning .....................................103 Managing InfoCubes ...................................................................... 105 Managing Data Store Objects............................................................ 114Internal Relational DBMS Indexes in BI .......................................................... 125 Indexing for InfoProviders ................................................................ 141 Table Partitioning in BI .................................................................... 158 Only Unit 5: Reporting Performance...........................................................171 Design Guidelines for Optimal Query Performance................................... 172 OLAP Caching ............................................................................ 179 Unit 6: BI Statistics and Monitoring .....................................................201 BI Statistics ................................................................................. 203 BI Statistics Technical Content........................................................... 210 BI Administrator Cockpit .................................................................. 223 BI Trace Tool ............................................................................... 232 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. v
  6. 6. Contents BW360 Unit 7: Aggregates ..........................................................................239 Relational DBMS Aggregate Basics..................................................... 241 Missing Aggregates ....................................................................... 252 Analyzing Aggregate Usage.............................................................. 262 Aggregate Maintenance .................................................................. 270 Unit 8: Data Acquisition Performance ..................................................313 Data Load Cycle ........................................................................... 314 InternalOnly Technical Details ........................................................................... 318 Parallelization .............................................................................. 336 Optimizing Data Acquisition Performance.............................................. 344 Unit 9: Information Life Cycle Management...........................................365Partner Information Life Cycle Management in BI .............................................. 366 Unit 10: Transport Management .........................................................393 Use System Landscape ........................................................................ 395 Standard Transport System .............................................................. 401 Object Versions and Metadata ........................................................... 405 SAP Transporting in BI .......................................................................... 410SAP BEx Objects ................................................................................ 422 Transporting Roles and Workbooks ..................................................... 426 System Copy ............................................................................... 429 Transport Strategies and Troubleshooting ............................................. 434 PartnerUse Unit 11: BI Accelerator .....................................................................441 BI Accelerator Introduction ............................................................... 443 BI Accelerator Architecture ............................................................... 453Internal Implementing BI Accelerator Indexes ................................................... 464 BI Accelerator Monitoring................................................................. 481 Only Unit 12: Appendix ...........................................................................495 BI and OLTP System Comparison....................................................... 496 BI Database Settings...................................................................... 499 Web Application Server Settings ........................................................ 503 Reorganizing Tables....................................................................... 521 Sizing BI Systems ......................................................................... 526 Index ............................................................................................535 vi © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  7. 7. Course Overview The focus of this course in on advanced BI administration and performance. This course provides a detailed look at the BI architecture and system landscape. Initially the various types of InfoProviders are discussed, then more details are covered that include the managing of InfoProviders for optimal performance. In order to manage the Enterprise Data Warehousing environment, sophisticated monitoring tools are InternalOnly essential. This course provides a detailed look at various monitoring tools in BI. Important statistics are collected for system wide analysis. This course discusses how the statistics are collected and analyzed. Participants will learn techniques to improve both query performance and data acquisition performance. Participants will learn how to create and maintain effective aggregates. This course also discusses the TransportPartner Management system, and the different methods that are used to handle Transports in BI. Participants will also learn about Information Life Cycle management and archiving in BI. A new technology to enhance query performance is introduced with Use the BI Accelerator. Target Audience SAP This course is intended for the following audiences:SAP • Project team members with extensive BI knowledge. Course Prerequisites PartnerUse Required Knowledge • Knowledge of the subject matter covered by BW310 (BI Data Warehousing).Internal Course Goals Only This course will prepare you to: • Administer and monitor BI systems. • Improve query performance. • Improve data acquisition performance. • Transport data in BI systems. Course Objectives After completing this course, you will be able to: 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. vii
