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Unit Notes Jess

  1. 1. Industrialization & Reform<br />Unit # 1<br />
  2. 2. Essential Questions<br />1. Who benefits and who suffers during the times of profound economic change?2. How does the economy affect where and how people live?3. How does immigration affect the immigrants and the society that they enter?4. How can people change society?5. Did this period of industrialization and reform move American closer or further away from its founding ideals?<br />
  3. 3. Unit Overview:<br /><ul><li>Industrialization
  4. 4. Causes
  5. 5. Economic Terms & Philosophies
  6. 6. Geographic factors
  7. 7. Robber baron or Captain of Industry?
  8. 8. Labor
  9. 9. Working Conditions & labor demands
  10. 10. Labor Unions
  11. 11. Strikes</li></ul>Immigration<br />Push & Pull Factors<br />The Immigrant Experience<br />Ellis Island<br />Nativism and restricting immigration<br />Reform<br />Muckrakers and the need for reform<br />Progressives<br />Changes Made (state and federal)<br />
  12. 12. Assessments:<br />District Assessment # 1 (Current Topics Letter)<br />Quizzes (most likely 2)<br />Unit Test (tentatively Friday, October 16th)<br />Short Term Assignments:<br />The Founding Ideals through Images<br />Assembly Line <br />Current Events Discussion – Immigration in America<br />Various Homework Assignments <br />
  13. 13. What was America like prior to Industrialization?<br />Communication was far more difficult<br />Goods and ideas travel slower<br />Goods made locally without mass production<br />Most worked in villages and small towns (not cities)<br />
  14. 14. What was America like prior to Industrialization?<br />Women rarely worked, got involved in politics or ever voted<br />Immigration came mostly from English speaking countries<br />Federal gov’t made few, if any, changes (power in the local gov’t)<br />
  15. 15. Causes of Industrialization<br /># 1 – Wealth of Natural Resources <br /># 2 – Inventions and Innovations <br /># 3 – Gov’t support for big business<br /># 4 – Growing urban population provided: <br /> a. Cheap labor b. Markets for new products<br />
  16. 16. Natural Resources<br />Abundance of natural resources gives America an advantage<br />Numerous waterways <br />Expansive lumber industry<br />Farm surpluses ensure food supply<br />Coal, iron ore, oil<br />Growing nation relies on many natural resources<br />Necessary for U.S. transformation (from agricultural to industrial)<br />
  17. 17. Supply of Capital<br />Capital=Money<br />Where is it coming from?<br />1) Government is aiding business<br />2) Foreign investment to the U.S.<br />3) Formation of corporations<br />Effect  increase in industrial funding and growth<br />
  18. 18. # of Workers<br />Increases mainly due to massive immigration (mostly cities)<br />Many women and children <br />Effects  More production, but less pay<br />Child labor, sweatshops, labor disputes<br />
  19. 19. Inventions & Innovations<br /><ul><li>Thomas Edison
  20. 20. The light bulb
  21. 21. Telegraph and telephone
  22. 22. Phonograph
  23. 23. Electric distributers
  24. 24. Other key inventions
  25. 25. Bessemer Process  process that reduces flaws in iron; mass produces cheap steel
  26. 26. railroad tracks (transcontinental railroad)
  27. 27. skyscrapers
  28. 28. Farm equipment
  29. 29. bridges</li></li></ul><li>“Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety nine percent perspiration.”~ Thomas Edison<br />
