RomanticismRestoration Period 1660-1700 Romantic Period 1700-1837
Beginning and End• Inclusive of work between 1770-1870: this  permits work by Blake and Burns as well as the  influence of...
Major Precepts of Romanticism•   Imagination•   Nature•   Symbolism & Myth•   Emotions & the Self•   The Romantic Hero•   ...
Imagination• Contrast to the supremacy of reason and the  Enlightenment• The creative mind is the human equivalent of the ...
Nature• Nature itself was viewed as a work of art, created  by a divine imagination• Nature was viewed as “organic”• Roman...
Symbolism & Myth• Symbols were the human aesthetic correlatives of  nature’s representative language• Symbolism was valued...
Emotions & The Self• Greater importance on intuition, instincts, and  feelings• Wordsworth describes poetry as “the sponta...
The Romantic Hero• The hero-artist: free experimentation over rules of  genre, composition, and decorum   – Artist is an “...
Paradoxical Combinations• Realms of existence prior to the conceptions of  “objective” reason were explored.• The merger o...
Criticism of Bourgeoisie and the Philistine • The rich aristocrat praising the rural life even though their   money came f...
Self-Consciousness and Individualism• Opening statement of Rousseaus Confessions,   first published in 1781—"I am not made...
Relativism• Conflict to the Enlightenment: there does not  need to be one truth:  – The concept that points of view have n...
Romanticism in Music• Beethoven, Wagner, Brahms: works pushed  the standards of composition by including  sorrowful moods,...
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Romanticism Powerpoint

  1. 1. RomanticismRestoration Period 1660-1700 Romantic Period 1700-1837
  2. 2. Beginning and End• Inclusive of work between 1770-1870: this permits work by Blake and Burns as well as the influence of Rousseau’s writings• “Officially” starts in 1798 when Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads and when German poet Novalis put together Hymns to the Night (Hymnen and Die Nacht)• “Officially” ends in 1832 around the time of Sir Walter Scott’s and Goethe’s death
  3. 3. Major Precepts of Romanticism• Imagination• Nature• Symbolism & Myth• Emotions & the Self• The Romantic Hero• Paradoxical Combinations• Criticism of Bourgeoisie and the Philistine• Self-Consciousness & The Individual• Relativism
  4. 4. Imagination• Contrast to the supremacy of reason and the Enlightenment• The creative mind is the human equivalent of the creative powers of a deity• Allows humans to constitute reality (we not only perceive the world around us but we, in part, create it)• Focus on “intellectual intuition” and reconciliation of differences and opposites
  5. 5. Nature• Nature itself was viewed as a work of art, created by a divine imagination• Nature was viewed as “organic”• Romantic nature poetry is essentially a poetry of meditation and reflection• Strong shift away from the industrialization and globalization of the world• Put the myth back into nature—returned God to mystical and supernatural state
  6. 6. Symbolism & Myth• Symbols were the human aesthetic correlatives of nature’s representative language• Symbolism was valued over allegory because there could be several responses to a symbol• Used symbolism and myth to express the “Inexpressible” or the infinite through the use of an organic perception
  7. 7. Emotions & The Self• Greater importance on intuition, instincts, and feelings• Wordsworth describes poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings”• Shift in literary criticism from mimetic to expressive. Art does not reflect nature, but it helps to better understand it• The artist has become the hero
  8. 8. The Romantic Hero• The hero-artist: free experimentation over rules of genre, composition, and decorum – Artist is an “inspired” creator rather than a technical “maker” – Lauded Shakespeare as a model writer, but rejected the rules that he followed/created• The heaven-storming hero: striving for the unattainable even though it is often beyond what is permitted• Boldness is now preferred: each person must create a system by which to live—individualism rather than absolutes
  9. 9. Paradoxical Combinations• Realms of existence prior to the conceptions of “objective” reason were explored.• The merger of everyday and exotic, nature and supernatural, appeared in combinations – Beautiful soul and ugly body: Hugo’s Hunchback of Notre Dame and Shelley’s Frankenstein
  10. 10. Criticism of Bourgeoisie and the Philistine • The rich aristocrat praising the rural life even though their money came from urban industry or occupations; Romance poets funded by rich aristocrats – Wordsworth’s father was an attorney for an Earl – Blake was gifted tuition to the Royal Academy – Lord Byron inherited his wealth from several family members • “Philistine” is a person who does not value or know anything about Art • “Bourgeoisie” is a person of the upper class—non-working class
  11. 11. Self-Consciousness and Individualism• Opening statement of Rousseaus Confessions, first published in 1781—"I am not made like anyone I have seen; I darebelieve that I am not made like anyone in existence.If I am not superior, at least I am different.”•“What lies behind us and what lies before us aretiny matters compared to what lies withinus.” Ralph Waldo Emerson (American Romanticwriter)
  12. 12. Relativism• Conflict to the Enlightenment: there does not need to be one truth: – The concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration• The heart has reasons that Reason is not equipped to understand. The heart was a source of knowledge -- the location of ideas "felt" as sensations rather than thoughts.
  13. 13. Romanticism in Music• Beethoven, Wagner, Brahms: works pushed the standards of composition by including sorrowful moods, melodramatic climaxes, and extreme crescendos• Beethoven’s “Eroica” (Italian for “heroic”) is an example of Romantic composition

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