  8. 8. Course Overview BW360 • Describe the BI architecture and data models. • List techniques to enhance query performance. • Describe how implement BI Statistics Technical Content. • Use BI monitoring and tracing tools to analyze BI performance. • List techniques to improve data acquisition performance. • Create effective aggregates to improve query performance. • Implement partitioning techniques for optimal performance. • Describe how the BI Accelerator can be used to improve query performance. InternalOnly SAP Software Component Information The information in this course pertains to the following SAP Software Components and releases:Partner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only viii © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  9. 9. Unit 1 SAP NetWeaver InternalOnly Unit Overview NetWeaver is SAPs application and integration platform that forms the technical foundation for mySAP Business Suite and SAP xApps. It delivers a complete, open, and flexible infrastructure that easily enables integration to SAP and non-SAPPartner applications. As of SAP NetWeaver 2004s, SAP retired the component terms as a method of Use describing the bundling features and functions. Now the concept for SAP NetWeaver and its enablement of IT is through the new cross-organizational and cross-technology IT practices and IT scenarios. SAPSAP Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: • Describe SAP software is organized. PartnerUse • Define IT practices. • Define IT scenarios and scenario variants. • Define usage types.Internal Unit Contents Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types ...... 2 Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 1
  10. 10. Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types Lesson Overview With SAP Netweaver 2004s, a new evolution of SAP software is introduced. SAP software is now organized around the new concepts of IT Scenarios, IT strategies and Usage Types. Separate components such as, Enterprise Portal, Business Intelligence, Process Integration, Mobile Intelligence, Web Application Server, and Master Data InternalOnly Management, are now organized together as a single platform. This extremely comprehensive technical platform provides a powerful base for deploying the Enterprise Service-Oriented Architecture. This new platform enhances BI in many ways. Business reporting and analyticalPartner capabilities are expanded by the integration of the BEx frontend with Enterprise Portal. This new platform also enables enhanced Enterprise Data Warehousing features including new objects for modeling and implementing the EDW layers. Use This lesson provides information about the new concept and the corresponding new terminology. SAP Lesson ObjectivesSAP After completing this lesson, you will be able to: • Describe SAP software is organized. Partner • Define IT practices.Use • Define IT scenarios and scenario variants. • Define usage types.Internal Business Example Your company is now running SAP Netweaver 2004s. You need to become familiar Only with the new concepts and terminology that are introduced in this release. Terms Used by SAP Software Organization and Delivery IT Practices, Scenarios, and Scenario Variants IT practices identify how you can use SAP NetWeaver to solve specific business problems by deploying integrated IT scenarios in a way that does not disrupt your existing operations. IT practices look at the overall SAP NetWeaver platform in vertical slices that focus on key business issues, rather than on isolated technology 2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  11. 11. BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types components. These include goals familiar to almost any IT organization, for example, the need to combine different integration technologies, to develop composite applications leveraging existing system investments, or to build new business processes in a flexible way. Other examples of IT practices include data unification and Business Information Management. InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP Figure 1: SAP NetWeaver 2004s and IT Practices PartnerUse To address the broad challenges in each IT practice, SAP NetWeaver provides predefined IT scenarios, introduced fully with SAP NetWeaver 2004s. By implementing IT scenarios, customers can adopt the core functionality of SAP NetWeaver in incremental phases. Each practice can be broken into one or multiple ITInternal scenarios, providing organizations with a process-oriented approach to making best use of SAP NetWeaver. Only IT practices serve as high-level starting points. They give structure to IT scenarios as the IT implemental things connected to documentation and configuration. An IT scenario is a set of IT processes, grouped to attain a defined business goal. Targeting the business of IT, IT scenarios help the technical community to more quickly and to easily develop, compose, and run applications. They also help IT build, enhance, 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 3