  30. 30. Edison next to other notorious Historical figures.<br />Is Edison as important a man as Alexander the Great, George Washington, Napoleon or Adolf Hitler?<br />&quot;He led no armies into battle, he conquered no countries, and he enslaved no peoples... Nonetheless, he exerted a degree of power the magnitude of which no warrior ever dreamed. His name still commands a respect as sweeping in scope and as world-wide as that of any other mortal - a devotion rooted deep in human gratitude and untainted by the bias that is often associated with race, color, politics, and religion.&quot;<br />
  31. 31. Innovations in Business<br />Edwin Drake<br />Drilled first oil well in PA (1859)<br />Alexander Graham Bell<br />The telephone<br />Samuel Morse<br />Designed a machine that could send coded messages<br />Isaac Singer <br />Sewing machines<br />“What hath God wrought!”~ First ever telegraph message (Samuel Morse)<br />
  32. 32. Which is the most Important Invention/Innovation Ever? (Choose 1 and explain why???)<br /><ul><li>Airplane
  33. 33. Antiseptics/</li></ul>Antibiotics<br /><ul><li>Assembly line
  34. 34. Atomic Bomb
  35. 35. Camera
  36. 36. Telephone/</li></ul>Telegraph<br /><ul><li>Television
  37. 37. Computers
  38. 38. Fabrics
  39. 39. Firearms
  40. 40. Radar/Sonar
  41. 41. Glass/</li></ul>Glasses<br /><ul><li>Refrigerator
  42. 42. Matches
  43. 43. Pasteurization
  44. 44. Plastic
  45. 45. Plumbing
  46. 46. Printing Press
  47. 47. Telescope/</li></ul>Microscope<br /><ul><li>Laser
  48. 48. World Wide Web
  49. 49. Radio
  50. 50. Clock
  51. 51. Calendar
  52. 52. Motion Pictures
  53. 53. Locomotives
  54. 54. Cotton Gin
  55. 55. Syringe
  56. 56. Stethoscope
  57. 57. X-Rays
  58. 58. Pen
  59. 59. Bessemer Process
  60. 60. Steam Engine
  61. 61. Satellites
  62. 62. Rubber
  63. 63. Rockets
  64. 64. Radar/Sonar</li></li></ul><li>Quick Review…<br />First, Create a cluster diagram of the “Causes of Industrialization” (like the one seen here)<br />In your group, fill in the cluster diagram, but this time add examples for each of the causes. <br />
  65. 65. Homework: Define the following economic terms (Use books and/or internet)<br /><ul><li>Monopoly
  66. 66. Recession
  67. 67. Depression
  68. 68. Anarchy
  69. 69. Dividend
  70. 70. NYSE
  71. 71. Dow Jones
  72. 72. Bull Market
  73. 73. Capitalism
  74. 74. Mixed Economy
  75. 75. Socialism
  76. 76. Communism
  77. 77. Corporations
  78. 78. Laissez-Faire
  79. 79. Business Cycle
  80. 80. Pools (for a company)
  81. 81. Trust (for a company)</li></li></ul><li>Businessmen and Philosophies<br />Industrialization & Reform Unit<br />
  82. 82. Robber Barons or Captains of Industry?<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />U.S. Steel Corp<br />1st $ Billion Company<br />Sold to J.P. Morgan (Banking tycoon)<br />Monopoly over steel <br />Known for his philanthropy<br />J.D. Rockefeller<br />Standard Oil Company<br />Used trusts to monopolize oil<br />Ethical business tactics?<br />Also a philathropist<br />
  83. 83. Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration<br />Resources<br />Resources<br />Resources<br /><ul><li>Horizontal
  84. 84. Gaining control of all steps involved in turning product from raw material to finished product
  85. 85. Vertical
  86. 86. Expanding by buying out all competing firms</li></ul>Manufacturing<br />Manufacturing<br />Manufacturing<br />HORIZONTAL<br />VERTICAL<br />
  87. 87. Titled: “What a Funny Little Government”<br />
  88. 88. “Robber Barons” or “Captains of Industry”<br /><ul><li>Robber Baron” - term used b/c people were alarmed with the ruthless business tactics used and felt that businessmen had a negative impact on society.
  89. 89. “Captain of Industry” – term used to show that businessmen made a positive impact on society and gave back through philanthropy.