  12. 12. Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver BW360 and operate an IT infrastructure that integrates people, information, and processes. In many cases, further grouping is necessary, and the next level of organization is a scenario variant, which is a smaller grouping of IT processes. Note: IT scenarios replace the previous component view of SAP NetWeaver. All product information will be rolled out based on IT scenarios. InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP Figure 2: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Variants PartnerUse The aim of IT scenarios is to help customers and partners install and operate SAP NetWeaver. You utilize IT scenarios to run business applications – both custom-built and packaged applications – or to implement a defined IT concept, such as evolving a companys system landscape into a services-based architecture.Internal Focusing on the flow of activities, IT scenarios are meaningful groupings of processes typically performed by one department. In this context; application development, adaptation and configuration, or business process management are typical examples of Only IT scenarios. In summary, we chose a scenario-based approach to ease the transition from your business requirements to a system landscape that will enable them. 4 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  13. 13. BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 3: IT Scenarios and IT Practices IT scenarios can cross IT practices. The figure below demonstrates this using Enterprise Data Warehousing as an example. A scenario-based approach to ease the SAPSAP transition from your business requirements to a system landscape that enable them. The IT Scenario “Enterprise Data Warehousing (EDW)” detailed in the preceding graphic and the scenario variants “Modeling ”and “Running” the EDW detailed below are the focus of this class. PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 4: Scenario Variants for Enterprise Data Warehousing 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5
  14. 14. Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver BW360 Usage Types In previous releases, SAP delivered and organized around IT-specific software components. The key capabilities of SAP NetWeaver were delivered as software components. Note: Although components exist, and are shown when you access the System → Status path on the SAP GUI, they are not relevant in business discussions. In addition, implementation is focused on usage types not components. InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUse Figure 5: How Should We Group and Deliver SAP NetWeaver? Now, instead of an IT focus, SAP is moving to a business-based focus and deliveringInternal the actual software you need to run an IT scenario. This business focused delivery of software crosses IT focused “software components”and is easier to understand for all. Only 6 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  15. 15. BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 6: Business-Focused Usage Types Usage types as an organizational tool have many advantages over software components by themselves. The figure below lists some of the advantages of usage types. SAPSAP Note: This figure also shows that some usage types are dependant on others. For example, usage type EP requires usage type AS Java. PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 7: Usage Types 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7
  16. 16. Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver BW360 In addition to SAP NetWeaver software components being packaged and delivered under usage types, other software is needed in an SAP implementation. Standalone engines are additional, installable software units that do not work as full-blown systems of SAP NetWeaver, but provide a specific (server) function in combination with one or multiple SAP NetWeaver systems. They are not part of a usage type, and do not run on Web AS ABAP or Web AS Java. One example of an engine is the Search and Classification (TREX) engine, used for search and retrieval in large document collections, text mining, automatic document classification, and search and aggregation over structured data in SAP applications InternalOnly Client programs are, again, additional installable programs not considered as usage types in any way. This category of software either resides on local front-end PC accessed by users or on back-end systems acting as a client program within a SAP NetWeaver system landscape. Front-end and back-end clients are part of the systemPartner or standalone engine installation for various reasons. Usage types and client programs and dedicated engines categorize all the software needed in an SAP environment. This is shown in the figure below. Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Figure 8: Usage Types and Client Programs and Dedicated Engines Only The organization of multiple usage types is often needed to build up a usable system. The figure below shows the interaction between clients, systems, and standalone engines. 8 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  17. 17. BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 9: Clients, Systems, and Standalone Engines The concepts in this lesson are critical for your success. One example, installing the software, is shown in the following two figures. SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 10: Usage Types Drive Installation of SAP NetWeaver 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 9
  18. 18. Unit 1: SAP NetWeaver BW360 InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 11: Installation: Selection of Usage Type Although not every link below is focused solely on implementation, usage types, or IT scenarios, they will be very helpful in your future. SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 12: Where to Go for More Information 10 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  19. 19. BW360 Lesson: SAP NetWeaver: IT Practices, IT Scenarios, and Usage Types Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe SAP software is organized. • Define IT practices. • Define IT scenarios and scenario variants. • Define usage types. Related Information InternalOnly • Use the last figure in this lesson to find links to a wealth of information about BI. • Note 917950 has a lot of detail on BEx related usage types.Partner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11
  20. 20. Unit Summary BW360 Unit Summary You should now be able to: • Describe SAP software is organized. • Define IT practices. • Define IT scenarios and scenario variants. • Define usage types. InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only 12 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  21. 21. Unit 2 InfoProviders InternalOnly Unit Overview In this unit, you will learn about BI InfoProviders. The BI Extended Star Schema is discussed in detail. You will learn how to design the star schema for performance. You will also learn about Data Store Objects and the important role they play in BI.Partner Other InfoProviders discussed in this unit include MultiProviders, Virtual Providers and Real Time InfoProviders. Use Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you will be able to: SAPSAP • Describe the SAP BI Extended Star Schema. • Describe the performance aspects of the Star Schema. • Explain the difference between a display attribute and a navigational attribute. • Describe the purpose of line item dimensions. PartnerUse • Describe the Data Store Object Architecture. • Describe the process of activating Data Store Objects. • Describe how to create a MultiProvider.Internal • Explain the performance implications of query processing on MultiProviders. • List the administration and performance benefits of utilizing Multiproviders. Only • Create Virtual Providers. • Describe the benefits of Virtual Providers. • Explain the impact on query performance when Virtual Providers are read. • Create a Real-time InfoCube and write into it • Create a Data Store Object for Direct Update. Unit Contents Lesson: InfoCube Data Model ..................................................... 15 Exercise 1: Examine Data Model ............................................. 23 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13
  22. 22. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Exercise 2: Create an InfoCube ............................................... 29 Lesson: Data Store Object Architecture .......................................... 33 Lesson: MultiProvider ............................................................... 36 Lesson: Virtual Providers ........................................................... 42 Lesson: Real-time InfoCubes ...................................................... 48 Exercise 3: Real-Time InfoCubes ............................................. 55 Lesson: Data Store Object for Direct Update .................................... 60 InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only 14 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  23. 23. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn about the need for data models. You will also learn about the BI Extended Star Schema and how to design the star schema. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: InternalOnly • Describe the SAP BI Extended Star Schema. • Describe the performance aspects of the Star Schema. • Explain the difference between a display attribute and a navigational attribute.Partner • Describe the purpose of line item dimensions. Business Example Use You are working in the Data Warehousing department of a chemical company. You need to load data separately into the master data tables, text tables, and hierarchy tables. SAPSAP Introducing Data Models • Do not underestimate the importance of the data model. PartnerUse – It is the basis of all BI application tuning. – Create the blueprint very carefully. – The effects of a bad data model are visible first with mass data load.Internal Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 15
  24. 24. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 InternalOnlyPartner Figure 13: Data Model Design Use BI performance begins with the data model. The design phase is the ideal time to discuss the performance implications of BI SAP models. A poorly designed model will cause overall performance problems in terms ofSAP reading and loading BI objects. The design of BI models should include performance considerations from the beginning. PartnerUseInternal Only 16 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  25. 25. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model BI Extended Star Schema InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 14: SAP BI Star Schema SAPSAP The SAP BI Star Schema is made up of a Fact table and Dimension tables. There can be a maximum of 16 dimension tables in one Star Schema. The Star Schema is also called and InfoCube. The InfoObjects in the dimension tables are called characteristics. The InfoObjects in PartnerUse the fact table are key figures. All characteristics have a SID (surrogate ID) table. The characteristic SID table gets created when the characteristic is activated. The SID table contains a SIDID for each characteristic value. The SIDID represents the characteristic value in numericInternal INT4 format and is generated by the system when values are loaded. Because each characteristic in a dimension table is represented by a numeric SIDID, the read performance on the InfoCube is greatly enhanced. (Reading numeric values is much Only faster than reading alphanumeric values.) If a characteristic, such as Customer or Product, also has master data tables, then the SID table is also the link between the master data and the characteristic in the dimension tables. Use transaction LISTSCHEMA to display the tables in the Star Schema. The BI extended star schema is subdivided into a solution-dependent part (InfoCube) and a solution-independent part: attribute tables, text tables, and hierarchy table. The attribute, text and hierarchy tables are also shared among the other InfoCubes. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17