  90. 90. Briefly research one of the following businessmen
  91. 91. Andrew Carnegie
  92. 92. J.D. Rockefeller
  93. 93. J.P. Morgan
  94. 94. Cornelius Vanderbilt
  95. 95. George Pullman
  96. 96. Jay Gould
  97. 97. Jay Cooke
  98. 98. Leland Stanford</li></ul> and write a two-paragraph response <br /><ul><li> Paragraph # 1 – Bio of businessman
  99. 99. Paragraph# 2 – Argument whether they are a “RB” or “COI”</li></li></ul><li>Economic Philosophies<br />Social Darwinism<br />Charles Darwin  “Origin of the Species”<br />Survival of the fittest, applied to nature<br />Herbert Spencer  Applies Darwin’s ideas to society<br />Individuals compete for success<br />Gov’t should not get involved <br />Accepted by many businessmen<br />
  100. 100. Adolf Hitler<br />Andrew Carnegie<br />Charles Darwin<br />Jack London<br />Herbert Spencer<br />
  101. 101. Economic Philosophies (con’t)<br />“Gospel of Wealth”<br />Idea from Andrew Carnegie<br />Money should be used to perform good works (philanthropy)<br />Conspicuous Consumption<br />Term dubbed by Thorstein Veblen<br />Showing off of one’s wealth<br />
  102. 102. Advantages of a Corporation<br />1) Raise large amounts of capital<br />Economies of scale  more units a company makes, less it costs per unit<br />2) Limited liability  stockholder only loses what they put in <br />3) Stability  In cases of death or resignation<br />
  103. 103. The Labor Movement<br />Industrialization & Refrom<br />
  104. 104. What rights / needs do you have as workers?<br />
  105. 105. Major Goals of Labor<br />1) Hours<br />Used to work 6-7 days/week; 12+hours/day<br />2) Wages<br />Sweatshops exist<br />Women make far less than men<br />Approx. $500 a year for workers compared to $23 million for businessmen <br />3) Working Conditions<br />No worker’s compensation<br />No vacation or sick leave<br />Many accidents on the job<br />
  106. 106. Major Labor Unions<br />National Labor Union (NLU)<br />Formed in 1866 <br />Allowed only skilled laborers<br />First large scale labor union (little success)<br />Knights of Labor<br />Formed in 1869<br />Open to skilled and unskilled workers (all races and sexes)<br />Lose influence after failures of some strikes<br />
  107. 107. Major Labor Unions (con’t)<br />American Federation of Labor (AFL)<br />1886 by Samuel Gompers<br />Allowed only skilled workers<br />Most successful of all early labor union<br />American Railway Union (ARU)<br />Eugene V. Debs<br />Skilled and unskilled workers<br />Unions become connected to socialism <br />Much like the Industrial Workers of the World (“Wobblies”)<br />
  108. 108. “The Strike is the Weapon of the Oppressed”~ Eugene V. Debs (Leader of the ARU and Presidential candidate)<br />
  109. 109. Were Strikes Successful?<br />60% of strikes during Industrial Revolution were successful.<br />Industrialization concentrated large numbers of workers together – bad working conditions (Triangle Shirt Fire).<br />American capitalists often used their wealth to control the press in order to sway public opinion or to pay off the government to aid them during a strike.<br />
  110. 110. Case Study: The Homestead Strike<br />Background<br />Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, PA (outside Pittsburgh)<br />1892 <br />Dispute b/w Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers and Carnegie Steel Corp.<br />Not the 1st strike b/w the two parties<br />
  111. 111. Frick a Target<br />Henry Clay Frick was shot in the neck twice and stabbed twice by an anarchist<br />Brings further negative attention to Homestead and labor in general<br />PA State Militia shows up (Gov. Pattison supported Carnegie)<br />Strikebreakers once again brought in to work the mill.<br />Boycott and picketing does not work (many immigrants cross the line)<br />Workers eventually give in<br />
  112. 112. The Effects of Homestead<br /><ul><li>Workers get none of their demands
  113. 113. Steel unions fall apart
  114. 114. Labor gets a bad name (connection to radicals, immigrants, and hurting American economy)</li></li></ul><li>Unions Go On Strike<br /><ul><li>Railroad Strike of 1877
  115. 115. Protesting wage cuts
  116. 116. President Rutherford B. Hayes intervenes to end the strike (claimed workers were hurting interstate commerce)
  117. 117. Ultimately unsuccessful
  118. 118. Pullman Strike of 1894
  119. 119. Pullman company laid off workers, cut wages and hired scabs
  120. 120. President Grover Cleveland sends in troops to intervene
  121. 121. Workers eventually blacklisted</li></li></ul><li>Unions Go On Strike<br /><ul><li>Haymarket Riot of 1886
  122. 122. Haymarket Square in Chicago
  123. 123. Protesting of police brutality toward strikers
  124. 124. Bomb was tossed at police by anarchists
  125. 125. 8 were arrested (4 hanged; 1 suicide in prison)
  126. 126. Impact of the strikes
  127. 127. Gov’t supports big business
  128. 128. Public turns against labor unions and strikes
  129. 129. Workers gain very little
  130. 130. Surprisingly, labor does not give up</li></li></ul><li>One Working Child<br /><ul><li>CamellaTeoli; Age 12
  131. 131. Worked in a Textile Mill
  132. 132. Machine in mill tore off part of her scalp
  133. 133. Spent 7 months in the hospital
  134. 134. Testified to Congress
  135. 135. When asked why she worked, Camella responded, “Because I didn’t get enough to eat at home.”</li></li></ul><li>Immigration (1880-1920)<br />Industrialization & Reform<br />
  136. 136.