  26. 26. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 InternalOnlyPartner Use Figure 15: Extended Star Schema The attributes of the characteristics are located in the master data tables. SAP A great challenge when designing a solution is to decide whether to store data as aSAP characteristic in a dimension table (and therefore in the InfoCube) or as an attribute in a master data table. Data is loaded separately into the master data tables (attribute tables) text tables and Partner hierarchy tables.Use AttributesInternal Only 18 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  27. 27. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model InternalOnly Figure 16: Display and Navigational Attributes • A display attribute is an attribute of an InfoObject that can be displayed together with the InfoObject. It cannot be used on its own. • A navigation attribute is an attribute of an InfoObject that can be displayedPartner independently of the InfoObject and also used to navigate. For example it can be used to filter data. Use • It has to be enabled as a navigation attribute in the InfoObject that it is based on and switched on for each InfoCube. • The naming convention for a navigational attribute is: InfoObject__Attribute, such as 0customer__0country. SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 17: Navigational Attribute: Read Execution 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19
  28. 28. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Designing the Star Schema • Small dimensions. • Few dimensions (less important than small dimensions). • Only as many details as necessary. • Hierarchies only if necessary. • Time-dependent structures only if necessary. • Avoid MIN, MAX - Aggregation for key figures in huge InfoCubes InternalOnly If MIN or MAX Aggregation is used in key figures, no delta changerun in Aggregates is possible. For each change run, a total rebuild of the aggregate is done. When modeling real world processes, different interests generally conflict with one other. A good design is therefore a compromise that allows the most important partsPartner of each aspect to be represented without disregarding the other aspects. Some questions to ask when determining requirements: Use • Will delivered business content meet many requirements? • What granularity of data do the users really need to access most frequently? • Which user requirements are, in reality, exception reporting? SAPSAP • Are users basing their requirements on simply replicating reports from a legacy system? Granularity is the level of detail of data. A decision about the granularity of modeling is one of the main results of the data modeling phase. Granularity deeply influences: PartnerUse • Reporting capabilities • Query Performance • Required Disk SpaceInternal • Data load performance Only Figure 18: Designing the Data Model 20 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  29. 29. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Line Item Dimensions For good performance, the number of rows in the dimension tables should be small compared to the number of rows in the fact table. A general rule of thumb is the number of dimension table rows should be less than 15% of the number of fact table rows. Line item dimensions solve the problem of too many rows in the dimension table. The prerequisite is that there can be only one characteristic in the dimension. Line item dimensions improve both reporting and data load performance. InternalOnly F4 Help usually uses the dimension table for selection. In a line item dimension, there is no dimension table. Therefore, the S-table has to be used. An InfoCube can for example only uses 4 material numbers, but the BI system knows 10.000 material numbers. The material numbers, which are stored in the InfoCube, can be found in the dimension table. All material numbers of the BI system can be found in thePartner S-table. This means the F4-help can access a table with 10.000 entries instead of a table with 4 entries. Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Figure 19: Line Item Dimension Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21
  30. 30. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 InternalOnly Figure 20: Create a Line Item DimensionPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 21: Aspects of Design During the design phase of the project, there is an important balance between analysis aspects and performance aspects. 22 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  31. 31. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Exercise 1: Examine Data Model Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Examine the data model of InfoCubes Business Example InternalOnly Check for the data model of an existing InfoCube. Task 1: Examine the data model of InfoCube T_PU_SLOW (technical name).Partner 1. Analyze the InfoCube T_PU_SLOW. Find and display the data model of the InfoCube Use 2. Transaction LISTSCHEMA Open another window to call up the schema viewer for InfoCubes. What is the name of the database table for the InfoCube F fact table? SAPSAP Expand to view the names of the dimension tables. 3. Analyze the InfoCube’s F fact table and dimension tables Go to transaction RSRV and determine the number of records for the F fact PartnerUse table and dimension tables. Which one of these dimensions tables is the best candidate to be a Line Item dimension?Internal Task 2: Learn more about data models., Choose the InfoCube with the technical name Only “T_ATTR”. For this InfoCube two queries exist, run both queries (technical names “T_ATTR1” and “T_ATTR2”). Describe what you see, why do you see this difference? 1. Open the BEx Analyzer (call transaction RRMX). 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 23
  32. 32. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Solution 1: Examine Data Model Task 1: Examine the data model of InfoCube T_PU_SLOW (technical name). 1. Analyze the InfoCube T_PU_SLOW. Find and display the data model of the InfoCube a) Go to transaction RSA1. Choose Modeling, then InfoProvider. Goto InternalOnly InfoArea BW Training → BW Customer Training → BW360 Performance and Administration → Unit02. Highlight the InfoCube, context menu, and choose Display Data Model. Expand the Key Figures folder, and note the key figures that make up thisPartner InfoCube’s fact table. Expand each dimension (three triangles icon), to see what characteristics make up each dimension table of the InfoCube. List the dimensions that were built by the designer of the InfoCube. Use 2. Transaction LISTSCHEMA Open another window to call up the schema viewer for InfoCubes. What is the name of the database table for the InfoCube F fact table? SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Continued on next page 24 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  33. 33. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Expand to view the names of the dimension tables. a) In the box at the top left of the screen, type in “/oLISTSCHEMA”. In the field InfoCube Type, type in “B”, and type in the technical name T_PU_SLOW of the InfoCube, then select the Execute icon. The name of the database F fact table for the InfoCube is /BIC/FT_PU_SLOW. These are the dimension and their tables: InternalOnly T_PU_SLOWP: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOWP T_PU_SLOWT: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOWT T_PU_SLOWU: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOWU T_PU_SLOW1: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW1 T_PU_SLOW2: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW2Partner T_PU_SLOW3: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW3 T_PU_SLOW4: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW4 T_PU_SLOW5: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW5 Use T_PU_SLOW6: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW6 T_PU_SLOW8: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW8 T_PU_SLOWA: /BIC/DT_PU_SLOWA SAP 3. Analyze the InfoCube’s F fact table and dimension tablesSAP Go to transaction RSRV and determine the number of records for the F fact table and dimension tables. PartnerUseInternal Only Continued on next page 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 25
  34. 34. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Which one of these dimensions tables is the best candidate to be a Line Item dimension? a) Go to transaction RSRV. Goto to Tests → All Elementary Tests → Database. Highlight the Test Database Information about InfoProvider Tables, right-click (context menu), and choose Select Test. On the right side, expand the test and make the parameter entry InfoProvider T_PU_SLOW. Choose the button “Transfer”. Execute the test by selecting the “Execute” button in the top of the left side. Display the protocol with the button “Display”. Expand your whole protocol. Now you InternalOnly can see the tables with their records. The dimension T_PU_SLOW8 with 188557 entries (23% of F fact table) in the table /BIC/DT_PU_SLOW8 is the best candidate to be a “High Cardinality” dimension and a “Line-Item” dimension. It can be a linePartner item dimension because, as you have seen in the data model, there is only one characteristic inside that dimension. All dimensions with only one characteristic can be a good candidate for a line item dimension. Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Continued on next page 26 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  35. 35. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Task 2: Learn more about data models., Choose the InfoCube with the technical name “T_ATTR”. For this InfoCube two queries exist, run both queries (technical names “T_ATTR1” and “T_ATTR2”). Describe what you see, why do you see this difference? 1. Open the BEx Analyzer (call transaction RRMX). a) Open → Query → InfoAreas → BW Training → BW Customer Training → BW360 Performance and Administration → Unit 02 → Query with InternalOnly attribute country 1 → OK. Open the second query “Query with attribute country 2” the same way you did for the first query. The first query displays EN for the country. The second query displays DE for country. Both queries look the same, toPartner see the difference (it doesn’t matter if you can open the change dialog only in display mode): Change → Change Query (global definition) → Technical Names on. Use The “country” characteristic used in query one is the country InfoObject itself. The “country” characteristic used in query 2 is the navigational attribute of InfoObject Airport. Hence the second query displays the country from the master data table (/BIC/PT_AIRPORT) and the first query SAPSAP takes the value for the country out of the InfoCube. The queries themselves display in both cases just “country” as the name of the object, in order to avoid mistakes always choose a different name for the navigational attribute! PartnerUseInternal Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 27
  36. 36. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only 28 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  37. 37. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model Exercise 2: Create an InfoCube Exercise Objectives After completing this exercise, you will be able to: • Create InfoObjects. • Create an InfoCube. • Identify the database tables that are created. InternalOnly Business Example Business requirements determine that a new InfoCube must be created to hold flight data. (The transaction data will be loaded later from the OLTP system.}Partner New InfoObjects are also needed to be included in the InfoCube. For performance reasons the InfoCube should have two dimensions, and each dimension should be a line item dimension with high cardinality. Use Task: Before you create your InfoObjects you need to create an InfoObject catalog. After SAP you have created your catalog create your own InfoObjects.SAP 1. Create an InfoObject catalog, Group##_char. In the catalog create characteristic InfoObjects: T_CARID##, and T_CONID##. 2. Create InfoCube TRANSP##, with two line item dimensions: CARRID PartnerUse and CONNID. Make each a line item dimension with high cardinality. In the CARRID dimension insert InfoObject T_CARID##, and in the CONNID dimension insert InfoObject T_CONID##. Include the Key Figure T_FLPRICE and 0CALDAY in your InfoCube.Internal Only 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 29