  137. 137. Immigration Terms<br />Steerage – Lowest deck on a ship<br />Parochial School – School run by a religious group<br />Melting Pot – Mixture of people of different cultures who blend together by giving up national identity (Americanization)<br />Nativism – Hostility from native-born Americans towards immigrants<br />
  138. 138. Reasons for Coming to America<br />Push Factors<br />Poverty in homeland<br />Religious persecution and genocide<br />Overcrowding<br />Famine (Ireland)<br />Lack of jobs<br />Pull Factors<br />Economic opportunity and equality<br />Less regulation on emigration<br />Cheaper and faster travel<br />Letters sent from America<br />A sense of adventure<br />
  139. 139. What characteristics describe early immigrants to the United States (prior to the Civil War)?<br />
  140. 140. Old vs. New Immigration<br />Old Immigration<br />Protestant Immigrants<br />Northern and Western Europe<br />Arrived before the year 1880<br />Very few language barriers<br />Less nativism<br />Settle in Midwest and Great Plains<br />New Immigration<br />Catholic and Jewish immigrants<br />Southern and Eastern Europe<br />Arrived after 1880<br />Many language barriers<br />Intense nativism<br />Settle in cities<br />
  141. 141.
  142. 142.
  143. 143. Ellis Island<br /><ul><li>Small island in New York Bay
  144. 144. Most well known Immigration Center
  145. 145. Open from 1892-1954
  146. 146. Over 17 million immigrants come through during that time</li></li></ul><li>
  147. 147.
  148. 148. The Great Hall – Main Processing Area in Ellis Island<br />
  149. 149.
  150. 150. Angel Island<br />Small island in San Francisco Bay<br />Opened in 1910 to process mostly Asians coming into the U.S.<br />Often faced long questioning and detention<br />Approx. 50,000 Chinese immigrants<br />
  151. 151. Angel Island (in 1918), San Francisco Bay, California<br />
  152. 152. Statue of Liberty<br />150.9 ft. high <br />Gift from the French in 1886 (for U.S. centennial in 1876)<br />One of the best known symbols of American people<br />Originally called “Liberty Enlightening the World”<br />Emma Lazarus poem<br />
  153. 153. “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus<br />Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame <br />With conquering limbs astride from land to land; <br />Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand <br />A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame <br />Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name <br />Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand <br />Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command <br />The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame, <br />&quot;Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!&quot; cries she <br />With silent lips. &quot;Give me your tired, your poor, <br />Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, <br />The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, <br />Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me, <br />I lift my lamp beside the golden door!&quot;<br />
  154. 154. &quot;Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breath free”<br />
  155. 155. What else is a symbol of America?<br />The bald eagle 8) The Great Seal<br />Uncle Sam 9) White House, Capital <br />Mount Rushmore 10) Gateway Arch<br />Liberty Bell 11) the Alamo<br />American Flag <br />Washington Monument, Lincoln Monument<br />Declaration of Independence, U.S. Consitution<br />
  156. 156. Nativist Sentiment<br />Many immigrants hold onto their cultural identity<br />Belief that true Americans are Anglo-Saxon Protestants<br />Harsh feelings towards Catholics and Jews<br />Belief that immigrants are taking jobs from Americans<br />Connections b/w immigrants and radicals<br />
  157. 157. What Problems did immigrants face in the past and what do they face now?<br />
  158. 158.
  159. 159. Restrictions on Immigration<br />Immigration Restriction League<br />Push for laws against immigration<br />Literacy Test<br />Chinese Exclusion Acts<br />Chinese faced intense nativism (mostly due to lack of work)<br />Banned all immigrants from China<br />1882, 1892, 1902 (repealed in 1943)<br />Gentlemen’s Agreement<br />Put a great limit on Japanese immigration<br />Ends school segregation in San Francisco<br />1907-08<br />
  160. 160. U.S. Population density in 1900<br />
  161. 161. Industrialization & Reform<br />The Progressive Response<br />
  162. 162. Reform = a change for the better<br />In contemporary America, what types of issues should undergo reform?<br />Using what you know about the early 20th century, what issues do you believe reformers would focus on?<br />
  163. 163. Corruption Terminology<br /><ul><li>Logrolling – Practice by which legislators exchange favors by supporting one another’s bills
  164. 164. Spoils System – giving jobs to friends in government
  165. 165. Fraud – Fake names and illegal votes used to win elections
  166. 166. Graft – illegal use of political influence for personal gain</li></li></ul><li>The Fight for the Vote<br /><ul><li>Definition of Amendment: To formally alter by adding, deleting, or rephrasing.