  38. 38. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Solution 2: Create an InfoCube Task: Before you create your InfoObjects you need to create an InfoObject catalog. After you have created your catalog create your own InfoObjects. 1. Create an InfoObject catalog, Group##_char. In the catalog create characteristic InfoObjects: T_CARID##, and T_CONID##. a) In transaction RSA1 choose InfoObjects and go to InfoArea: BW Training InternalOnly → BW Customer training → BW360 → Unit02→ Group##. b) From the context menu of your InfoArea Group##, choose Create InfoObject Catalog. Enter the name GR##_char and check InfoObject Type Chars.Partner c) Activate your InfoObject catalog. d) From the context menu of your InfoObject catalog choose Create Use InfoObject. Field Name Values SAP InfoObject T_CARID##SAP Description Group ## Carrid Template T_CARID98 PartnerUse e) Activate. f) From the context menu of your InfoObject catalog choose Create InfoObject..Internal Field Name Values InfoObject T_CONID## Only Description Group ## Connid Template T_CONID98 g) Activate. Continued on next page 30 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  39. 39. BW360 Lesson: InfoCube Data Model 2. Create InfoCube TRANSP##, with two line item dimensions: CARRID and CONNID. Make each a line item dimension with high cardinality. In the CARRID dimension insert InfoObject T_CARID##, and in the CONNID dimension insert InfoObject T_CONID##. Include the Key Figure T_FLPRICE and 0CALDAY in your InfoCube. a) From RSA1, choose Modeling → InfoProvider. Go to InfoArea BW Training → BW Customer training → BW360 → Unit 01 →Group##. b) From the context menu of your InfoArea choose Create InfoCube. InternalOnly Field Name Values InfoCube TRANSP## Description Group ## InfoCubePartner c) Press Create. d) Rename Dimension1 to CARRID and change properties. From the context Use menu of your dimension choose Properties and select Line Item and High Cardinality. e) Press Continue. SAPSAP f) From the context menu of your CARRID dimension choose InfoObject.Direct Input. Enter T_CARID##. g) From the context menu of the Dimensions folder, select Create new Partner dimensions. Enter CONNID for the description and select Line Item andUse High Cardinality. Press continue. h) From the context menu of the TIME dimension choose InfoObject.Direct Input. Enter 0CALDAY.Internal i) From the context menu of the Key Figures folder choose InfoObject.Direct Input. Enter T_FLPRICE. Only j) Activate your InfoCube. From the context menu of your InfoCube choose Display Data Model. k) Go to transaction LISTCHEMA. Enter TRANSP##. Expand the hierarchy and view the tables that were created. 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 31
  40. 40. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Lesson Summary You should now be able to: • Describe the SAP BI Extended Star Schema. • Describe the performance aspects of the Star Schema. • Explain the difference between a display attribute and a navigational attribute. • Describe the purpose of line item dimensions. InternalOnlyPartner Use SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only 32 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2
  41. 41. BW360 Lesson: Data Store Object Architecture Lesson: Data Store Object Architecture Lesson Overview This lesson will give you an overview of the Data Store Object Architecture. It will also describe the processes of loading and activation of Data Store Objects Objects. Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson, you will be able to: InternalOnly • Describe the Data Store Object Architecture. • Describe the process of activating Data Store Objects.Partner Business Example Your organization uses Data Store Objects to store huge amounts of data. As an employee of this chemical company, you need to understand the Data Store Use architecture. Data Store Architecture SAPSAP PartnerUseInternal Only Figure 22: Data Store Object Architecture 2006/Q2 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 33
  42. 42. Unit 2: InfoProviders BW360 Data Store Objects consist of three tables: • Activation Queue: In this table the new data is stored before activation. The structure is like a PSA table. The key is made up of the request, data package, and record number. After activation, a request is deleted from the Activation Queue. • Table with active data: In this table the currently active data is stored. The table has a semant key defined by the data modeler for example.order number, order item). Reporting is done on that table. • Change Log: During activation, changes in the active data are stored in the Change Log. You can find the entire history of activations for the Data Store InternalOnly Object in that table because data is not automatically deleted from that table. If data targets are supplied with data from the Data Store Object, in a delta process the data is read from the Change Log. The Change Log is a PSA table and can be maintained in the PSA tree of the administrator workbench. That isPartner why the Change Log also has a technical key that consists of the request, data package, and record number. Upload and activation process: New data is loaded to the Data Store Object and the Use technical key is added to the records. Requests can be loaded independently from each other (sequentially or in parallel). All requests are stored in the activaton queue first. Activation can be triggered manually or automatically. At the beginning of the activation, the data is sorted by the semantic key and the technical key. Therefore, SAPSAP records with identical semantic keys are activated in the same data package and in the right order. Data packages for activation are then created. The size of those packages can be customized. Those packages can be processed in parallel. The maximum number of packages and the server group the activation runs on can also PartnerUse be customized.Internal Only 34 © 2006 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 2006/Q2

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