  167. 167. 14th Amendment (Sec. 1)  All person born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges. (July, 9, 1868)
  168. 168. 19th Amendment  The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. (Aug. 18, 1920)
  169. 169. Equal Rights Amendment (Sec. 1)  Equality of Rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.
  170. 170. Question: Why would many women be opposed to a possible Equal Rights Amendment? </li></li></ul><li>Warm up Answers:1. Will require 18 year-old girls to register with the military lottery system ­ the draft ­ along with the boys2. Will not improve upon rights of women in education or work place and will not decrease discrimination; Numbers of laws and regulations have already been passed that improve on these.3. Will not, as proponents say &quot;give&quot; women the right to serve on juries...start a business...get a mortgage...control their own property...or become &quot;mature, adult persons&quot; under the law. All these things were made possible YEARS ago. 4. Makes the assumption that men and women were not already completely equal, not only under the law but in society as well.<br />
  171. 171. Women’s Movement Terms<br />Suffrage  the right or privilege of voting<br />Abolition  the act of doing away with slavery<br />Feminist  doctrine that advocates equal rights for women<br />
  172. 172. Early Movement<br />Women’s Rights ConventionSeneca Falls, New York (1848)<br />Beginning of the Women’s Rights movement in the United States<br />Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton <br />Created the “The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution” (modeled on the Dec. of Independence)<br />300 participants<br />Very controversial and treated with extreme ridicule<br />
  173. 173. &quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal...&quot;~ Declaration of Sentiments and Resolution (1848)<br />
  174. 174. Susan B. Anthony<br />Also concerned with the abolition of slavery<br />Published “The Revolution”  called for equal pay of women<br />Demanded women be given the same rights as African Americans under the 14th and 15th Amendments<br />Convicted of violating voting laws in 1873<br />“The fact is, women are in chains, and their servitude is all the more debasing because they do not realize it.”<br />
  175. 175. Minor v. Happersett<br /><ul><li>70 women vote in the election of 1872. Virginia Minor among the group
  176. 176. They argued that because of the 14th Amendment, states could not stop women from voting.
  177. 177. She was stopped and sued the state of Missouri
  178. 178. The Supreme Court denied Minor and upheld the decision of the State of Missouri</li></li></ul><li>Progressives<br />Industrialization & Reform<br />
  179. 179.
  180. 180. Progressive Movement (1900-1920)<br />Definition – Reform movement of the early 1900’s<br />Causes<br />Influence of Populism<br />Corrupt and unresponsive government<br />Political machines<br />Muckraker writings<br />Growth of educated middle class<br />
  181. 181. 4 Goals<br />1) Protect social welfare<br />2) Promote moral improvement<br />3) Create economic reform<br />4) Foster efficiency<br />
  182. 182. Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFollette<br /><ul><li>Governor of Wisconsin (Reform Candidate)
  183. 183. “Wisconsin Idea” – La Follette’s Progressive program
  184. 184. 1ststate income tax
  185. 185. railroad rate commission
  186. 186. conservation laws
  187. 187. regulation of state banks
  188. 188. One of the founders of the Progressive Movement</li></li></ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt<br />Becomes Vice-President for McKinley in 1900<br />Republicans felt he was too aggressive<br />Leader of the Rough Riders during the Spanish American War<br />1st Progressive President (1901-1909)<br />
  189. 189. “Don’t any of you realize that there is only one life between that madman and the Presidency.”~ Mark Hanna (fellow Republican)<br />The assassination of President William McKinley by Leon Czolgosz<br />
  190. 190. Roosevelt, the Progressive (The Accidental President)<br />TR gets away from laissez-faire and creates more government power<br />TR takes initiative and sets new policy (strengthens the role of the President)<br />Square Deal – Working for the people’s needs to achieve what is fair and right<br />Known as a trustbuster (Trust = Large business combinations)<br />
  191. 191.
  192. 192.
  193. 193. A Square Deal<br />A response to reading Upton Sinclair’s novel, “The Jungle”<br />Meat Inspection Act (1906)<br />Inspectors could see the meat that crosses state lines<br />Outlawing of the “wonder drug”, cocaine<br />Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)<br />Require manufacturers to put contents of foods and drugs onto labels<br />
  194. 194. The Muckrakers<br />Muckrakers-investigative journalists<br />Term coined by Theodore Roosevelt<br />Committed to exposing scandal, corruption and injustice<br />Uncovered child labor, immigrant ghettoes, prostitution<br />First focused on railroad abuses<br />Turned to political corruption in big cities, labor unions and corporations<br />Ida Tarbell<br />Influential journalist who chronicled the ruthless business tactics of John D. Rockefeller in History of the Standard Oil Company.<br />
  195. 195.
  196. 196. Influential Progressives<br />Robert “Fighting Bob” LaFollette<br /><ul><li>Governor of Wisconsin (Reform Candidate)</li></ul>“Wisconsin Idea” – La Follette’s Progressive program<br />1st state income tax<br />railroad rate commission<br />conservation laws <br />regulation of state banks<br />One of the founders of the Progressive Movement<br /><ul><li> John Muir (founder of the Sierra Club)
  197. 197. Conservationist- published articles promoting the passage of laws to protect the wilderness
  198. 198. got Roosevelt to increase the amount of national forests from 47 million to 195 million acres and doubled the amount of national parks
  199. 199. Also got the president to prohibit logging and ranching in Yosemite, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Influential Progressives continued…<br />W.E.B. Dubois (NAACP)<br />Spokesperson for Equal Rights- goal to make 11 million African American’s “physically free from peonage (servitude), mentally free from ignorance, politically free from disenfranchisement (denial of rights), and socially free from insult.<br />Alice Paul<br />National Women’s Party- Determined to win the right to vote, not just state by state, but by a constitutional amendment.<br />19th Amendment  The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. (Aug. 18, 1920)<br />
  200. 200. The Election of 1912<br />William Howard Taft (Republican)<br />Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive or Bull Moose Party)<br />Woodrow Wilson (Democratic)<br />Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)<br />Severe split in Republican voting<br />
  201. 201.
  202. 202. Woodrow Wilson<br />Very well educated and well-spoken<br />Long struggle to win nomination but then easily wins Presidency<br />28th President of the United States (1913-1921)<br />
  203. 203. Wilson’s Reforms<br />Federal Reserve Act – 3 layered system of regulation (still exists)<br />Clayton Anti-Trust Act – strengthen former anti-trust laws<br />Tried to outlaw child labor<br />18th and 19th Amendments<br />
  204. 204. “Give the Government back to the People!”~ Cry of the Progressive Movement<br />
  205. 205. Statewide Reforms<br />Initiative – Voters propose a bill and present it to the legislature<br />Referendum – Voters vote on bill offered by the legislature<br />Recall – Allow voters to remove a public official from office before the end of term<br />Primary – Party members have opportunity to choose their party candidates<br />Which of the five American ideals do these reforms help achieve? <br />
  206. 206. The Progressive Amendments<br />
  207. 207. 16th Amendment<br />17th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Congress can create an Income Tax
  208. 208. Progressive Tax – Higher taxes to those with higher incomes
  209. 209. Purpose to give more money to government</li></ul>What are the arguments for higher or lower taxes today?<br />Direct election of senators by voters<br />Before – state legislatures choose<br />Increase voters power and cut down on corruption<br />
  210. 210. 18th Amendment (1919)<br />Led by women’s movement and Christian groups<br />Prohibition – banning the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages<br />Did not achieve its goals<br />Overturned by the 21st Amendment<br />
  211. 211.
  212. 212. 19th Amendment<br />Gives women the right to vote<br />Wyoming (1869)<br />Reasons for <br />more jobs for women<br />Progressive movement<br />strong leaders<br />public demonstrations<br />World War I <br />Finally passed in 1920, fulfilling the work of so many female leaders like Stanton and Anthony<br />
  213. 213. The Impact of Industrialization & Reform<br />Industrialization & reform<br />
  214. 214. Good or Bad?<br />Positives<br />Labor unions struggle, but don’t disappear<br />Women get the right to vote<br />Numerous reforms in society & gov’t<br />U.S. Industry makes it a potential world power<br />Negatives<br />Gap b/w rich and poor widens<br />Little to no changes in discrimination and nativism<br />Workers still struggle (including child labor)<br />Corruption still prevalent<br />